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THE effects of regeneration are repentance and faith, 
Repentance, or rather that higher species of it call 
ed in Greek f/,gT*vo/, is the gift of God, whereby the 
regenerate man perceiving with sorrow that he has 
offended God by sin, detests and avoids it, humbly 
turning to God through a sense of the divine mercy, 
and heartily striving to follow righteousness. 

The gift of God ; namely, of the Father through 
the Son. Acts v. 31. "him hath God exalted with 
his right hand to be a Prince and a Saviour, for to 
give repentance to Israel." Jer. xxxi. 18. "I have 

surely heard Ephraim bemoaning himself thus turn 

thou me and I shall be turned, for thou art Jehovah 
my God." Acts xi. 18. "then hath God also to the 
Gentiles granted repentance unto life." Rom. ii. 4, 5. 

" thinkest thou this not knowing that the goodness 

of God leadeth thee to repentance ? but after thy hard 
ness and impenitent heart treasurest up," &c. 2 Tim. 
ii. 25. " if God peradventure will give them repent 




Perceiving with sorrow. PsaL xxxviii. 4. " mine 
iniquities are gone over mine head : as an heavy bur 
den they are too heavy for me." 2 Kings xxii. 19. 
" because thine heart was tender, and thou hast 
humbled thyself before Jehovah, when thou heardest 

what I spake against this place and hast rent thy 

clothes and wept before me." PsaL li. 3, 4. " I ac 
knowledge my transgressions, and my sin is ever 
before me : against thee, thee only have I sinned." 
Jer. iii. 13. "only acknowledge thine iniquity, that 
thou hast transgressed against Jehovah thy God." 
Ezek. xxxvi. 31. " then shall ye remember your own 
evil ways, and your doings that were not good, and 
shall loathe yourselves in your own sight for your in 
iquities." v. 32. " be ashamed and confounded for your 
own ways." xliii. 10. u that they may be ashamed of 
their iniquities." Rom. vi. 21. "those things whereof 
ye are now ashamed." 2 Cor. vii. 10. " godly sorrow 
worketh repentance to salvation not to be repented of." 
v. 1 1. " for behold this self-same thing, that ye sorrow 
ed after a godly sort, \vhat carefulness it wrought in 
you, yea, what clearing of yourselves, yea, what indig 
nation, yea, what fear, yea, what vehement desire, 
yea, what zeal, yea, what revenge." 

Through a sense of the divine mercy. Deut. iv. 29 
31. " but if from thence thou shalt seek Jehovah thy 

God with all thy heart." 2 Chron. xxx. 9. "for 

Jehovah your God is gracious and merciful, and will 
not turn away his face from you, if ye return unto 
him." PsaL li. 17. "the sacrifices of God are a 
broken spirit ; a broken and a contrite heart, O God, 
thou wilt not despise." cxxx. 4. "there is forgiveness 
with thee, that thou mayest be feared." Isai. xix. 22. 


" they shall return even to Jehovah, and he shall btt 
intrcatcd of them, and shall heal them." Iv. 7. " let the 
T\ icked forsake his way, and the unrighteous man his, 
thoughts, and let him return unto Jehovah, and he will 
have mercy upon him." Ixvi. 2. "to this man will I 
look, even to him that is poor and of a contrite spirit, 

and trembleth at my word." Jer. iii. 12. " return for 

I am merciful." Dan. ix. 4. 5. " I made my confes 
sion, and said, O Lord, the great and dreadful 
God ." Hos. xi. 8. "how shall I give thee up, O 

Ephraim? mine heart is turned within me, my re- 

pentings are kindled together." Jonah iv. 10, 11. 
" thou hast had pity for the gourd, for the which thou 

hast not laboured and should not 1 spare Nineveh ?" 

James iv. 9. " be afflicted, and mourn, and weep, let 
your laughter be turned to mourning, and your joy to 
heaviness ; humble yourselves in the sight of the 
Lord, and he shall lift you up." Prov. xxviii. 13. 
" he that covereth his sins shall not prosper ; but 
whoso confessed! and forsaketh them shall have 

Humbly turning to God. 1 Kings viii. 48. " and 
so return unto thee with all their heart and with all 
their soul." Jer. iv. 4. " circumcise yourselves to 
Jehovah, and take away the foreskins of your heart." 
Hos. v. 15. "I will go and return to my place, till 
they acknowledge their offence, and seek my face." 
Acts iii. 19. "repent ye therefore, and be converted, 
that your sins may be blotted out." 

Detests and avoids sin, striving to follow righteous 
ness. Psal. xxxiv. 14. "depart from evil, and do 
good." Isai. i. 16, 17. "wash you, make you 
clean ; put away the evil of your doings from before 


mine eyes ; cease to do evil, learn to do good." Amos 
v. 14, 15. "hate the evil, and love the good." Matt, 
in. 8. " bring forth therefore fruits meet for repent 
ance." Acts xxvi. 18. u to turn them from darkness 
ro light, and from the power of Satan unto God." 
v. 20. " that they should repent, and turn to God, and 
do works meet for repentance." 

By a comparison of these and similar texts, we may 
distinguish certain progressive steps in repentance ; 
namely, conviction of sin, contrition, confession, de 
parture from evil, conversion to good : all which, 
however, belong likewise in their respective degrees 
to the repentance of the unregenerate. 

Confession of sin is made sometimes to God : 
2 Sam. xxiv. 10. "David said unto Jehovah, I have 
sinned greatly in that I have done." Psal. xxxii. 5. 
" I acknowledged my sin unto thee, &c." 2 Chron. 
xxx. 22. " making confession to Jehovah, God of their 
fathers." Isai. Ixiv. 6. " we are all as an unclean 
thing, arid all our righteousnesses are as filthy rags." 
Dan. ix. 4. " I made my confession, and said ." 
Sometimes to men : and that either privately, as 
James v. 16. " confess your faults one to another;" or 
publicly, Neh. ix. 2. "the seed of Israel stood and 
confessed their sins." Matt. iii. 6. " they were bap 
tized of him in Jordan, confessing their sins." Acts 
xix. 18. "many that believed came and confessed, 
showing their deeds." Sometimes both to God and 
men: Josh. vii. 19. "give, I pray thee, glory to 
Jehovah God of Israel, and make confession unto 
him, and tell me now what thou hast done, hide it not 
from me." Confession of faith, which is another 
kind, does not belong to the present subject. 


Repentance is either general, which is also called 
conversion, when a man is converted from a state of 
sin to a state of grace ; or particular, when one w r ho 
is already converted repents of some individual sin. 
General repentance is either primary or continued ; 
from which latter even the regenerate are not exempt, 
through their sense of in-dwelling sin. Particular re 
pentance is exemplified in the cases of David and 

Repentance, in regenerate man, is prior to faith. 
Mark i. 15. "repent ye, and believe the gospel." 
Acts xix. 4. " John verily baptized with the baptism 
of repentance, saying unto the people, that they should 
believe." xx. 21. " testifying repentance toward God, 
and faith toward our Lord Jesus Christ." Therefore 
that sense of the divine mercy, which leads to repent 
ance, ought not to be confounded with faith, as it is 
by the greater number of divines. 

Chastisement is often the instrumental cause of re 
pentance. Job v. 17, &;c. " behold, happy is the man 
whom God correcteth ; therefore despise not thou the 
chastening of the Almighty." Psal. xciv. 12. " bless 
ed is the man whom thou chastenest, O Jah." oxix. 71. 
"it is good for me that I have been afflicted, that I 
might learn thy statutes." Prov. i. 23. " turn you at 
my reproof." iii. 11,12." my son, despise not the chas 
tening of Jehovah, neither be weary of his correction ; 
for whom Jehovah loveth he correcteth, even as a 
father the son in whom he delighteth." Isai. i. 25. 
" I will turn my hand upon thee, and purely purge 
away thy dross, and take away all thy tin." xlviii. 10. 
" behold, I have refined thee, but not with silver ; I 
have chosen thee in the furnace of affliction." Jer. x. 


24. " O Jehovah, correct me, but with judgment ; 
not in thine anger, lest thou bring me to nothing." 
Lam. iii. 27, 28. " it is good for a man that he bear 
the yoke in his youth." Dan. xi. 35. " some of them 
of understanding shall fall, to try them, and to purge, 
and to make them white." Hos. v. 15. " in their 
affliction they will seek me early." 1 Cor. xi. 32. 
" when we are judged, we are chastened of the Lord, 
that we should not be condemned with the world." 
Heb. xii. 7, 8. " if ye endure chastening, God dealeth 
with you as with sons ; for what son is he whom the 
father chasteneth not ? but if ye be without chastise 
ment, whereof all are partakers, then are ye bastards, 
and not sons." PsaL xc. 3. " thou turnest man to 
destruction ; and sayest, Return, ye children of men." 
God however assigns a limit to chastisement, lest we 
should be overwhelmed, and supplies strength for our 
support even under those inflictions which (as is some 
times the case) appear to us too heavy to be borne. 
PsaL cxxv. 3. " the rod of the wicked shall not rest 
upon the lot of the righteous, lest the righteous put 
forth their hands unto iniquity." Isai. Ivii. 16. "I 
will not contend for ever, neither will I be always 
wroth, for the spirit should fail before me, &c." 
2 Cor. i. 8 10. " we would not have you ignorant.... 
that we were pressed out of measure, above strength, 
&c....that we should not trust in ourselves, but in God 
which raiseth the dead : who delivered us from so 
great a death ." He even seems to repent of what 
he had done, and through his abounding mercy, as 
though he had in his wrath inflicted double punish 
ment for our transgressions, compensates for our af 
fliction with a double measure of consolation. Isai. 


xl. 2. " speak ye comfortably to Jerusalem, and cry 
unto her, that her warfare is accomplished, that her 
iniquity is pardoned ; for she hath received of the 
hand of Jehovah double for all her sins." Ixi. 7. " for 
your shame ye shall have double, and for confusion 
they shall rejoice in their portion ; therefore in their 
land they shall possess the double ; everlasting joy 
shall be unto them." This compensation is more than 
an hundred-fold, Matt, xix.29. " even an infinite weight 
of glory." 2 Cor. iv. 17. "for our light affliction, 
which is but for a moment, worketh for us a far more 
exceeding and eternal weight of glory." Rom. viii. 18. 
" I reckon that the sufferings of this present time are 
not worthy to be compared with the glory which shall 
be revealed in us." Psal. xxxiv. 18, 19. "Jehovah 
is nigh unto them that are of a broken heart, and 
saveth such as be of a contrite spirit : many are the 
afflictions of the righteous, but Jehovah delivereth him 
out of them all." Ixxi. 20. "thou which hast showed 
me great and sore troubles, shalt quicken me again." 
cxxvi. 5. " they that sow in tears shall reap in joy." 
Acts xiv. 22. "we must through much tribulation 
enter into the kingdom of God." 

We ought not therefore to form rash judgments re 
specting the afflictions of others. This was the error 
of Eliphaz, Job iv. and ix. 22, 23. and of the most 
despicable of men, chap. xxx. Psal. iii. 2. " many 
there be which say of my soul, There is no help for 
him in God." xli. 8. "an evil disease, say they, 
cleaveth fast unto him." John ix. 3. "neither hath 
this man sinned." 

On the contrary, it is said of those who are not 
chastened, Psal. xvii. 14. "they have their portion in 


this life." Hos. iv. 17. " Ephraim is joined to idols ; 
let him alone." 

Hence arises consolation to the afflicted. 2 Cor. 
i. 4. " who comforteth us in all our tribulation, that 
we may be able to comfort them that are in any 
trouble by the comfort wherewith we ourselves are 
comforted of God." 1 Thess. iii, 3. "that no man 
should be moved by these afflictions ; for yourselves 
know that we are appointed thereunto." 2 Tim. ii. 3. 
" thou therefore endure hardness, as a good soldier of 
Jesus Christ." Rev. ii. 9. " I know thy works and 
tribulation r" 



THE other effect of regeneration is saving faith. 

Saving faith is a full persuasion operated in us 
through the gift of God, whereby we believe, on the 
sole authority of the promise itself, that all things are 
ours whatsoever he has promised us in Christ, and 
especially the grace of eternal life. 

Through the gift of God. Eph. ii. 8. " by grace 
are ye saved through faith, and that not of yourselves ; 
it is the gift of God." Philipp. i. 29. " unto you it 
is given in the behalf of Christ, not only to believe on 
him, but also to suffer for his sake ;" given, that is, 
by the Father, through the Son and the Spirit. Matt. 
xi, 25. " at that time Jesus answered and said, I 

thank thee, O Father because thou hast hid these 

things from the wise and prudent, and hast revealed 

them unto babes." xvi. 16, 17. " thou art Christ 

flesh and blood hath not revealed it unto thee, but my 
Father which is in heaven." Luke xxii. 32. " I 
have prayed for thee, that, thy faith fail not." John 
vi. 44, 45. " no man can come to me, except the 
Father which hath sent me draw him every man 

VOL. II. 3 


therefore that hath heard, and hath learned of the 
Father, cometh unto me." 2 Thess. i. 11. "that 
our God would count you worthy of his calling, and 
fulfil all the good pleasure of his goodness, and the 
work of faith with power." Heb. xii, 2. " looking 
unto Jesus, the author and finisher of our faith." 1 
Cor. xii. 3. " no man can say that Jesus is the Lord, 
but by the Holy Ghost." 2 Cor. iv. 13. " we hav 
ing the same spirit of faith." Gal. v. 22. " the fruit 
of the Spirit is faith." 

A full persuasion. Jer. xxxi. 34. "they shall all 
know me, from the least of them unto the greatest 
of them, saith Jehovah : for I will forgive their ini 
quity, and I will remember their sin no more. John 
xvii. 3. " this is life eternal, that they might know 
thee the only true God, and Jesus Christ, whom thou 
hast sent." Rom. iv. 18 21. "who against hope 

believed in hope and being fully persuaded, that 

what he had promised, he was able also to perform, 
viii. 38. "I am persuaded that neither death ." 1 
Thess. i. 5. " our gospel came not unto you in word 
only, but also in power, and in the Holy Ghost, and 
in much assurance." 2 Tim. i. 12. "I know in 
whom I have believed, and am persuaded that he is 
able to keep that which I have committed to him." 
Heb. x. 22. " let us draw near with a true heart in 
full assurance of faith." James i. 6. " let him ask 
in faith, nothing wavering." Heb. xi. 1. " faith is 
the substance of things hoped for, the evidence of 
things not seen ;" where by substance is understood 
as certain a persuasion of things hoped for, as if they 
were not only existing, but actually present. John 
viii. 56. " your father Abraham rejoiced to see mj 


day, and he saw it." Hence implicit faith, which 
sees not the objects of hope, hut yields belief with a 
blind assent, cannot possibly be genuine faith, except 
in the case of novices or first converts, whose faith 
must necessarily be for a time implicit, inasmuch as 
they believe even before they have entered upon a 
course of instruction. Such \vas that of the Samari 
tans, John iv. 41. of the nobleman and his family, v. 
53. of Rahab, Heb. xi. 31. and of the disciples, who 
believed in Christ long before they were accurately 
acquainted with many of the articles of faith. Those 
also belong to this class, who are slow of understand 
ing and inapt to learn, but who nevertheless, believing 
according to the measure of their knowledge, and 
striving to live by faith, are acceptable to God. Isai. 
xlii. 3. " a bruised reed shall he not break, and the 
smoking flax shall he not quench." Mark ix. 24. 
" Lord, I believe, help thou mine unbelief." Faith is 
also called veirofteriG, or trust, with the same meaning. 
2 Cor. iii. 4. " such trust have we through Christ to 
God-ward." Eph. iii. 11, 12. "in Christ Jesus our 
Lord, in whom we have boldness and access with 
Confidence by the faith of him ;" where however trust 
or confidence seems rather to be a particular effect or 
degree of faith, or a firm hope, than faith itself, inas 
much as it is said to come by faith : or perhaps by 
faith in this passage we are to understand the doctrine 
on which this confidence is founded. John xvi. 33. 
"be of good cheer (confidite), I have overcome the 
world." Hence to trust and to believe are indiscrimi 
nately used in the same sense, both in the Old and 
New Testament. PsaL Ixxviii. 22, " because they 
believed not in God, and trusted not in his salvation." 


Isai. x. 20. " it shall stay upon Jehovah, the Holy 
One of Israel, in truth (fide)." Psal. xxxvii. 5. 
" commit thy way unto Jehovah, trust also in him." 
Jer. xvii. 7. " blessed is the man that trusteth in Je 
hovah, and whose hope Jehovah is." Matt. ix. 2. 
" Son, be of good cheer (confide) ; thy sins be for 
given thee." As to the three divisions into which 
faith is commonly distinguished by divines, knowl 
edge of the word, assent, and persuasion or trust, the 
two former equally belong to temporary, and even to 
historical faith, and both are comprehended in, or, 
more properly, precede a full persuasion. 

On the sole authority of his promise. John xx. 29. 
" blessed are they that have not seen, and yet have 
believed." Rom. iv. 18. " who against hope believed 
in hope." v. 21. " being fully persuaded, that what he 
had promised, he was able also to perform." 1 Cor. 
ii. 4, 5. " my speech and my preaching was not with 
enticing words of man s wisdom, but in demonstra 
tion of the Spirit and of power ; that your faith 
should not stand in the wisdom of men, but in the 
power of God." 2 Cor. iv. 18. "while we look 
not at the things which are seen, but at the things 
which are not seen." v. 7. " we walk by faith, not by 
sight." 1 Thess. ii. 13. " when ye received the word 
of God which ye heard of us, ye received it not as 
the word of men, but as it is in truth, the word of 
God." Heb. xi. 7. " by faith Noah, being warned of 
God of things not seen as yet." v. 19. "accounting 
that God was able to raise him up." 1 Pet. i. 8. 
" whom having not seen, ye love ; in whom though 
now ye see him not, yet believing, ye rejoice." Tit. 
i. 2. " which God, that cannot lie, promised." Here- 


in is manifested the excellence of faith, inasmuch as 
it gives to God the highest glory of righteousness and 
truth. John iii. 33. " he that hath received his testi 
mony, hath set to his seal that God is true." Rom. 
iv. 20. " he was strong in faith, giving glory to God." 
Eph. i. 12. " that we should be to the praise of his 
glory, who first trusted in Christ." 2 Thess. i. 10. 
" when he shall come to be admired in all them that 
believe." Heb. xi. 6. " without faith it is impossible 
to please him ; for he that cometh to God, must be 
lieve that he is, and that he is a rewarder of them that 
diligently seek him." v. 11. " because she judged him 
faithful who had promised." 2 Pet. i. I. " to them 
that have obtained like precious faith with us, through 
the righteousness of God, and our Saviour Jesus 
Christ." Hence the title of faithful is frequently 
applied to God by believers. 1 Cor. i. 9. x. 13. 2 
Tim. ii. 13. " he abideth faithful." 1 John i. 9. " he 
is faithful and just to forgive us our sins." 

Whatsoever he has promised. Acts xxiv. 14. " be 
lieving all things which are written in the law and in 
the prophets." Rom. iv. 3. " Abraham believed God." 
v. 16. " therefore it is of faith to the end the pro 
mise might be sure." 1 John v. 14. " this is the 
confidence that we have in him, that if we ask any 
thing according to his will, he heareth us." 

Ours; that is, ours who believe. John i. 12. " as 
many as received him, to them gave he power to be 
come the sons of God, even to them that believe in his 
name." xvii. 20. " neither pray I for these alone, but 
for them also that shall believe on me through their 
word." 1 Cor. iii. 22, 23. " all are your s, and ye 
are Christ s, and Christ is God s." Gal. ii. 20. " the 
life which I now live in the flesh, I live by the faith 


of the Son of God, who loved me, and gave himself 
for me." 

In Christ. John vi. 29. " this is the work of God, 
that ye believe on him whom he hath sent." xiv. 1. 
" ye believe in God ; believe also in me." 1 John 
iii. 23. " this is his commandment, that we should 
believe on the name of his Son Jesus Christ." Rom. 
x. 9. " if thou shalt confess with thy mouth the Lord 
Jesus, and shalt believe in thine heart that God hath 
raised him from the dead, thou shalt be saved." 2 
Cor. iii. 4. " such trust have we through Christ to 
God-ward." Gal. iii. 22. " that the promise by faith 
of Jesus Christ might be given to them that believe." 
v. 26. " by faith in Jesus Christ." 1 Pet. i. 21. " who 

by him do believe in God that your faith and hope 

might be in God." Heb. vii. 25. " wherefore he is 
able to save them to the uttermost that come unto 
God by him." John xii. 44. " he that believeth on 
me, believeth not on me, but on him that sent me." 
Hence, as was shown in the fifth chapter, the ultimate 
object of faith is not Christ the Mediator, but God 
the Father : a truth, which the weight of scripture 
evidence has compelled divines to acknowledge. For 
the same reason it ought not to appear wonderful if 
many, both Jews and others, who lived before Christ, 
and many also who have lived since his time, but to 
whom he has never been revealed, should be saved 
by faith in God alone ; still however through the sole 
merits of Christ, inasmuch as he was given and slain 
from the beginning of the world, even for those to 
^hom he was not known, provided they believed in 
God the Father. Hence honourable testimony is 
borne to the faith of the illustrious patriarchs who 
lived under the law, Abel, Enoch, Noah, &c. though 


it is expressly stated that they believed only in God, 
Heb. xi. 

Especially the grace of eternal life. Mark i. 15. 
" repent ye, and believe the gospel." John iii. 15. 
" that whosoever believeth in him should not perish, 
but have eternal life." v. 18. " he that believeth on 
him is not condemned, but he that believeth not is 
condemned already." These passages are to be un 
derstood of those to whom Christ has been revealed ; 
for to believe in one of whom we have never heard, 
is evidently impossible. Rom. x. 14. So also John 
vi. 47. " he that believeth on me hath everlasting 
life." 2 Thess. ii. 13. " because God hath from the be 
ginning chosen you to salvation through sanctification 
of the spirit and belief of the truth." Heb. x. 39. 
"of them that believe to the saving of the soul." 1 
Pet. i. 9. " receiving the end of your faith, even the 
salvation of your souls." 1 John v. 13. " these 
things have I written unto you that believe on the 
name of the Son of God, that ye may know that ye 
have eternal life." 

Seeing, however, that faith necessarily includes a 
receiving of God, and coming to him, John i. 12. " as 
many as received him, to them gave he power to be 
come the sons of God, even to them that believe on 
his name ;" vi. 35. " he that cometh to me shall never 
hunger, and he that believeth in me shall never thirst ;" 
Eph. ii. 18. " through him we both have access by one 
Spirit unto the Father:" iii. 12. "in whom we have 
boldness and access with confidence by the faith of 
him ;" Heb. vii. 25. " he is able to save them to the 
uttermost that come unto God by him :" x. 22. " let us 
draw near with a true heart in full assurance of faith ; v 


seeing also that we must have a right knowledge of 
God before we can receive him or come to him, for 
" he that cometh to God, must believe that he is, and 
that he is a re warder of them that diligently seek him," 
xi. 6. it follows, that the source from which faith ori 
ginally springs, and whence it proceeds onward in its 
progress to good, is a genuine, though possibly in the 
first instance imperfect, knowledge of God ; so that, 
properly speaking, the seat of faith is not in the un 
derstanding, but in the will. 

From faith arises hope, that is, a most assured ex 
pectation through faith of those future things which 
are already ours in Christ. Rom. iv. 18, 19. " who 
against hope believed in hope," &c. viii, 24, 25. " we 
are saved by hope ; but hope that is seen is not hope, 
for what a man seeth, why doth he yet hope for ? but 
if we hope for that we see not, then do we with pa 
tience wait for it." xvi. 13. " now the God of hope fill 
you with all joy and peace in believing, that ye may 
abound in hope, through the power of the Holy 
Ghost." Gal. v. 5. " for we through the Spirit wait 
for the hope of righteousness by faith." Heb. x. 23. 
" let us hold fast the possession of our faith without 
wavering." 1 Pet. i. 3. " who hath begotten us 
again unto a lively hope by the resurrection." v. 13. 
." hope to the end for the grace that is to be brought 
unto you at the revelation of Jesus Christ." v. 21. 
" that your faith and hope might be in God." Heb. 
vi. 11. "we desire that every one of you do show 
the same diligence to the full assurance of hope unto 
the end." Hope differs from faith, as the effect from 
the cause ; it differs from it likewise in its object : for 
the object of faith is the promise ; that of hope, the 
thing promised. 



Regeneration and its effects, repentance and faith, 
have been considered. Next follows planting in 

Believers are said to be planted in Christ, when 
they are graffed in Christ by God the Father, that is, 
are made partakers of Christ, and meet for becoming 
one with him. Matt. xv. 13. " every plant, which 
my heavenly Father hath not planted, shall be rooted 
up." John xv. 1, 2." I am the true vine, and my Father 
is the husbandman : every branch in me that beareth 
not fruit, he taketh away." 1 Cor. i. 30. of " him are 
ye in Christ Jesus, who of God is made unto us 
wisdom, and righteousness, and sanctification, and 
redemption." iii. 22, 23. " all are your s, and ye are 
Christ s, and Christ is God s." Eph. i. 3. " who hath 
blessed us with all spiritual blessings in heavenly 
places in Christ." Heb. iii. 14. " we are made par 
takers of Christ." 

Of this implanting, combined with regeneration, 
the effects are newness of life and increase. For 

the new spiritual life and its increase bear the same 
VOL. n. 4 


relation to the restoration of man, which spiritual 
death and its progress (as described above, on: the 
punishment of sin) bear to his fall. 

Newness of life is that by which we are said to live 
unto God. 2 Cor. iv. 10. " that the life also of Jesus 
might be made manifest in our body." Rom. vi. 11. 
" likewise reckon ye also yourselves to be dead indeed 
unto sin, but alive unto God through Jesus Christ our 
Lord." v.4. " even so we also should walk in newness 
of life." viii. 13. "if ye through the Spirit do mortify 
the deeds of the body, ye shall live." Gal.ii.19. "that 
I might live unto God." v. 20. " Christ liveth in me." 
Col. Hi. 3. "your life is hid with Christ in God." 1 
Pet. iv. 6. " that they might live according to God," 
that is, "in the Spirit." 

This is also called self-denial. Luke ix. 23. " if 
any man will come after me, let him deny himself, 
and take up his cross daily, and follow me." 

The primary functions of the new life are compre 
hension of spiritual things, and love or holiness. And 
as the power of exercising these functions was weak 
ened and in a manner destroyed by the spiritual death, 
so is the understanding restored in great part to its 
primitive clearness, and the will to its primitive lib 
erty, by the new spiritual life in Christ. 

The comprehension of spiritual things is a habit 
or condition of mind produced by God, whereby the 
natural ignorance of those who believe and are planted 
in Christ is removed, and their understandings en 
lightened for the perception of heavenly things, so that, 
by the teaching of God, they knoiv all that is neces 
sary for eternal salvation and the true happiness of 
life. " 


By the teaching of God. Jer. xxxi. 33, 34. " I 
will put my law in their inward parts, and write it in 
their hearts ; and will be their God, and they shall be 
my people : and they shall teach no more every man 
his neighbour, and every man his brother, saying, 
Know Jehovah : for they shall all know me, from the 
least of them unto the greatest of them, saith Jeho 
vah : for I will forgive their iniquity, and I will re 
member their sin no more." Isai. liv. 13. " all thy 
children shall be taught of God," namely, of God the 
Father, for so Christ explains it, John vi. 45. " it is 
written in the prophets, And they shall be all taught 
of God : every man therefore that hath heard, and 
hath learned of the Father, cometh unto me." Matt. 
xvi. 17. " flesh and blood hath not revealed it unto thee, 
but my Father which is in heaven." 1 Thess. iv. 9. 
" as touching brotherly love ye need not that I write 
unto you ; for ye yourselves are taught of God to love 
one another." 

By the Son. Matt. xi. 27. " all things are deliv 
ered unto me of my Father ; and no man knoweth 
the Son but the Father, neither knoweth any man the 
Father, save the Son, and he to whomsoever the Son 
will reveal him." Col. in. 16. " let the word of Christ 
dwell in you richly in all wisdom." 

And by the Holy Spirit. John xvi. 13. "when 
he, the Spirit of truth, is come, he will guide you into 
all truth, for he shall not speak of himself." 1 Cor. ii. 
10, &c. " God hath revealed them unto us by his Spirit 
....the natural man receiveth not the things of the Spirit 
of God ; for they are foolishness unto him ; neither 
can he know them, because they are spiritually dis 
cerned : but he that is spiritual judgeth all things, yet 


he himself is judged of no man." 1 John ii. 20, 27. 
" ye have an unction from the Holy One, and ye know 
all things....the anointing which ye have received of 
him abideth in you, and ye need not that any man 
teach you ; but as the same anointing teacheth you of 
all things, and is truth, and is no lie, and even as it 
hath taught you, ye shall abide in him." 

Necessary to salvation. 1 Cor. ii. 12. " that we 
might know the things that are freely given to us of 
God." Tit. i. 1,2, " the acknowledging of the truth 
which is after godliness, in hope of eternal life." 

In the present life, however, we can only attain to 
an imperfect comprehension of spiritual things. 1 
Cor. xiii. 9. " we know in part." 

The other effect is love or charity, arising from a 
sense of the divine love shed abroad in the hearts of 
the regenerate by the Spirit, whereby those who are 
planted in Christ being influenced, become dead to 
sin, and alive again unto God, and bring forth good 
works spontaneously and freely. This is also called 
holiness. Eph. i. 4. " that we should be holy and with 
out blame before him in love." 

The love here intended is not brotherly love, which 
belongs to another place ; nor even the ordinary affec 
tion which we bear to God, but one resulting from a 
consciousness and lively sense of the love wherewith 
he has loved us, and which in theology is reckoned 
the third after faith and hope. 1 Cor. xiii. 13. " now 
abideth faith, hope, charity, these three ; but the great 
est of these is charity." This is the offspring, as it 
were, of faith, and the parent of good works. Gal. v. 
6. " faith which worketh by love." It is described 
1 Cor. xiii. and 1 John iv. 16. "we have known and 


believed the love that God hath to us : God is love, 
and he that dwelleth in love dwelleth in God, and 
God in him." 

Shed by the Spirit. Ezek. xxxvi. 27. " I will put 
my Spirit within you, and cause you to walk in my 
statutes." Rom. v. 5. " hope maketh not ashamed, 
because the love of God is shed abroad in our hearts 
by the Holy Ghost which is given unto us." Gal. v. 
22. " the fruit of the Spirit is love." 

Who are planted in Christ. John xv. 4, 5. " abide 
in me, and I in you : as the branch cannot bear fruit 
of itself, except it abide in the vine, no more can ye, 
except ye abide in me : I am the vine, ye are the 
branches ; he that abideth in me, and I in him, the 
same bringeth forth much fruit : for without me ye 
can do nothing." Eph. iii. 17, &c. " that Christ may 
dwell in your hearts by faith, that ye being rooted 
and grounded in love," &c. 

Dead unto sin. Rom. vi. 22. " but now being made 
free from sin, and become servants to God, ye have 
your fruit unto holiness." 1 Pet. ii. 24. " that we, 
being dead to sins, should live unto righteousness." 

Alive again unto God. Rom. vi. 12, 13. "yield 
yourselves unto God, as those that are alive from the 

Spontaneously and freely ; for our own coopera 
tion is uniformly required. Ezek. xviii. 31. " make 
you a new heart, and a new spirit ; for why will 
ye die, O house of Israel?" Rom. vi. 12, 13. "let 
not sin therefore reign in your mortal body, that 
ye should obey it in the lusts thereof, neither 
yield ye your members as instruments of un 
righteousness unto sin." xii. 2. " be not conformed to 
this world, but be ye transformed by the renewing of 


your mind, that ye may prove what is that good and 
acceptable and perfect will of God." 2 Cor. vii. 1. 
" having therefore these promises, dearly beloved, let 
us cleanse ourselves from all filthiness of the flesh and 
spirit, perfecting holiness in the fear of God." Gal. v. 
16. " walk in the Spirit, and ye shall not fulfil the 
lust of the flesh." Eph. iv. 2024. " if so be that ye 
have heard him, and have been taught by him, as the 
truth is in Jesus : that ye put off concerning the former 
conversation the old man, which is corrupt according 
to the deceitful lusts, and be renewed in the spirit of 
your mind ; and that ye put on the new man, which 
after God is created in righteousness and true holi 
ness." 2 Cor. vi. 1. " receive not the grace of God in 
vain." Col. iii. 5,9, 10. "mortify therefore your 
members which are upon the earth ; fornication, &c. 
lie not one to another, seeing that ye have put off 
the old man with his deeds, and have put on the new 
man, which is renewed in knowledge after the image 
of him that created him." 2 Tim. ii. 21. " if a man 
therefore purge himself from these, he shall be a vessel 
unto honour, sanctified and meet for the master s use, 
and prepared unto every good work." 1 John ii. 3. 
" hereby we do know that we know him, if we keep 
his commandments." iii. 3. " every man that hath 
this hope in him, purifieth himself, even as he is 

In consequence of this love or sanctity all believers 
are called saints. Philipp. iv. 21, 22. " salute every 
saint in Christ Jesus ;" and to the same effect in other 

The holiness of the saints is nevertheless imperfect 
in this life. Psal. cxliii. 2. " enter not into judgment 
with thy servant, for in thy sight shall no man living 


be justified, cxxx. 3. " if thou, Jah, shouldest mark 
iniquities, O Lord, who shall stand?" Prov. xx. 9. 
" who can say, I have made my heart clean, I am 
pure from my sin?" xxiv. 16. " a just man falleth 
seven times, and riseth up again." Rom. vii. 18, 
&c. "I know that in me, that is, in my flesh, dwelleth 
no good thing ; for to will is present with me ; but 
how to perform that which is good, I know not." Gal. 
v. 17. "the flesh lusteth against the Spirit, and the 
Spirit against the flesh ; and these are contrary the 
one to the other : so that ye cannot do the things that 
ye would." James iii. 2. " in many things we offend 
all : if any man offend not in word, the same is a 
perfect man." 1 John i. 8. " if we say that we have 
no sin, we deceive ourselves, and the truth is not in 

Thus far of newness of life and its effects. It re 
mains to speak of the increase operated in the regen 
erate. This increase is either absolute, which is 
internal, or relative, which is external. 

Absolute increase is an increase derived from God 
the Father of those gifts which we have received by 
regeneration and implantation in Christ. 2 Cor. x. 
15. "when your faith is increased." 

Derived from God the Father. John xv. 2. " every 
branch that beareth fruit, he purgeth it, that it may 
bring forth more fruit." Philipp. i. 3, 6. "I thank 

my God that he which hath begun a good work in 

you, will perform it until the day of Jesus Christ." 2 
Thess. i. 3. "we are bound to thank God always for 
you, brethren, as it is meet, because that your faith 
groweth exceedingly, and the charity of every one 
of you all towards each other aboundeth." Heb. xiii. 


20, 21. "the God of peace make you perfect in 

every good work, to do his will." 

Through the Son. Heb. xiii. 21. "working in 
you that which is well-pleasing in his sight, through 
Jesus Christ." xii. 2. "looking unto Jesus, the author 
and finisher of our faith." So also Luke xvii. 5. 
" the Apostles said unto the Lord, Increase our faith." 

Spiritual increase, unlike physical growth, appears 
to be to a certain degree in the power of the regene 
rate themselves. 2 Cor. iv. 16. " for which cause we 
faint not ; but though our outward man perish, yet 
the inward man is renewed day by day." Eph. iv. 
15. " speaking the truth in love, may grow up into 
him in all things, which is the head, even Christ." 
Philipp. iii. 12. " not as though I had already attain 
ed, either were already perfect ; but I follow after, if 
that I may apprehend that for which also I am appre 
hended of Christ Jesus." Heb. v. 13, 14. "every 
one that useth milk is unskilful in the word of right 
eousness ; for he is a babe : but strong meat belongeth 
to them that are of full age, even those who by reason 
of use have their senses exercised to discern both 
good and evil." 1 Pet. ii. 2. "as new born babes, 
desire the sincere milk of the word, that ye may grow 
thereby." 2 Pet. iii. 18. "grow in grace and in the 
knowledge of our Lord and Saviour Jesus Christ." 

Thus much of increase. With regard to perfection, 
although this latter is not to be expected in the pre 
sent life, it is our duty to strive after it with earnest 
ness, as the ultimate object of our existence. Matt. 
v. 48. " be ye therefore perfect, as your Father which 
is in heaven is perfect." See also 2 Cor. xiii. 11. 
Col. i. 28. " that we may present every man perfect in 


Christ Jesus." iv. 12. "that ye may stand perfect 
and complete in all the will of God." James i. 4. 
" that ye may be perfect and entire, wanting nothing." 

Hence the struggle between the flesh and the Spirit 
in the regenerate. Gal. v. 16. "walk in the Spirit, 
and ye shall not fulfil the lust of the flesh." 1 Tim. 
vi. 12. "fight the good fight of faith." 2 Tim. iv. 7. 
" I have fought a good fight." A similar struggle is 
maintained against the world and Satan. John vii. 7. 
" the world hateth me, because I testify of it, that 
the works thereof are evil." xv 18, 19. "if the 
world hate you, ye know that it hated me before it 
hated you." See also xvii. 14. Rom. xii. 2. " be not 
conformed to this world." Gal. vi. 14. "by whom 
the world is crucified unto me, and I unto the world." 
James iv. 4. "ye adulterers and adulteresses, know 
ye not that the friendship of the world is enmity with 
God ? whosoever therefore will be a friend of the 
world is the enemy of God." 1 John iii. 13. " mar 
vel not, my brethren, if the world hate you." 

There is also a victory to be gained. Rev. ii. 7. 
" to him that overcometh will I give to eat of the tree 

of life." v. 26. " he that overcometh to him will 

I give power over the nations." iii. 5. " he that 
overcometh, the same shall be clothed in white rai 
ment." v. 12. "him that qvercometh will I make a 
pillar in the temple of my God." v. 21. "to him 
that overcometh will I grant to sit with me in my 
throne, even as I also overcame and am set down with 
my Father in his throne-." xxi. 7. " he that overcom 
eth shall inherit all things, and I will be his God, and 
he shall be my son." Over the world ; 1 John ii. 15. 

and v. 4. " whatsoever is born of God overcometh the 
VOL. IT. 5 


world, and this is the victory that overcometh the 
world, even our faith." Over death ; Prov. xii. 28. 
" in the way of righteousness is life, and in the path 
way thereof there is no death." xiv. 32. " the right 
eous hath hope in his death." John viii. 51. u if a 
man keep my saying, he shall never see death." Rev. 
ii. 11. " he that overcometh shall not be hurt of the 
second death." xiv. 13. "blessed are the dead which 
die in the Lord from henceforth." Over Satan ; Eph. 

vi. 10, &c. " be strong in the Lord that ye may be 

able to stand against the wiles of the devil :" being 
clothed with " the whole armour of God " to oppose 
him. James iv. 7. " resist the devil, and he will flee 
from you." 1 John ii. 14. " ye have overcome the 
wicked one." Rev. xii. 11. "they overcame him by 
the blood of the Lamb, and by the word of their 

Hence such as are strenuous in this conflict, and 
earnestly and unceasingly labour to attain perfection 
in Christ, though they be really imperfect, are yet, by 
imputation and through the divine mercy, frequently 
called in Scripture perfect, and blameless, and with 
out sin ; inasmuch as sin, though still dwelling in 
them, does not reign over them." Gen. vi. 9. " Noah 
was a just man and perfect in his generations." xvii. 
1. " walk before me, and be thou perfect." 1 Kings 
xv. 14. "the high places were not removed; never 
theless Asa s heart was perfect with Jehovah all his 
days." See also 2 Chron. xv. 17. Philipp. iii. 15. 
" let us therefore as many as be perfect, be thus 
Ininded." Heb. x. 14. " by one offering he hath per 
fected for ever them that are sanctified." 1 John iii. 
6. " whosoever abideth in him sinneth not." See also 


v. 18. Coloss. ii. 2. " that their hearts might be com 
forted, being knit together in love, and unto all riches 
of the full assurance of understanding, to the acknowl 
edgment of the mystery of God and of the Father, and 
of Christ." Eph. iii. 18, 19. " that ye being rooted 
and grounded in love, may be able to comprehend 
with all saints what is the breadth and length and 
depth and height, and to know the love of Christ, 
which passeth knowledge, that ye might be filled with 
all the fulness of God." 



HAVING considered the absolute or internal increase of 
the regenerate, I proceed to speak of that which is 
relative or external. 

This increase has reference either to the Father ex 
clusively, or to the Father and Son conjointly. 

That which has reference to the Father exclusively 
is termed justification and adoption. Rom. viii. 30. 
" whom he did predestinate, them he also called, and 
whom he called, them he also justified ." 

Justification is the gratuitous purpose of God, 
whereby those ivho are regenerate are planted in 
Christ are absolved from sin and death through his 
most perfect satisfaction, and accounted just in the 
sight of God, not by the works of the law, but through 

The gratuitous purpose. Rom. iii. 24. " being 
justified freely by his grace, through the redemption 
that is in Christ Jesus." v. 16, 17. " not as it was by 
one that sinned, so is the gift : for the judgment was 
by one to condemnation, but the free gift is of many 
offences unto justification : for if by one man s offence 


death reigned by one, much more they which receive 
abundance of grace and of the gift of righteousness 
shall reign in life by one, Jesus Christ." Tit. iii. 7. 
"being justified by his grace." 

Of God, that is, the Father. Rom. iii. 25, 26. 
" whom God hath set forth to be a propitiation 
through faith in his blood, to declare his righteousness 
for the remission of sins that are passed, through the 
forbearance of God ; to declare, I say, at this time his 
righteousness, that he might be just, and the justifier 
of him that believeth in Jesus." viii. 33. " it is God 
that justifieth." In the Son through the Spirit. 
1 Cor. vi. 11. "but ye are washed, but ye are sanc 
tified, but ye are justified in the name of the Lord 
Jesus, and by the Spirit of our God." 

Through the satisfaction of Christ. Isai. liii. 1 1 . 
"by his knowledge shall my righteous servant justify 
many ; for he shall bear their iniquities." Rom. v. 
9. " much more then being now justified by his blood, 
we shall be saved from wrath through him." v. 19. " by 
the obedience of one shall many be made righteous." 
x. 4. " Christ is the end of the law for righteousness 
to every one that believeth." 

As therefore our sins are imputed to Christ, so the 
merits or righteousness of Christ are imputed to us 
through faith.* 1 Cor. i. 30. "of him are ye in 
Christ Jesus, who of God is made unto us wisdom, 
and righteousness, and sanctification, and redemp 
tion." 2 Cor. v. 21. "he hath made him to be sin 
for us who knew no sin, that we might be nftide the 
righteousness of God in him." Rom. iv. 6. " even as 

* . . . . His obedience 

Imputed becomes theirs by faith. Paradise Lost, XII. 408. 


David also describeth the blessedness of the man unto 
whom God imputeth righteousness without works." 
v. 19. "for as by one man s disobedience many were 
made sinners, so by the obedience of one shall many 
be made righteous." It is evident therefore that the 
justification, in so far as we are concerned, is gratui 
tous ; in so far as Christ is concerned, not gratuitous : 
inasmuch as Christ paid the ransom of our sins, 
which he took upon himself by imputation, and thus 
of his own accord, and at his own cost, effected their 
expiation ; whereas man, paying nothing on his part, 
but merely believing, receives as a gift the imputed 
righteousness of Christ. Finally, the Father, appeased 
by this propitiation, pronounces the justification of all 
believers. A simpler mode of satisfaction could not 
have been devised, nor one more agreeable to equity. 

Hence we are said to be clothed with the righteous 
ness of Christ. Rev. xix. 8. " to her was granted that 
she should be arrayed in fine linen, clean and white ; 
for the fine linen is the justification of the saints." 
For the same reason we are also called the friends of 
God. James ii. 23. " Abraham believed God, and it 
was imputed unto him for righteousness, and he was 
called the friend of God," 

Are absolved from sin and death. Acts x. 43. " to 
him give all the prophets witness, that through his 
name whosoever believeth in him shall receive remis 
sion of sins." xxvi. 18, " that they may receive for 
giveness of sins and inheritance among them which 
are sanctified by faith which is in me." Rom. v. 1J8. 
" by the righteousness of one the free gift came upon 
all men unto justification of life." viii. 1. "there is 
therefore now no condemnation to them which are in 


Christ Jesus, who walk not after the flesh, but after 
the Spirit." v. 34. " who is he that condemneth? it is 
Christ that died ." Coloss. ii. 14. " blotting out the 
hand- writing of ordinances that was against us, 
which was contrary to us, and took it out of the way, 
nailing it to his cross " Even from the greatest sins. 
1 Cor. vi. 9 11. " neither fornicators, nor idolaters, 

&c. and such were some of you ; but ye are 

washed, but ye are sanctified, but ye are justified." 
Jer. 1. 20. " in that time, saith Jehovah, the iniquity 
of Israel shall be sought for, and there shall be none ; 
and the sins of Judah, and they shall not be found ; 
for I will pardon them whom I reserve." Isai. i. 1 8. 
" though your sins be as scarlet, they shall be as 
white as snow." 

Accounted just in the sight of God. Eph. v. 27. 
" that he might present it to himself a glorious church, 
not having spot, or wrinkle, or any such thing ; but 
that it should be holy and without blemish." On the 
same principle the faithful both before and under the 
law were accounted just ; Abel, Gen. iv. 4. Enoch, v. 
24. Noah, vi. 8. and vii. 1. and many others enumer 
ated Heb. xi. Nor is it in any other sense that we are 
said not to sin, except as our sins are not imputed 
unto us through Christ. 

Not by works of the law, but through faith. Gen. 
xv. 6. " Abraham believed in Jehovah, and he count 
ed it to him for righteousness." Habak. ii. 4. " the 
just shall live by his faith." John vi. 29. " this is the 
work of God, that ye believe on him whom he hath 
sent," Acts xiii. 39. " by him all that believe are jus 
tified from all things from which ye could not be jus 
tified bv the law of Moses." Rom. iii. 20 


" therefore by the deeds of the law there shall no 
flesh be justified in his sight : for by the law is the 
knowledge of sin ; but now the righteousness of God 
without the law is manifested, being witnessed by the 
law and the prophets ; even the righteousness of God 
which is by faith of Jesus Christ unto all and upon all 
them that believe : for there is no difference : for all 
have sinned, and come short of the glory of God. >; 
v. 27, 28. " where is boasting then ? it is excluded : 
by what law ? of works ? nay, but by the law of 
faith : therefore we conclude that a man is justified 
by faith without the deeds of the law r ." v. 30. " see 
ing it is one God which shall justify the circumcision 
by faith, and uncircumcision through faith." iv. 2 8. 
" for if Abraham were justified by works, he hath 
whereof to glory, but not before God : for what saith 
the Scripture ? Abraham believed God, and it was 
counted to him for righteousness : now to him that 
worketh, is the reward not reckoned of grace, but of 
debt : but to him that worketh not, but believeth on 
him that justifieth the ungodly, his faith is counted for 
righteousness : even as David also describeth the 
blessedness of the man, unto whom God imputeth 
righteousness without works, saying, Blessed are they 
whose iniquities are forgiven, and whose sins are 
covered : blessed is the man to whom the Lord will 
not impute sin." ix. 30 33. " what shall we say 

then ? that Israel, which followed after the law 

of righteousness, hath not attained to the law of right 
eousness : wherefore ? because they sought it not by 
faith, but as it were by the works of the law : for 
they stumbled at that stumbling-stone." Gal. ii. 16. 
"knowing that a man is not justified by the works 


of the law, but by the faith of Jesus Christ, even 
we have believed in Jesus Christ, that we might 
be justified by the faith of Christ, and not by 
the works of the law, for by the works of the law- 
shall no flesh be justified. v. 21. I do not frustrate 
the grace of God ; for if righteousness come by the 
law, then Christ is dead in vain. iii. 8 12. c the 
Scripture foreseeing that God would justify the hea 
then through faith, preached before the gospel unto 
Abraham, saying, In thee shall all nations be blessed : 
so then they which be of faith, are blessed with faith 
ful Abraham : for as many as are of the works of the 
law are under the curse ; for it is written, Cursed is 
every one that continueth not in all things which are 
written in the book of the law to do them : but that 
no man is justified by the law in the sight of God, it 
is evident; for, the just shall live by faith: and the 
law is not of faith, but, The man that doeth them shall 
live in them. Philipp. iii. 9. that I may be found 
in him, not having mine own righteouness, which is of 
the law, but that which is through the faith of Christ, 
the righteousness which is of God by faith. Heb. xi. 
4, &c. by faith Abel offered unto God a more excel 
lent sacrifice than Cain. Eph. ii. 8, 9. that not of 
yourselves ; it is the gift of God : not of works, lest 
any man should boast. Throughout the whole of 
this multitude of passages we are said to be justified 
by faith, and through faith, and of faith ; whether 
through faith as an instrument, according to the com 
mon doctrine, or in any other sense, is not said. Un 
doubtedly, if to believe be to act, faith is an action, or 
rather a frame of mind acquired and confirmed by a 
succession of actions, although in the first instance in- 
VOL. 11. 6 


fused from above ; and by this faifh we are justified, 
as declared in the numerous texts above quoted. An 
action, however, is generally considered in the light 
of an effect, not of an instrument ; or perhaps it may 
be more properly designated as the less principal 
cause. On the other hand, if faith be not in any 
degree acquired, but wholly infused from above, there 
will be the less hesitation in admitting it as the cause 
of our justification. 

An important question here arises, which is dis 
cussed with much vehemence by the advocates on 
both sides ; namely, whether faith alone justifies ? 
Our divines answer in the affirmative ; adding, that 
works are the effects of faith, not the cause of justifi 
cation, Rom. iii. 24, 27, 28. Gal ii. 16. as above. 
Others contend that justification is not by faith alone, 
on the authority of James ii. 24. by works a man 
is justified, and not by faith only. As however the 
two opinions appear at first sight inconsistent with each 
other, and incapable of being maintained together, 
the advocates of the former, to obviate the difficulty 
arising from the passage of James, allege that the 
apostle is speaking of justification in the sight of men, 
not in the sight of God. But whoever reads atten 
tively from the fourteenth verse to the end of the chap 
ter, will see that the apostle is expressly treating of 
justification in the sight of God. For the question 
there at issue relates to the faith which profits, and 
which is a living and saving faith : consequently it 
cannot relate to that which justifies only in the sight 
of men, inasmuch as this latter may be hypocritical. 
When therefore the apostle says that we are justified 
by works, and not by faith only, he is speaking of the 


faith which profits, and which is a true, living, and 
saving faith. Considering then that the apostles, who 
treat this point of our religion with particular atten 
tion, no where, in summing up their doctrine, use 
words implying that a man is justified by faith alone, 
but generally conclude as follows, that a man is 
justified by faith without the deeds of the law, Rom. 
i\\. 28. I am at a loss to conjecture why our divines 
should have narrowed the terms of the apostolical 
conclusion. Had they not so done, the declaration iu 
the one text, that by faith a man is justified with 
out the deeds of the law, would have appeared per 
fectly consistent W 7 ith that in the other, by works a 
man is justified, and not by faith only. 1 For Paul 
does not say simply that a man is justified without 
works, but without the works of the law ; nor yet; 
by faith alone, but by faith which w r orketh by love, 
Gal. v. 6. Faith has its own works, which may be 
different from the works of the law. We are justi 
fied therefore by faith, but by a living, not a dead 
faith ; and that faith alone which acts is accounted 
living; James ii. 17, 20, 26. Hence we are justified 
by faith without the works of the law, but not 
without the works of faith ; inasmuch as a living 
and true faith cannot consist without works, though 
these latter may differ from the works of the written 
law. Such were those of Abraham and Rahab, the 
two examples cited by James in illustration of the 
works of faith, when the former was prepared to 
offer up his son, and the latter sheltered the spies of 
the Israelites. To these may be added the instance 
of Phinehas, whose action * was counted unto him 
for righteousness, Psal. cvi. 31. the very same words 


being used as in the case of Abraham, whose faith 
was reckoned to him for righteousness, Gen. xv. 6. 
Rom iv. 9. Nor will it be denied that Phinehas was 
justified in the sight of God rather than of men, and 
that his work recorded Numb. xxv. 11, 12. was a 
work of faith, not of the law. Phinehas therefore 
was justified not by faith alone, but also by the works 
of faith. The principle of this doctrine will be de 
veloped more fully hereafter, when the subjects of 
the gospel and of Christian liberty are considered. 

This interpretation, however, affords no counten 
ance to the doctrine of human merit, inasmuch as both 
faith itself and its works are the works of the Spirit, 
not our own. Eph. ii. 8 10. by grace are ye saved 
through faith; and that not of yourselves, it is the 
gift of God ; not of works, lest any man should boast : 
for we are his workmanship, created in Christ Jesus 
unto good works, which God hath before ordained 
that we should walk in them. ? In this passage the 
works of which a man may boast are distinguished 
from those which do not admit of boasting, namely, 
the works of faith. So Rom. iii. 27, 28. where is 
boasting then ? it is excluded : by what law? of works ? 
nay, but by the law of faith. Now what is the law 
of faith, but the works of faith ? Hence, wherever 
after < works the words c of the law are omitted, as 
in Rom. iv. 2. we must supply either * the works of 
the law, or, as in the present passage, of the flesh/ 
with reference to xi. 1. (not of the law, since the 
apostle is speaking of Abraham, who lived before the 
law.) Otherwise Paul would contradict himself as 
well as James; he would contradict himself, in saying 
that Abraham had whereof to glory through any 


works whatever, whereas he had declared in the pre 
ceding chapter, v. 27, 28. that by the law of faith, 
that is, by the works of faith, boasting was ex 
cluded ; he would expressly contradict James, who 
affirms, as above, that by works a man is justified, 
and not by faith only ; unless the expression be un 
derstood to mean the works of faith, not the works 
of the law. Compare Rom. iv. 13. not through the 
law, but through the righteousness of faith. In the 
same sense is to be understood Matt. v. 20. l except 
your righteousness shall exceed the righteousness of 
the Scribes and Pharisees, ye shall in no case enter 
into the kingdom of heaven; whereas their right 
eousness was of the exactest kind according to the 
law. James i. 25. being not a forgetful hearer, but 
a doer of the work, this man shall be blessed. Heb. 
xii. 14. follow peace with all men, and holiness, 
without which no man shall see the Lord. Hence 
perhaps Rev. ii. 26. he that keepeth my words to 
the end, to him will I give power . 1 John iii. 7. 
4 little children, let no man deceive you ; he that doeth 
righteousness, is righteous. 

Nor does this doctrine derogate in any degree from 
Christ s satisfaction ; inasmuch as, our faith being 
imperfect, the works which proceed from it cannot be 
pleasing to God, except in so far as they rest upon 
his mercy, and the righteousness of Christ, and are 
sustained by that foundation alone. Philipp. iii. 9. 
that I may be found of him, not having mine own 
righteousness, which is of the law, but that which 
is through the faith of Christ, the righteousness 

which is of God by faith. Tit. iii. 5 7. not 

by works of righteousness which we have done, 


but according to his mercy he saved us, by the 
washing of regeneration and renewing of the Holy 
Ghost, which he shed on us abundantly through Jesus 
Christ our Saviour ; that being justified by his grace, 
we should be made heirs . 1 John ii. 29. ye 
know that every one that doeth righteousness is born 
of him. 

The Papists argue, that it is no less absurd to say 
that a man is justified by the righteousness of another, 
than that a man is learned by the learning of another. 
But there is no analogy between the two cases, inas 
much as mankind are not one with each other in the 
same intimate manner as the believer is one with 
Christ his head. In the mean time they do not per 
ceive the real and extreme absurdity of which they 
are themselves guilty, in supposing that the righteous 
ness of the dead, or of monks, can be imputed to 

They likewise contend, on the authority of a few 
passages of Scripture, that man is justified by his 
own works. Psal. xviii. 20, 24. < Jehovah rewarded 
me according to my righteousness. Rom. ii. 6. who 
will render to every man according to his deeds. But 
to render to every man according to his deeds is one 
thing, to render to him on account of his deeds is 
another; nor does it follow from hence that works 
have any inherent justifying power, or deserve any 
thing as of their own merit ; seeing that, if we do 
any thing right, or if God assign any recompense to 
our right actions, it is altogether owing to his grace. 
Hence the expression in the preceding verse of the 
same Psalm, he delivered me, because he delighted 
in me; and Psal. Ixii. 12. * unto thee, O Lord, be- 


longeth mercy, for thou renderest to every man ac 
cording to his work. 5 Finally, the same Psalmist 
who attributes to himself righteousness, attributes to 
himself iniquity in the same sentence ; xviii. 23. I 
was also upright before him, and I kept myself from 
mine iniquity. 

As to the expression in Matt. xxv. 34, 35. in 
herit the kingdom for I was an hungered, and 

ye gave me meat, &c. our answer is, that the sen 
tence which Christ shall pass on that day will not 
have respect to faith, which is the internal cause of 
justification, but to the effects and signs of that faith^ 
namely, the works done in faith, that he may thereby 
make the equity of his judgment manifest to all man 

When a man is said to be perfect, and just in the 
sight of God, as Luke i. 6. of Zacharias and his wife, 
; they were both righteous before God, walking in 
all the commandments and ordinances of the Lord, 
blameless, this is to be understood according to the 
measure of human righteousness, and as compared 
with the progress of others ; or it may mean that they 
were endued with a sincere and upright heart, without 
dissimulation, (as Deut. xviii. 13. thou shalt be per 
fect with Jehovah thy God ) which interpretation 
seems to be favoured by the expression in the sight 
of God, Gen. xvii. 1. walk before me, and be 
thou perfect. Psal. xix. 13. keep back thy servant 
also from presumptuous sins, let them not have 
dominion over me ; then shall I be upright, and I 
shall be innocent from the great transgression. Eph. 

i. 4. i he hath chosen us that we should be holy and 

without blame before him in love. Or, lastly, it may 


mean that they were declared righteous b*y God 
through grace and faith. Thus Noah found grace in 
the eyes of Jehovah, Gen. vi. 8. compared with v. 9. 
4 Noah was a just man and perfect in his generations, 
and Noah walked with God, and Heb. xi. 7. he 
became heir of the righteousness which is by faith. 

With regard to Luke vii. 47. her sins which are 
many, are forgiven, for she loved much, it is to be 
observed that this love was not the cause, but the 
token or effect of forgiveness, as is evident from the 
parable itself, v. 40. for the debtors were not forgiven 
because they had loved much, but they loved much, 
because much had been forgiven. The same appears 
from what follows ; to whom little is forgiven, the 
same loveth little ; and still more plainly from verse 
v. 50. c thy faith hath saved thee. That which 
saved, the same also justified ; namely, not of love, 
but faith, which was itself the cause of the love in 
question. Compare Book II. Chap. i. on the subject 
of merit. 

From a consciousness of justification proceed peace 
and real tranquillity of mind. Rom. v. 1, &c. being 
justified by faith, we have peace with God. 1 Cor. 
vii. 15. c God hath called us to peace. Philipp. iv, 7. 
4 the peace of God, which passeth all understanding, 
shall keep your hearts and minds through Christ 
Jesus. Coloss. iii. 15, i let the peace of God rule in 
your hearts, to the which also ye are called in one 
body. This is that peace for which the apostles pray 
in their salutations addressed to the church. 



WE have considered Justification, the first of those 
particulars connected with the increase of the regen 
erate which bear reference to the Father ; that which 
remains to be treated of is Adoption. 

Adoption is that act whereby God adopts as his 
children those who are justified through faith. 

In one sense we are by nature sons of God, as well 
as the angels, inasmuch as he is the author of our 
being ; Luke iii. 38. which was the son of Adam, 
which was the son of God. But the sense here 
intended is that of adopted children, such as those 
probably were, though in profession only, who are 
mentioned Gen. vi. 2. the sons of God saw the 
daughters of men that they were fair. * 1 Chron. 

* This interpretation of the passage, which is now generally received, is 
adopted in the eleventh Book of Paradise Lost : 

To these that sober race of men, whose lives 

Religious titled them the sons of God, 

Shall yield up all their virtue. 621. 

But elsewhere Milton understands it of the fallen angels becoming enamour 
ed of the daughters of men : 

Before the flood thou with thy lusty crew, 

False titled sons of God, roaming the earth, 

Cast wanton eyes on the daughters of men. Paradise Regained^ II. 179. 
Compare also Paradise Lost, III. 463. V. 447. 
VOL. II. 7 


xxviii. 6. 1 have chosen him to be my son, and I 
will be his father. Isai. Ivi. 5. I will give them a 
name better than of sons and of daughters ; I will 
give them an everlasting name, that shall not be cut 

Through faith. John i. 12. as many as received 
him, to them gave he power to become the sons of 
God, even to them that believe on his name. 5 Gal. 
iii. 26. ye are all the children of God by faith in 
Christ Jesus. Eph. i. 5. * having predestinated us 
into the adoption of children by Jesus Christ to him 
self, according to the good pleasure of his will. Heb. 
ii. 10. for it became him for whom are all things, 
and by whom are all things, in bringing many sons 
unto glory, to make the captain of their salvation per 
fect through sufferings. Gal. iv. 4 6. * God sent 
forth his Son, made of a woman, made under the law, 
to redeem them that were under the law, that we 
might receive the adoption of sons ; and because ye 
are sons, God hath sent forth the Spirit of his Son 
into your hearts, crying, Abba, Father. 

His children. Rom. viii. 15, 16. ye have not re 
ceived the spirit of bondage again to fear, but ye have 
received the Spirit of adoption, w r hereby we cry, 
Abba, Father : the Spirit itself beareth witness with 
our spirit, that we are the children of God. v. 23. 
4 waiting for the adoption, to wit, the redemption of 
our body. Philipp. ii. 15. that ye may be blame 
less and harmless, the sons of God. 1 John iii. 1. 2. 
behold what manner of love the Father hath bestow 
ed upon us, that we should be called the sons of God. 7 
We are also said to be like God, v. 2. and chap. iv. 
17 herein is our love made perfect, that we may 


have boldness in the day of judgment ; because as he 
is, so are we in this world. 

From adoption is derived, first, liberty ;* a privi 
lege which, in virtue of their title as children of God, 
was not unknown to the posterity of Abraham, Deut. 
xiv. 1 . even under the law of bondage. In the spirit 
of this liberty, they did not scruple even to infringe 
the ceremonies of religion, when their observance 
would have been inconsistent with the law of love. 
Thus they did not circumcise all the people that were 
born in the wilderness by the way. Josh. v. 5. and 
David when he was an hungered did eat that which 
was not lawful for him to eat, Matt. xii. 4. compared 
with 1 Sam. xxi. 6.f Psal. cxix. 45. I will walk 
at liberty, for I seek thy precepts. But the clearer 
and more perfect light in which liberty, like adoption 
itself, has been unfolded by the gospel, renders it 
necessary to reserve the fuller exposition of this priv 
ilege to that part of our work in which the subject of 
the Gospel is considered. 

By adoption we are also made heirs through Christ. 
Gal. iii. 29. if ye be Christ s then are ye Abraham s 
seed, and heirs according to the promise. iv. 7. 

* ; I will now show the wrong it doth, by violating the fundamental 
privilege of the gospel, the new birthright of every true believer, Christian 
liberty. 1 Treatise of Civil Power in Ecclesiastical Causes. Prose Works, 
IV. 337 *that they meddle not rashly with Christian liberty, the birth 
right and outward testimony of our adoption/ Ibid. 341. 

t The Scripture also affords us David in the shewbread, Hezekiah in 
the passover, sound and safe transgressors of the literal command, which 
also dispensed not seldom with itself, and taught us on what just occasions 
to do so ; until our Saviour, for whom that great and godlike work was 
reserved, redeemed us to a state above prescriptions, by dissolving the 
whole law into charity. Tetrachordon. Prose Works, II. 121. * Justice 
and religion are from the same God, and works of justice ofttimes more 
acceptable. Tenure of Kings and Magistrates, II. 291. 


* wherefore thou art no more a servant, but a son ; 
and if a son, then an heir of God through Christ. 
Rom. viii. 17. if children, then heirs ; heirs of God, 
and joint heirs with Christ. Tit. iii. 7. that being 
justified by his grace, we should be made heirs accord 
ing to the hope of eternal life. 1 Pet. iii. 9. * know 
ing that ye are thereunto called, that ye should inherit 
a blessing. This also confers the title of first-born. 
Heb. xii. 22, 23. ye are come to the general as 
sembly and church of the first-born. And of breth 
ren of Christ. Heb. ii. 1 1 , 12. for which cause he 
is not ashamed to call them brethren, saying, I will 
declare thy name unto my brethren. Hence we are 
said to be of the household of God. Eph. ii. 19. 
now therefore ye are no more strangers and foreign 
ers, but fellow citizens with the saints, and of the 
household of God. Hence even the angels minister 
unto us. Heb. i. 14. are they not all ministering 
spirits, sent forth to minister for them that shall be 
heirs of salvation ? 

Lastly, we become sons of God by a new genera 
tion : by the assumption, as it were, of a new nature, 
and by a conformity to his glory : Luke xx. 36. 
they are equal unto the angels, and are the children 
of God, being the children of the resurrection. 



HITHERTO the increase of the regenerate has been 
considered in its relation to the Father alone. We 
are now to consider that increase which has reference 
to the Father and Son conjointly. 

This consists in our union and fellowship with the 
Father through Christ the Son, and our glorification 
after the image of Christ 

Of this union and fellowship mention is made John 
xiv. 20. at that day ye shall know that I am in my 
Father, and ye in me, and I in you. v. 23. if a 
man love me, he will keep my words, and my Father 
will love him, and we will come unto him, and make 
our abode with him. xvii. 21 23. that they all may 
be one, as thou, Father, art in me, and I in thee, 

that they also may be one in us and the glory which 

thou gavest me I have given them, that they may be 
one, even as we are one ; I in them, and thou in me, 
that they may be made perfect in one. 1 Cor. vi. 1 7. 
c he that is joined to the Lord, is one spirit. 1 John 
ii. 23. whosoever denieth the Son, the same hath not 
the Father : but he that acknowledgeth the Son, hath 


the Father also. iii. 24. 4 he that keepeth his com 
mandments dwelleth in him, and he in him : and 
hereby we know that he abideth in us, by the Spirit 
which he hath given us. i. 3, 6, 7. truly our fel 
lowship is with the Father, and with his Son Jesus 
Christ : if we say that we have fellowship with him, 
and walk in darkness, we lie, and do not the truth ; 
but if we walk in the light, as he is in the light, we 
have fellowship one with another. iv. 13, 15, 16. 
4 hereby know we that we dwell in him, and he in us, 
because he hath given us of his Spirit : whosoever 
shall confess that Jesus is the Son of God, God dwell 
eth in him, and he in God : and we have known and 
believed the love that God hath to us : God is love, 
and he that dwelleth in love dwelleth in God, and 
God in him. 

The fellowship arising from this union consists in a 
participation, through the Spirit, of the various gifts 
and merits of Christ. John vi. 56. * he that eateth 
my flesh, and drinketh my blood, dwelleth in me, and 
I in him. Rom. viii. 9. if any man have not the 
Spirit of Christ he is none of his. v. 32. how 
shall he not with him also freely give us all things ? 
1 Cor. i. 9. God is faithful, by whom ye were call 
ed unto the fellowship of his Son Jesus Christ our 
Lord. Eph. iii. 17. that Christ may dwell in your 
hearts by faith. Rev. iii. 20. if any man hear my 
voice, and open the door, I will come in to him, and 
sup with him, and he with me. 2 Cor. xiii. 14. the 
communion of the Holy Ghost. 

From this our fellowship with Christ arises the 
mutual fellowship of the members of Christ s body 
among themselves, called in the Apostles Creed The 


Communion of Saints. Rom. xii. 4, 5. for as we 
have many members in one body, and all members 
have not the same office ; so we, being many, are one 
body in Christ, and every one members one of anoth 
er. 1 Cor. xii. 12, 13. as the body is one, and 
hath many members, and all the members of that one 
body, being many, are one body, so also is Christ : 
for by one Spirit are we all baptized into one body, 
whether we be Jews or Gentiles, whether we be bond 
or free ; and have been all made to drink into one 
Spirit. v. 27. ye are the body of Christ, and mem 
bers in particular. 

Lastly, from this union and fellowship of the re 
generate with the Father and Christ^ and of the 
members of Christ s body among themselves, results 
the mystical body called The Invisible Church, where 
of Christ is the head. 1 Thess. i. 1. < unto the church 
of the Thessalonians which is in God the Father, and 
in the Lord Jesus Christ. See also 2 Thess. i. 1. 
John xi. 52. not for that nation only, but that also 
he should gather together in one the children of God 
that were scattered abroad. 2 Cor. vi. 16. ye are the 
temple of the living God. Gal. iv. 26. Jerusalem 
which is above is free, which is the mother of us all. 
Epk. i. 22, 23. he gave him to be the head over all 
things to the church, which is his body, the fulness of 
him that filleth all in all. iv. 13, 15, 16. till we all 
come in the unity of the faith, and of the knowledge 
of the Son of God, unto a perfect man, unto the 
measure of the stature of the fulness of Christ ; that 
we may grow up into him in all things, which is the 
head, even Christ ; from whom the whole body fitly 
joined together and compacted by that which every 


joint supplieth, according to the effectual working in 
the measure of every part, maketh increase of the 
body unto the edifying of itself in love. v. 23, 
4 Christ is the head of the church, and he is the Sav 
iour of the body. Col i. 18, 19. * he is the head of 
the body, the church. ii. 19. * not holding the head, 
from which all the body by joints and bands having 
nourishment ministered, and knit together, increas- 
eth with the increase of God. i. 24. for his body s 
sake, which is the church. Heb. iii. 6. Christ as a 
son over his own house, whose house are we. xii. 22, 
23. * ye are come unto Mount Sion, and unto the city 
of the living God, the heavenly Jerusalem, and to an 
innumerable company of angels, to the general as 
sembly and church of the first-born, which are writ 
ten in heaven, and to God the Judge of all, and to 
the spirits of just men made perfect. 

Seeing then that the body of Christ is mystically 
one, it follows that the fellowship of his members 
must also be mystical, and not confined to place or 
time, inasmuch as it is composed of individuals of 
widely separated countries, and of all ages from 
the foundation of the world. Rom. ii. 29. he is 
a Jew which is one inwardly, and circumcision is 
that of the heart, in the spirit, and not in the letter ; 
whose praise is not of men, but of God. 5 Eph. ii. 
19 22. now therefore ye are no more strangers and 
foreigners, but fellow citizens with the saints, and of 
the household of God ; and are built upon the foun 
dation of the apostles and prophets, Jesus Christ him 
self being the chief corner-stone ; in whom all the 
building fitly framed together, groweth unto an holy 
temple in the Lord : in whom ye also are builded to- 


gether for an habitation of God through the Spirit. 
Col. ii. 5. though I be absent in the flesh, yet am I 
with you in the spirit, joying and beholding your or 
der, and the stedfastness of your faith in Christ. 

The love of Christ towards his invisible and spot 
less Church is described by the appropriate figure of 
conjugal love.* Rev. xix. 7. the marriage of the 
Lamb is come, and his wife hath made herself ready. 

Christ is also called the Shepherd, by reason of his 
protecting and teaching the church. John x. 14. I 
am the good shepherd. v, 16. there shall be one 
fold, and one shepherd. Heb. xiii. 20. now the 
God of peace, that brought again from the dead our 
Lord Jesus, that great shepherd of the sheep, through 
the blood of the everlasting covenant . 1 Pet. v 
4. when the chief shepherd shall appear . 

* c Marriage, which is the nearest resemblance of our union with 
Christ. Telrachordon. Prose Works, II. 138. Marriage, which is 
the dearest league of love, and the dearest resemblance of that love which 
in Christ is dearest to his Church. Reply to an Answer against tht Doc 
trine and Ditcipline of Divorce. Ibid. 255. 

VOL. II. 8 



OF that increase which has reference to the Father 
and Son conjointly, the remaining part is Glorifica 

Glorification is either imperfect or perfect. 

Imperfect glorification is that state wherein, being 
justified and adopted by God the Father, we are filled 
with a consciousness of present grace and excellency, 
as well as with an expectation of future glory, inso 
much that our blessedness is in a manner already be 
gun. John xvii. 22. * the glory which thou gavest 
me, I have given them. 

St. Paul traces this glorification by progressive 
steps, from its original source in the prescience of 
God himself : Rom. viii. 29, 30. whom he did fore 
know, he also did predestinate to be conformed to the 
image of his Son moreover, whom he did predes 
tinate, them he also called ; and whom he called, 
them he also justified ; and whom he justified, them 
he also glorified. xv. 7. * receive ye one another, as 


Christ also received us to the glory of God. Eph. 
i. 3. blessed be the God and Father of our Lord Je 
sus Christ, who hath blessed us with all spiritual 
blessings in heavenly places in Christ. iii. 17 19. 
4 that ye, being rooted and grounded in love, may 
be able to comprehend with all saints what is the 
breadth, and length, and depth, and height, and to 
know the love of Christ, which passeth knowledge, 
that ye might be filled with all the fulness of God. 
1 Thess. ii. 12. that ye would walk worthy of God, 
who hath called you unto his kingdom and glory. 2 
Thess. ii. 14. whereunto he called you by our gos 
pel, to the obtaining of the glory of our Lord Jesus 
Christ. 1 Pet. v. 10. who hath called us unto his 
eternal glory by Christ Jesus. 2 Pet. i. 3, that 
hath called us to glory and virtue. 

Our blessedness is in a manner already begun. 
Matt. v. 3, &:c. blessed are the poor in spirit, for 
their s is the kingdom of heaven. 

Both regeneration and increase are accompanied by 
confirmation, or preservation in the faith, which is 
also the work of God. 1 Cor. i. 8. who shall also 
confirm you unto the end, that ye may be blameless 
in the day of our Lord Jesus Christ. 2 Cor. i. 21, 22. 
now he W 7 hich stablisheth us with you in Christ, and 
hath anointed us, is God ; w r ho hath also sealed us, 
and given us the earnest of the Spirit in our hearts. 
Eph. iii. 16. that he would grant you according to 
the riches of his glory to be strengthened with might 
by his Spirit in the inner man. 1 Pet. v. 10. the 

God of all grace, who hath called us make you 

perfect, stablish, strengthen, settle you. Jude 24. 
4 unto him that is able to keep you from falling, and 


to present you faultless before the presence of his 
glory with exceeding joy. 

These three, regeneration, increase, and preserva 
tion in the faith, considered as proximate causes on 
the part of God, and their effects, as faith, love, &c. 
considered as proximate causes on the part of man, or 
as acting in man, produce assurance of salvation and 
the final perseverance of the saints. 

On the part of God, however, the primary or more 
remote cause is his predestination or election of be 
lievers. Rom, viii. 30. whom he did predestinate, 
&c. as quoted above, xi. 29. 4 the gifts and calling 
of God are without repentance. Heb. vi. 17, 18. 
4 wherein God, willing more abundantly to show unto 
the heirs of promise the immutability of his counsel, 
confirmed it by an oath ; that by two immutable 
things, in which it was impossible for God to lie, we 
might have a strong consolation, &LC. 2 Pet. i. 4. 
4 whereby are given unto us exceeding great and pre 
cious promises ; that by these ye might be partakers 
of the divine nature. 

Hence assurance of salvation is a certain degree or 
gradation of faith, whereby a man has a firm persua 
sion and conviction, founded on the testimony of the 
Spirit, that if he believe and continue in faith and 
love, having been justified and adopted, and partly 
glorified by union and fellowship with Christ and the 
Father, he will at length most certainly attain to ever 
lasting life and the consummation of glory. 

Has a firm persuasion ; or, to speak more properly, 
ought, and is entitled to have a firm persuasion. 2 
Pet. i. 10. * wherefore the rather, brethren, give dili 
gence to make your calling and election sure, that is 


the fruit of your calling and election, eternal life ; for 
the calling itself cannot be made more sure, inasmuch 
as it is already past : but this is of no avail, unless we 
give diligence to make both sure. It follows, that, 
as far as this depends upon ourselves, it must be in 
our own power to make it sure. 

If he believe. John iii. 16. that whosoever be- 
lieveth in him should not perish, but have everlasting 
life. See also vi. 47. Rom. v. 2. * by whom also 
we have access by faith into this grace wherein we 
stand, and rejoice in hope of the glory of God. 2 
Cor. xiii. 5. examine yourselves whether ye be in 
the faith ; prove your own selves : know ye not your 
own selves, how that Jesus Christ is in you, except 
ye be reprobates ? But * Christ dwells in our hearts 
by faith. Eph. iii. 17. Hence we are enjoined to 
prove our faith, lest we should be reprobates ; not our 
election, which cannot be sure without faith. 

Continue in faith and love. Heb. vi. 1 8 20. 
4 that we might have a strong consolation who have 
fled for refuge to lay hold upon the hope set before 
us ; which hope we have as an anchor of the soul 
both sure and stedfast, and which entereth into that 
within the veil. x. 22, 23. < let us draw near with a 
true heart, in full assurance of faith, having our hearts 
sprinkled from an evil conscience, and our bodies 
washed with pure water : let us hold fast the profes 
sion of our faith without wavering. 2 Pet. i. 9 11. 
4 he that lacketh these things, is blind, and cannot see 
afar off, and hath forgotten that he was purged from 

his old sins: wherefore the rather, brethren, &c 

tor so an entrance shall be ministered unto you abun 
dantly into the everlasting kingdom of our Lord and 


Saviour Jesus Christ. 1 John iii. 14. we know that 
we have passed from death unto life, because we love 
the brethren. iv. 18. there is no fear in love, but 
perfect love casteth out fear. Rev. ii. 17. to him 
that overcometh will I give to eat of the hidden man 
na, and will give him a white stone, and in the stone 
a new name written, which no man knoweth saving 
he that receiveth it. Here each is represented as 
receiving the stone, or pledge of election, after he has 
individually obtained the victory. 

Having been justified. Rom. v. 9, 10. much more 
then, being now justified by his blood, we shall be 
saved from wrath through him : for if when we were 
enemies, we were reconciled to God by the death of 
his Son, much more being reconciled, We shall be 
saved by his life. We are only justified, however, 
through faith. 

Adopted. Rom. viii. 15, 16. ye have not received 
the spirit of bondage again to fear, but ye have receiv 
ed the Spirit of adoption, whereby we cry, Abba, 

On the testimony of the Spirit. Rom. viii. 16. the 
Spirit itself beareth witness with our spirit that 
we are the children of God. Eph. i. 13, 14. in 
whom ye also trusted after that ye heard the word of 
truth, the gospel of your salvation ; in whom also, af 
ter that ye believed, ye were sealed with that holy 
Spirit of promise, which is the earnest of our inher 
itance until the redemption of the purchased posses 
sion, unto the praise of his glory. iv. 30. grieve 
not the Holy Spirit of God, whereby ye are sealed 
unto the day of redemption. 1 Thess. v. 19. quench 
not the Spirit. Certainly, if we grieve the Holy 


Spirit, if we quench that by which we were sealed, 
we must at the same time quench the assurance of 
our salvation. 

This assurance of salvation produces a joy unspeak 
able. John xv. 10, 11. ye shall abide in my love..,, 
these things have I spoken unto you, that my joy 
might remain in you, and that your joy might be full. 
Rom. xiv. 17. the kingdom of God is not meat and 
drink, but righteousness and peace and joy in the 
Holy Ghost. 1 Pet. i. 8, 9. in whom, though now 
ye see him not, yet believing, ye rejoice with joy un 
speakable and full of glory ; receiving the end of your 
faith, even the salvation of your souls. 

The final perseverance of the saints is the gift of 
God who preserves them, whereby they who are fore 
known, elect and born again, and sealed by the Holy 
Spirit, persevrre to the end in the faith and grace of 
God, and never entirely fall away through any power 
or malice of the devil or the world, so long as nothing 
is wanting on their own parts, and they continue to the 
utmost in the maintenance of faith and love. 

The gift of God s preserving power. Psal. xxvi. 
1. I have trusted in Jehovah, therefore I shall not 
slide. Luke xxii. 32. I have prayed for thee that 
thy faith fail not, John vi. 37. all that the Father 
giveth me shall come to me ; and him that cometh to 
me I will in nowise cast out. Rom. v. 5. < hope 
makefh not ashamed, because the love of God is shed 
abroad in our hearts by the Holy Ghost which is giv 
en unto us. Jude 1. preserved in Jesus Christ. 

Foreknown. 2 Tim. ii. 19. < the foundation of God 
standeth sure, having this seal, The Lord knoweth 
them that are his ; and, Let every one that nameth 
the name of Christ depart from iniquity. 


Born again. John viii. 35. the servant abideth 
not in the house for ever ; but the Son abideth ever. 

Through any power or malice of the devil or the 
world. Matt. xxiv. 24. insomuch that if it were 
possible, they shall deceive the very elect. John x. 
28, 29. neither shall any man pluck them out of my 
hand : my Father which gave them me is greater than 
all, and no man is able to pluck them out of my Father s 
hand. xvii. 15. that thou shouldest keep them from 
the evil. Rom. viii. 35, 38, 39. * who shall separate 
us from the love of Christ ? shall tribulation, or dis 
tress, or persecution, or famine, or nakedness, or peril, 
or sword? for I am persuaded that neither death, 
nor life, nor angels, nor principalities, nor powers, nor 
things present, nor things to come, nor height, nor 
depth, nor any other creature, shall be able to separate 
us from the love of God, which is in Christ Jesus our 

So long as nothing is wanting on their own parts. 
In adding this limitation, I was influenced by what I 
had observed to be the uniform tenor of Scripture. 
Psal. cxxv. 1, 2. they that trust in Jehovah shall be 
as mount Sion, which cannot be removed, but abideth 
for ever. 2 Chron. xv. 2. Jehovah is with you, while 
ye be with him ; and if ye seek him, he will be found 
of you ; but if ye forsake him, he will forsake you. 
Jer. xxxii. 40. I will make an everlasting covenant 
with them, that I will not turn away from them to do 
them good ; but I will put my fear in their hearts, 
that they shall not depart from me. In promising to 
put his fear in their hearts, that they shall not depart 
from him, God merely engages to perform what is re 
quisite on his part, namely, to bestow such a supply 


of grace as should be sufficient, if properly employed, 
to retain them in his way. At the same time he 
enters into a covenant with them. Now a covenant 
implies certain conditions to be performed, not by one, 
but by both the parties. They shall not depart from 
me ; that is, from my external worship, as the whole 
of the context shows, from the thirty-seventh verse to 
the end of the chapter, compared with the twentieth 
and twenty-first verses of the following ; < if ye can 
break my covenant of the day.....then may also my 

covenant be broken with David my servant and 

with the Levites. Lastly, it appears that these very 
persons, in whose hearts he promised to put his fear 
that they should not depart from him, did actually so 
depart ; for the same promise is made to their chil 
dren, xxxii. 39. The event therefore proved, that 
although God had according to compact put his fear 
into their hearts to the very end that they should not 
depart, they nevertheless departed through their own 
fault and depravity. Moreover, the words are ad 
dressed to, and include, the whole nation ; but the 
whole nation was not elect ; it follows therefore that 
the passage cannot refer to the elect exclusively, as is 
contended. Ezek. xi. 19 21. I will give them one 
heart, and I will put a new spirit within you ; and I 

will take the stony heart out of their flesh that they 

may walk in my statutes; but as for them whose 

heart walketh after the heart of their detestable things 
and their abominations, I will recompense their way 
upon their own heads. Matt. vii. 24, 25. whoso 
ever heareth these sayings of mine and doeth them, I 
will liken him unto a wise man that built his house 
upon the rock. John iv. 14. c whosoever drinketh of 
VOL. n. 9 


the water that I shall give him it shall be in him a 

well of water springing up into everlasting life. vi. 51. 
4 if any man eat of this bread he shall live for ever. 
1 Cor. x. 12. < let him that thinketh he standeth, take 
heed lest he fall. Philipp. ii. 12. work out your 
own salvation with fear and trembling. 1 John ii. 17. 

* he that doeth the will of God, abideth for ever. v. 
28. abide in him, that when he shall appear, we may 
have confidence, and not be ashamed before him at 
his coming. 

Continue to the utmost in the maintenance of faith 
and love. This clause is subjoined for the same rea 
son as the former. John xv. 2. every branch in me 
that beareth not fruit he taketh away. v. 6. if a man 
abide not in me, he is cast forth as a branch, and is 
withered, and men gather them, and cast them into 
the fire, and they are burned. v. 10. l if ye keep my 
commandments, ye shall abide in my love, even as I 
have kept my Father s commandments, and abide in 
his love. Rom. xi. 20. because of unbelief they 
were broken off, and thou standest by faith. v. 22. 

* behold therefore the goodness and severity of God ; 
on them which fell, severity ; but towards thee, good 
ness, if thou continue in his goodness ; otherwise thou 
also shalt be cut off. Thus the gifts of God are said 
to be without repentance, v. 29. inasmuch as he did 
not repent of his promise to Abraham and his seed, 
although the greater part of them had revolted ; but 
it does not follow that he did not change his purpose 
towards those, who had first changed theirs towards 
him. 2 Cor. i. 24. by faith ye stand. Eph. iii. 17, 
4 being rooted and grounded in love. 1 Pet. i. 5. i who 
are kept by the power of God through faith unto salva- 


tion. 2 Pet. i. 5 10. beside this, giving all dili 
gence, add to your faith virtue.. ..for if these things be 
in you, and abound, they make you that ye shall nei 
ther be barren nor unfruitful.... for if ye do these 
things, ye shall never fall. That a real believer, 
however, may fall irrecoverably, the same apostle 
shows, chap. ii. 18. they allure through the lusts 
of the flesh, through much wantonness, those that 
were clean escaped from them who live in error ; 
if indeed this be the right reading, and not, as 
others contend, escaped a little :* not to mention, 
that it appears doubtful whether the knowledge of 
the Lord should be understood here of a saving faith, 
and not of an historical only : and whether their 
escape from the pollutions of the world implies a 
truly regenerate and Christian purity of life, and not 
a mere outward and philosophical morality : so that 
from this passage nothing certain can be inferred. 
The text in Ezekiel xviii. 26. is clearer ; when a 
righteous man turneth away from his righteousness.... 
he shall die. The righteousness here intended must 
necessarily be true righteousness, being that from 
which whosoever turns shall die. But, it is replied, 
the event is conditional, if he turneth away ; which, 
on our hypothesis, will never happen. I answer, first, 
that the Hebrew does not express any condition, and, 
secondly, that if it were so, an absurd and impractica- 

* The Alexandrian MS. here reads ow j*c, a little, instead of ftrar. Other 
MSS. read tKiyov, and the Vulgate paululum. Wetstein s note upon the 
passage gives a full view of the various readings, and the authorities on 
which they rest. ox/yw A. B. 8, 9, 19. in ora 25. Editio ColincEi. Versio 
Vulg. Syr. utraque. Copt. JEthiop. Ephrem. prob. S. Castalione, T. Jl. 
Bengelio. ouyov 32, 42. Editio Complut. Plant. Genev. IXT*? 40. otdyw D. 
Heinsius. ovruf Kratmi, olvo<j>*.vyjvvra.<; R. Bentleius? 


ble condition is inconsistent with the character of 
God. Two suppositions, both of them equally possi 
ble, are here made; v. 21. if the wicked will turn 
from all his sins ; v. 26. l when a righteous man turn- 
eth away from his righteousness ; hence v. 25. is 
not the way of the Lord equal ? The same mode of 
reasoning occurs again xxxiii. 12, 13, &:c. Paul was 
a true believer, and yet he says, 1 Cor. ix. 27. I 
keep under my body and bring it into subjection, lest 
that by any means when I have preached to others, I 
myself should be a castaway. The apostle to the 
Hebrews, vi. 4 6. seems also to speak of the possi 
ble final apostasy of the real believer, if the concluding 
clause of the passage be attentively considered : i if 
they shall fall away, to renew them again unto repent 
ance ; for the state described in the fourth and fifth 
verses, arid from which they are represented as having 
fallen, can scarcely have been other than a regenerate 
state. Christ therefore prayed to the Father that the 
faith of Peter might not fail, Luke xxii. 32. For it 
was possible for his faith to fail through his own fault, 
without any failure in the ordinary gifts of God s 
grace ; wherefore Christ prayed, not that the grace of 
God, but that the faith of Peter, might not fail ; 
which was to be dreaded at that time, unless he were 
strengthened by an extraordinary effusion of the grace 
of God at the request of Christ, 1 Tim. i. 19. < hold 
ing faith and a good conscience, which some having 
put away, concerning faith have made shipwreck. 
It cannot be doubted that the faith and good con 
science which some had put away, as well as the faith 
concerning which some had made shipwreck, was 


Accordingly, not the elect, but those who continue 
to the end, are said to obtain salvation. Matt. xxiv. 
12, 13. the love of many shall wax cold; but he that 
shall endure unto the end, the same shall be saved. 
See also x. 22. Heb. iii. 6. whose house are we, if we 
hold fast the confidence and the rejoicing of the hope 
even to the end. v. 14. we are made partakers of 
Christ, if we hold the beginning of our confidence 
steadfast unto the end. 1 John ii. 24. if that which 
ye have heard from the beginning shall remain in you, 
ye also shall continue in the Son. Rev. ii. 10. * be 
thou faithful unto death, and I will give thee a crown 
of life. iii. 11. hold that fast which thou hast, that 
no man take thy crown. John viii. 31. < if ye continue 
in my word, then are ye my disciples indeed. From 
this last passage, however, our opponents draw the in 
verse inference, if ye be my disciples indeed, ye will 
continue ; in other words, your continuance will be a 
proof of your being really my disciples ; in support 
of which they quote 1 John ii. 19. if they had been 
of us, they would no doubt have continued with us ; 
but they went out, that it might be made manifest that 
they were not all of us. I reply, that these texts 
do not contradict each other, inasmuch as the apostle 
is not here laying down a rule applicable to believers 
in general, formally deduced from necessary causes ; 
but merely giving his judgment concerning certain 
antichrists, which judgment, according to a common 
practice, he had formed from the event. He does not 
say, therefore, if they had been of us, it was impos 
sible but that they should have continued with us, 
nor does he mention the causes of this impossibility ; 
but he merely says, they would have continued. 


His argument is as follows ; since it is very rare that 
a true disciple does not continue in the faith, it is nat 
ural to suppose that they would have continued in it, 
if they had been true disciples. But * they went out 
from us. Why ? Not to show that true believers 
could never depart from the faith, but that all who 
walked with the apostles were not true believers, in 
asmuch as true believers very rarely acted as they 
had done. In the same way it might be said of an 
individual, * if he had been a real friend, he would 
never have been unfaithful ; not because it is impos 
sible that a real friend should ever be unfaithful, but 
because the case very seldom happens.* That the 
apostle could not have intended to lay down a rule of 
universal application, will be shown by inverting the 
hypothesis ; if they had continued, they would no 
doubt have been of us ; whereas many hypocrites con 
tinue in outward communion with the church even 
till their death, and never go out from it. As there 
fore those who continue are not known to be real 
believers simply from their continuing, so neither are 
those who do not continue proved thereby never to 
have been real believers ; this only is certain, that 
when they went out from the church, they were not 
then real believers. For neither does Christ, with 
whom John undoubtedly agreed, argue thus, < ye are 
my disciples indeed, if ye continue in my word, but 
thus ; if ye continue indeed (for this latter word 
must be taken with both members of the sentence) 

* * Sed inquies, vulgo dicitur de amico, eum nunquam fuisse verum 
atnicum, qui tandem desiit esse. Respondeo, id non esse usquequaque et 
setuper verum. Potest forsan id de aliquibus dici, sed non de omnibus, 
&c. Curcellaei Instit. VII. 10, 12. . - 


* then will ye be indeed my disciples ; therefore, 4 if 
ye do not continue, ye will not be my disciples. 

It is said, however, in the same epistle, chap. iii. 9. 
4 whosoever is born of God doth not commit sin ; for 
his seed remaineth in him, and he cannot sin, because^ 
he is born of God ; from which they argue as follows; 
if he cannot sin, much less can he depart from the 
faith. We are not at liberty, however, thus to sep 
arate a particular verse from its context, without care 
fully comparing its meaning with other verses of the 
same chapter and epistle, as well as with texts bearing 
on the same subject in other parts of Scripture ; lest 
the apostle should be made to contradict either him 
self, or the other sacred writers. He is declaring, in 
the verse above quoted, the strength of that internal 
aid with which God has provided us against sin ; hav 
ing previously explained what is required on our own 
part, v. 3. every man that hath this hope in him, 
purifieth himself, even as he is pure. He recurs again 
to the same point, v. 10. * in this the children of God 
are manifest, and the children of the devil : whoso 
ever doeth not righteousness is not of God, neither he 
that loveth not his brother. iv. 16. God is love, and 
he that dwelleth in love, dwelleth in God, and God in 
him. v. 18. * whosoever is born of God, sinneth not, 
but he that is begotten of God keepeth himself . 
Whosoever, therefore, is born of God, cannot sin, and 
therefore cannot depart from the faith, provided that 
he at the same time purify himself to the utmost of 
his power, that he do righteousness, that he love his 
brother, that he remain himself in love, in order 
that God and his seed may also remain in him ; that 
finally he keep himself. Further, in what sense is it 


said, he cannot sin, when the apostle has already 
declared chap. i. 8. if we say that we have no sin, 
we deceive ourselves, and the truth is not in us ? 
Doubtless we ought to understand by this phrase that 
he does not easily fall into sin, not voluntarily and 
intentionally, not wilfully and presumptuously, but 
with reluctance and remorse ; and that he does not 
persist in the habit of sinning ; for which reasons, 
and above all for Christ s sake, sin is not imputed to 
him. If then so much caution be necessary in ex 
plaining the word sin, we ought to proceed with no 
less care in the interpretation of the remaining part 
of the verse ; and not to take advantage of the sim 
plicity of style peculiar to this apostle, for the purpose 
of establishing a doctrine in itself absurd. For not 
to be able, as the Remonstrant divines have rightly 
observed,* does not always signify absolute impossi 
bility, either in common language or in Scripture. 
Thus we often say that a particular thing cannot be 
done, meaning that it cannot be done with convenience, 
honour, or facility, or with a safe conscience, or con 
sistently with modesty, or credit, or dignity, or good 
faith. f In this sense it is said, Luke xi. 7. I can- 

* See Acta et Scripta Synodalia Dordracena, in Deftnsione sententice 
Remonstrantium circa Jlrticulum V. de Perseverantia. l In communi vita 
nihil familiarius est, quani illud impossibile dicere, quod alicujus ingenio et 
naturae repugnat ; ut temperantera hominem non posse inebriari; doctuna 
homineni non posse ferre contemptum ; probum homiueni non posse cal- 
umniari, &c. In scripturis, 2 Cor. xiii. 8. non possumus quidquam ad- 
versus verilatem. Sic Act. iv. 20. Quibus phrasibus non omnimodo im- 
possibilitas earurn rerum quae fieri non posse dicuntur, indicator, sed tan- 
turn moralis sive ethica, &c. p. 320 324. 

t * Apostoli mens est, ilium qui ex Deo natus est, quatenus ex principio 
regeneratiouis *uae operatur, non posse peccato servire ; sicut dicimus euni 
qui liberalis est, non posse sordide se gerere ; qui temperans, non posse gulae 


not rise and give thee, although the speaker shortly 
afterwards rises. So also Acts iv. 20. we cannot 
but speak the things which we have seen and heard. 
Matt. xii. 34. how can ye, being evil, speak good 
things ? whereas it is easy even for hypocrites to 
4 speak good things. In like manner, when it is said 
in the present passage he cannot sin, the meaning is, 
that he cannot easily fall into sin, and therefore cannot 
easily depart from the faith. The same divines have 
displayed equal sagacity and research in their expla 
nation of the reason assigned by the apostle, for his 
seed remaineth in him ; where they show that to 
remain in him means the same as 4 to be in him. 
So John xiv. 7. he dwelleth with you, and shall be 
in you. Thus also in the fourteenth verse of the 
very chapter under consideration ; he that loveth not 
his brother abideth in death ; that is, so long as he 
does not love his brother ; for in any other sense it 
would be impossible for a man to escape death who 
had ever been guilty of not loving his brother. Who 
soever therefore is born of God cannot sin, because 
his seed remaineth or c is in him; it is in him as long 
as he does not himself quench it, for even the Spirit 
can be quenched; it remains in him, moreover, as long 
as he himself remains in love. 

Those, however, who do not persevere in the faith, 
are in ordinary cases to be accounted unregenerate 
and devoid of genuine belief; seeing that God who 
keeps us is faithful, and that he has given believers so 
many pledges of salvation, namely, election, regenera- 

aut libidini indulgere ; non quod absolute non possint in talia peccata labi, 
sedquia cum lapsi sunt, non se ut liberates aut temperantes solent et con- 
venit, gesserunt. Curcelleei Jnstitut. VII. 3. 9. 
VOL. II. 10 


tkm, justification, adoption, union and fellowship with 
him conjointly with Christ and the Spirit, who is the 
earnest and seal of the covenant ; seeing also that the 
work of glorification is in them already begun. Prov* 
xxiv. 16. * a just man falleth seven times, and riseth 
up again, but the wicked shall fall into mischief. 
Matt. xxv. 3. they that were foolish took their lamps, 
and took no oil with them. Luke viii. 13. these have 
no root. 2 Pet. ii. 22. the dog is turned to his own 
vomit again, and the sow that was washed to her 
wallowing in the mire. 1 John ii. 19. they went 
out from us. 

Or perhaps they are to be considered as apostates 
from the faith, in that sense of faith in which it is the 
object, not the cause of belief. 1 Tim. iv. 1. the 
Spirit speaketh expressly, that in the latter times some 
shall depart from the faith, giving heed to seducing 
spirits, and doctrines of devils. Gal. v. 4. Christ is 
become of no effect unto you, whosoever of you are 
justified by the law ; ye are fallen from grace. How 
ever this may be, it is our duty to intreat God with 
constant prayer, in the words of the apostle, 2 Thess. 
i. 11. that our God would count us worthy of this 
calling, and fulfil all the good pleasure of his good 
ness, and the work of faith with power. 

Thus far of the beginnings of glorification. As its 
perfection is not attainable in the present life, this 
part of the subject will be reserved for the concluding 
chapter of the present book. 



THE nature and process of renovation, so far as it is 
developed in this life, have been considered. We are 
now to trace its manifestation and exhibition in the 
covenant of grace. 

The covenant of grace itself, on the part of God, is 
first declared Gen. iii. 15. I will put enmity 
between thee and the woman, and between thy seed 
and her seed ; it shall bruise thy head, and thou shalt 
bruise his heel ; compared with Rom. xvi. 20. * the 
God of peace shall bruise Satan under your feet 
shortly. 1 John iii. 8. for this purpose the Son of 
God was manifested, that he might destroy the works 
of the devil. On the part of man its existence may 
be considered as implied from the earliest period at 
which it is recorded that mankind worshipped God. 

The manifestation of the covenant of grace consists 
in its exhibition and its ratification. Both existed 
under the law, and both continue under the gospel. 

Even under the law the existence of a Redeemer 
and the necessity of redemption are perceptible, 
though obscurely and indistinctly. Heb. ix. 8, &c. 
the way into the holiest of all was not yet made 


manifest, while as the first tabernacle was yet stand 
ing ; which was a figure for the time then present, in 
which were offered both gifts and sacrifices, that could 
not make him that did the service perfect, as pertain 
ing to the conscience ; which stood only in meats and 
drinks, and divers washings, and carnal ordinances 
(or righteousness of the flesh), imposed on them until 
the time of reformation. Under the gospel both the 
Redeemer and the truth of his redemption are more 
explicitly understood. John i. 11. i the law was 
given by Moses, but grace and truth came by Jesus 

The law of God is either written or unwritten. 

The unwritten law is no other than that law of 
nature given originally to Adam,* and of w 7 hich a 
certain remnant, or imperfect illumination, still dwells 
in the hearts of all mankind ; which, in the regener 
ate, under the influence of the Holy Spirit, is daily 
tending towards a renewal of its primitive brightness. 
Rom. i. 19. God hath showed it unto them. v. 32. 
4 who knowing the judgment of God, that they which 
commit such things are worthy of death, not only do 
the same, but have pleasure in them that do them. 
ii. 14, 15. the Gentiles, which have not the law, do 
by nature the things contained in the law, these hav 
ing not the law, are a law unto themselves ; which 
show 7 the work of the law written in their hearts. 

Hence the law is often used for heavenly doctrine 
in the abstract, or the will of God, as declared under 
both covenants. Jer. xxxi. 33. I will put my law in 
their inward parts. John x. 34. < is it not written in 
your law r , I said, Ye are gods ? though the passage 

* See page 260, note 5. 


alluded to is found in the Psalms, not in the law pro 
perly so called. 

The manifestation of this gratuitous covenant under 
the law was partly anterior to, and partly coincident 
with, Moses. 

liven before Moses the law was already in part 
delivered, although not in a written form. Gen. iv. 3, 
4. ; Cain brought of the fruit of the ground an offer 
ing unto Jehovah. v. 26. then began men to call 
upon the name of Jehovah. vii. 1, 2. c thee have I 
seen righteous before me in this generation ; of every 
clean beast, &c. viii. 20, 21, &c. Noah builded an 
altar unto Jehovah. 2 Pet. ii. 5. Noah, a preacher 
of righteousness. The same is said of the other 
patriarchs before Moses. Gen. xii. 4, 5. xiii. 1 8. xxv. 
22. xxviii. 18. Ceremonial purification is likewise 
mentioned, xxxv. 2. be clean and change your gar 
ments, Compare v. 14. Exod. xvii. 5. 

A certain manifestation or shadowing forth of the 
covenant was exhibited under Moses, first, in the re 
demption from bondage by the liberation from Egypt 
under the guidance of Moses ; secondly, in the brazen 
serpent, John iii. 14 16. 

The symbols of expiation and redemption, both 
before and under Moses, were the sacrifices and the 
priests, Melchizedec and Aaron with his posterity.* 
Heb. viiL 5. " who serve unto the example and 
shadow of heavenly things. 

The Mosaic law was a written code consisting of 
many precepts, intended for the Israelites alone, with 

* * Melchisedec incited to do so, first, by the secret providence of 

God, intending him for a type cf Christ and his priesthood. 1 The likeliest 
mtans to remove Hirelings out of the Church. Prose Works, III. 357. 


u promise of life to such as should keep them, and a 
curse on such as should be disobedient ; to the end 
that they, being led thereby to an acknowledgment of 
the depravity of mankind, and consequently of their 
own, might have recourse to the righteousness of the 
promised Saviour ; and that they, and in process of 
time all other nations, might be led under the Gospel 
from the weak and servile rudiments of this elementary 
institution* to the full strength of the new creature, 
and a manly liberty worthy the sons of God. Heb. 
ix. 8, &c. as above. 

Intended for the Israelites alone. Exod. xix, 5, 6. 
if ye will obey my voice indeed, and keep my cove 
nant, then ye shall be a peculiar treasure unto me 
above all people ; for all the earth is mine : and ye 
shall be unto me a kingdom of priests, and an holy 
nation. Deut. iv. 45. these are the testimonies, and 
the statutes, and the judgments, which Moses spake 
unto the children of Israel, after they came forth out 
of Egypt. 1 Kings viii. 21. I have set there a place 
for the ark, wherein is the covenant of Jehovah, 
which he made with our fathers when he brought 
them out of the land of Egypt. Psal. cxlvii. 19, 20. 
he showeth his word unto Jacob, his statutes and his 
judgments unto Israel : he hath not dealt so with any 

* It cannot be unknown by what expressions the holy apostle St. Paul 
spares not to explain to us the nature and condition of the Jaw, calling 
those ordinances, which were the chief and essential office of the priests, 
the elements and rudiments of the world, both weak and beggarly. Reason 
of Church Government urged against Prelaty. Prose Works, I. 91. l St. 
Paul comprehends both kinds alike, that is to say, both ceremony and cir 
cumstance, under one and the same contemptuous name of weak and 
beggarly rudiment?. Treatise of Civil Power in Ecclesiastical Causes, 
IV. 338. 


nation, and as for his judgments, they have not known 
them. This wall of partition between the Gentiles 
and Israelites was at length broken down by the 
death of Christ, Eph. ii. 14 until which time the 
Gentiles were aliens from the whole of the covenant, 
v. 12. * being aliens from the commonwealth of Israel. 
Acts xiv. 16, 17. who in times past suffered all 
nations to walk in their own ways : nevertheless he 
left not himself without witness, &c. xvii. 27, 28, 30. 
i that they should seek the Lord, if haply they might 
feel after him, and find him, though he be not far from 

every one of us the times of this ignorance God 

winked at. 

With a promise of life; namely, temporal life, as is 
obvious from the whole of the twenty-sixth chapter of 
Leviticus. Lev. xviii. 5. ye shall keep my statutes, 
which if a man do, he shall live in them. Deut. vi. 25. 
it shall be our righteousness, if we observe to do all 
these commandments before Jehovah our God, as he 
hath commanded us. Gal. iii. 12. the law is not of 
faith; but the man that doeth them shall live in 
them. Though the law, however, does not promise 
eternal life, this latter seems to be implied in the lan 
guage of the prophets. Zech. iii. 7. I will give thee 
places to walk among these that stand by. Luke x. 
25 28. See also below, on the resurrection. 

A curse on such as should be disobedient. Deut. 
xxvii. 26. cursed be he that confirmeth not all the 
words of this law to do them, Gal. iii. 10. as many 
as are of the works of the law are under the curse ; 
for it is written, Cursed is every one that continueth 
not in all things which are written in the law to do 


Acknowledging the depravity. Rom. iii. 20. by the 
law is the knowledge of sin. iv. 15. the law work- 
eth wrath. v. 20. moreover the law entered, that 
the offence might abound ; but where sin abounded, 
grace did much more abound. vii. 5. when we were 
in the flesh, the motions of sin \vhich were by the 
law did work in our members to bring forth fruit unto 
death. v. 7 9. I had not known sin, but by the 
law : but sin taking occasion by the commandment, 
wrought in me all manner of concupiscence. v. 12, 
13. wherefore the law is holy, and the command 
ment holy, and just, and good : was then that which 
is good made death unto me ? God forbid : but sin, 
that it might appear sin, working death in me by that 
which is good ; that sin by the commandment might 
become exceeding sinful. Gal. iii. 19. wherefore 
then serveth the law ? it was added because of trans 
gressions, till the seed should come to whom the 
promise was made. Hence to those who are not yet 
regenerate, the law of nature has the same obligatory 
force, and is intended to serve the same purposes, as 
the law of Moses to the Israelites. Rom. iii. 19. we 
know that whatsoever things the law saith, it saith to 
them that were under the law, that every mouth may 
be stopped, and all the world may become guilty be 
fore God, compared with i 19. that which may be 
known of God is manifest in them, for God hath 
showed it them. 

The righteousness of the promised Saviour. Hence 
Christ s invitation, Matt. xi. 28. come unto me, all 
ye that labour, and are heavy laden, and I will give 
you rest ; that is, from the curse of the law. Hence 
also the conflict in the mind of Paul while under the 


curse of the law, and the thanks which he renders to 
God for the atonement of Christ ; Rom. vii. 24, 25. 
* O wretched man that I am, who shall deliver me 
from the body of this death? x. 4. Christ is the 
end of the law for righteousness to every one that 
believeth. Gal. iii. 11. * that no man is justified by 
the law in the sight of God, it is evident, for the just 
shall live by faith. v. 13. Christ hath redeemed us 
from the curse of the law. v. 21. if there had been 
a law given which could have given life, verily right 
eousness should have been by the law r . v. 22. * but 
the Scripture hath concluded all under sin, that the 
promise by faith of Jesus Christ might be given to 
them that believe ; concluded, that is, declared all 
guilty of sin. v. 24. wherefore the law was our 
schoolmaster to bring us unto Christ, that we might 
be justified by faith. 2 Cor. iii. 6. the letter killeth, 
that is, the letter of the law (elsewhere called the 
elements) killeth, in other words, does not promise 
eternal life. Col. ii. 14. blotting out the hand -writ 
ing of ordinances that was against us, which was con 
trary to us. Thus the imperfection of the law was 
manifested in the person of Moses himself; for Moses, 
who was a type of the law, could not bring the chil 
dren of Israel into the land of Canaan, that is, into 
eternal rest; but an entrance was given to them 
under Joshua, or Jesus.* Hence Peter testifies that 

.... Therefore shall not Moses, though of God 
Highly belov d, being but the minister 
Of law, his people into Canaan lead ; 
But Joshua, whom the Gentiles Jesus call, 
His name and office bearing, who shall quell 
The adversary serpent, and bring back 
Through the world s wilderness long-wander d man 
Safe to eternal Paradise of rest. Paradise Lost, XII. 307. 
VOL. JI. 11 


eternal salvation was through Christ alone under the 
law, equally as under the gospel, although he was not 
then revealed: Acts xv. 10, 11. why tempt ye God, 
to put a yoke upon the neck of the disciples, which 
neither our fathers nor we were able to bear ? but we 
believe that through the grace of the Lord Jesus 
Christ we shall be saved, even as they. Heb. xiii. 8. 
Jesus Christ the same yesterday, and to-day, and for 
ever. For although, under the law, as many as were 
able to keep all the commandments were justified, the 
promise extended only to happiness in this life : 
Deut. vi. 24, 25. Jehovah commanded us to do all 
these statutes, to fear Jehovah our God, for our good 

always, that he might preserve us alive, &c and 

it shall be our righteousness if we observe to do all 
these commandments. But what neither the law 
itself nor the observers of the law could attain, faith 
in God through Christ has attained, and that even to 
eternal life. 



THE Gospel is the new dispensation of the covenant 
of grace, far more excellent and perfect than the law, 
announced first obscurely by Moses and the prophets, 
afterwards in the clearest terms by Christ himself, and 
his apostles and evangelists,* written since by the Holy 
Spirit in the hearts of believers,^ and ordained to 
continue even to the end of the world, containing a 
promise of eternal life to all in all nations who shall 
believe in Christ when revealed to them, and a threat 
of eternal death to such as shall not believe. 

The new dispensation. Jer. xxxi. 31 33, com 
pared with Heb. viii. 8, 9. * I will make a new cov 
enant with the house of Israel, and with the house of 
Judah, not according to the covenant that I made with 

* Thy great Deliverer, who shall braise 

The Serpent s head ; whereof to thee anon 

Plainlier shall be reveal d. Paradise Lost, XII. 149- 

The Woman s seed, obscurely then foretold, 

Now amplier known thy Saviour and thy Lord. Ibid. 543. 

t He to his own a Comforter shall send, 
The promise of the Father, who shall dwell 
His Spirit within them, and the law of faith 
Working through love, upon their hearts shall write. Ibid. 486. 


their fathers. It is called < the new testament. Matt, 
xxvi. 28. Mark xiv. 24. Luke xxii, 20. 1 Cor. 
xi. 25. 2 Cor. iii. 6. But the word S/aOiw, in the 
Hebrew fVl3, is generally used by the inspired 
writers for c-uvOijj% covenant, and is rendered in Latin 
by the word pactum, 2 Cor. iii. 14. Ga/. iv. 24. 
veteris pacti* The Gospel is only once called testa 
ment in a proper sense, for a particular reason which 
is there subjoined. Heb. ix. 15, 16, &c. for this 
cause he is the mediator of the new testament, that 
by means of death for the redemption of the trans^ 
gressions that were under the first testament, they 
which are called might receive the promise of eternal 
inheritance ; for where a testament is, there must also 
of necessity be the death of the testator. 

More excellent and perfect than the law. Matt. 
xiii. 17. many prophets and righteous men have de 
sired to see those things which ye see, and have not 
seen them, and to hear those things which ye hear, and 
have not heard them. 2 Cor. iii. 11, &c. if that 
which was done away was glorious, much more that 
which reinameth is glorious. Seeing then that we 
have such hope, we use great plainness of speech ; and 
not as Moses . Heb. vii. 1820,22. * the law- 
made nothing perfect, but the bringing in of a better 
hope did, by the which we draw nigh unto God : and 
inasmuch as not without an oath he was made priest ; 
for those priests were made without an oath, but this 

with an oath by so much was Jesus made a surety 

of a better covenant. viii. 6, &c. i by how much more 
also he is the mediator of a better covenant, which 

* Beza s Translation. Testamentum vetus. Tremellius. Vtlzris ies a- 
menti. Vulgate. 


was established upon better promises, &c I will 

put my laws into their mind. James i. 25. whoso 
looketh into the perfect law of liberty, and continueth 
therein, he being not a forgetful hearer, but a doer of 
the work, this man shall be blessed in his deed. 1 
Pet. i. 10, &c. of which salvation the prophets have 
inquired and searched diligently, who prophesied of 

the grace that should come unto you with the Holy 

Ghost sent down from heaven ; which things the an 
gels desire to look into. The Gospel is also called 
1 the ministry and word of reconciliation, 2 Cor. 
v. 18, 19. whereas on the contrary the law worketh 
wrath. Rom. iv. 15. 

By Moses and the prophets. John v. 39. l they are 
they which testify of me. v. 46. had ye believed 
Moses, ye would have believed me, for he wrote of 
me ; namely Gen. iii. 15. xxii. 18. xlix. 10. Deut. 
xviii. 15. Luke xxiv. 27. * beginning at Moses and 
all the prophets, he expounded unto them in all the 
scriptures the things concerning himself. Acts xvii. 
11. searching the scriptures daily, whether those 
things were so. xxvi. 22, 23. saying none other 
things than those which the prophets and Moses did 
say should come. Rom. iii. 21. being witnessed by 
the law and the prophets. 1 Pet. i. 10. who prophe 
sied of the grace which should come unto you. 

Written in the hearts of believers. Isai. lix. 21 . as 
for me, this is my covenant with them, saith Jehovah ; 
My Spirit which is upon thee, and my words which 
I have put in thy mouth, shall not depart out of thy 
mouth, nor out of the mouth of thy seed, nor out of 
the mouth of thy seed s seed, saith Jehovah, from 
henceforth and for ever. Jer. xxxi. 31 33. behold 


ttie days come bat this shall be the covenant that 

I will make with the house of Israel ; After those 
days, saith Jehovah, (a declaration particularly wor 
thy of attention, as it specifies in what respect the 
new covenant is more excellent than the old) I will 
put my law in their inward parts, and write it in their 
hearts , compared with Heb. viii. 10, &c. this is 

the covenant I will put my laws into their mind..*. 

and I will be to them a God, and they shall be to me 
a people. Joel ii. 28. * it shall come to pass afterward, 
that I will pour out my Spirit upon all flesh.... and 
also upon the servants and upon the handmaids in 
those days will I pour out my Spirit. To these may 
be added, from the chapter of Jeremiah quoted above, 
v. 34. they shall all know me, from the least of them 
unto the greatest of them. Joel ii. 28. your sons 
and your daughters shall prophesy, your old men shall 
dream dreams, your young men shall see visions. 
Compare Acts ii. 16 18. For although all real be 
lievers have not the gift of prophecy, the Holy Spirit 
is to them an equivalent and substitute for prophecy, 
dreams, and visions. 2 Cor. iii. 3. ye are manifestly 
declared to be the epistle of Christ ministered by us, 
written not with ink, but with the Spirit of the living 
God, not in tables of stone, but in fleshy tables of the 
heart. v. 6. ministers of the new testament, not of 
the letter, but of the spirit ; for the letter killeth, but 
the spirit giveth life. James i. 21. receive with 
meekness the engrafted word, which is able to save 
your souls. 

By the Holy Spirit, the gift of God, and peculiar 
to the gospel. John vii. 39. the Holy Ghost was not 
yet given, because that Jesus was not yet glorified. 


xiv. 26. the Comforter, which is the Holy Ghost, 
whom the Father will send in my name, he shall teach 
you all things. See also Luke xii. 12. Acts i. 8. ye 
shall receive power after that the Holy Ghost is come 
upon you. See also ii. 1, &c. v. 38. repent, &c. 

and ye shall receive the gift of the Holy Ghost . 

Rom. v. 5. * by the Holy Ghost which is given unto 
us. 1 Cor. ii. 13. in words which the Holy Ghost 
teacheth. 2 Cor. xiii. 14. the communion of the 
Holy Ghost. 1 Thess. iv. 8. who hath also given 
unto us his Holy Spirit. See also Rom. viii. 9. 1 
Cor. xii. 3. 1 Pet. i. 12. 1 John iv. 13. 

Ordained to continue even to the end of the world. 
2 Cor. iii. 11. much more that which remaineth is 

glorious. Eph. iv. 13. till we all come unto a 

perfect man, unto the measure of the stature of the 
fulness of Christ. 

A promise of eternal life. Mark xvi. 15, 16. go 

ye into all the world, and preach the gospel he that 

believeth and is baptized shall be saved. Rom. i. 16. 
the power of God unto salvation. 

To all who shall believe. John iii. 15, 16. whoso 
ever believeth in him, &c. Rom. i. 16, 17. to every 
one that believeth. 1 John ii. 25. this is the prom 
ise that he hath promised us, even eternal life. Sec 
other passages to the same effect above, in the chap 
ter on faith and its objects. Under the name of 
believers the penitent are comprehended, inasmuch as 
in the original annunciation of the gospel repentance 
and faith are jointly proposed as conditions of salva 
tion. Matt. iii. 1, &c. iv. 17. Mark i. 15. Luke xxiv. 
M. Acts ii. 39 11. x. 35. he that feareth him and 

Worketh righteousness, is accepted of him. xix. 3, 
4. xx. 21. and elsewhere. 

A threat of eternal death to such as shall not be 
lieve. Matt, x, 14, 15. * whosoever shall not receive 
you nor hear your words, when ye depart out of that 
city, shake off the dust of your feet : verily I say 
unto you, It shall be more tolerable for the land of 
Sodom . xxi. 37, &c. he sent unto them his son.... 
but when the husbandmen saw the son, they said. ..let 
us kill him.... they say unto him, He will miserably 
destroy those wicked men. Mark xvi. 16. he that 
believeth not shall be damned. John iii. 19. this is 
the condemnation, that light is come into the world, 
and men loved darkness rather than light Acts iii. 
23. every soul which will not hear that prophet, 
shall be destroyed from among the people. >2 Thess. 
i. 8, 9. taking vengeance on them that know not 
God, and that obey not the gospel. Heb. x. 26, &c. 
* if we sin wilfully after that we have received the 
knowledge of the truth, there remaineth no more 
sacrifice for sins, but a certain fearful looking for of 
judgment. By unbelievers, however, those only can 
be meant to whom Christ has been announced in the 
gospel ; for how shall they believe in him of whom 
they have not heard ? Rom. x. 14. 

In all nations. Matt. xxiv. 14. this gospel of the 
kingdom shall be preached in all the world, for a wit 
ness unto all nations, and then shall the end come. 
Mark xvi. 15. to every creature. Johnx. 16. other 
sheep I have, which are not of this fold. ActsiL. 34. 
35. of a truth I perceive that God is no respecter of 
persons; but in every nation he that feareth him. 


and worketh righteousness, is accepted of him. Rom. 
x. 18. their sound went into all the earth, and their 
words unto the ends of the world. This was pre 
dicted, Isai. ii. 2, &c. it shall come to pass in the 
last days, &c. See also Mic. iv. 1. Isai. xix. 18, &c, 
in that day shall five cities in the land of Egypt 
speak the language of Canaan, &c. xxv. 6, &c. unto 
all people. xlii. 4, &c. the isles shall wait for his 
law. xlv. 22, 23. look unto me, and be ye saved, 
all the ends of the earth. Iv. 4, 5. a witness to the 
people, &c. Ivi. 3, &c. neither let the son of the 
stranger speak, saying, Jehovah hath utterly sepa 
rated me from his people. Ixvi. 21. I will also take 
of them for priests and Levites, saith Jehovah. Jer. 
iii. 17. * all the nations shall be gathered unto it. 
xxv. 8, &c. because ye have not heard my words, 
behold, I will send and take all the families of the 
north . Hagg. ii. 7. the desire of all nations shall 
come. Zech. viii. 20. there shall come people, and 
the inhabitants of many cities. 

On the introduction of the gospel, or new covenant 
through faith in Christ, the whole of the preceding 
covenant, in other w r ords the entire Mosaic law, was 
abolished. Jer. xxxi. 31 33. as above. Luke xvi. 
16. the la\v and the prophets were until John. Acts 
xv. 10. now therefore why tempt ye God, to put a 
yoke upon the neck of the disciples, which neither 
our fathers nor we were able to bear ? Rom. iii. 21. 
now the righteousness of God without the law is 
manifested. vi. 14. ye are not under the law, but 
under grace. vii. 4. ye also are become dead to the 
law by the body of Christ, that ye should be married 
to another, even to him that is raised from the dead, 

VOL. ii. 12 


that we should bring forth fruit unto God. v. 6. now 
we are delivered from the law, that being dead wherein 
we were held, that we should serve in newness of 
spirit, and not in the oldness of the letter. In the 
beginning of the same chapter the apostle illustrates 
our emancipation from the law by the instance of a 
wife who is loosed from her husband that is dead. v. 
7. I had not known sin but by the law (that is, the 
whole law, for the expression is unlimited) for I had 
not known lust, except the law had said, Thou shalt 
not covet. It is in the decalogue that the injunction 
here specified is contained ; we are therefore absolved 
from subjection to the decalogue as fully as to the rest 
of the law.* viii. 15. ye have not received the spirit 
of bondage again to fear. xiv. 20. 4 all things in-- 
deed are pure, compared with Tit. i. 15. unto the 
pure all things are pure ; but unto them that are de 
filed and unbelieving is nothing pure, but even their 
mind and conscience is defiled. 1 Cor. vi. 12. all 
things are lawful to me, but all things are not expedi 
ent ; all things are lawful for me, but I will not be 
brought under the power of any. x. 23. all things 
are lawful for me, but all things are not expedient ; 
all things are lawful for me, but all things edify not. 
2 Cor. iii. 3. * not in tables of stone, but in fleshy 
tables of the heart. v. 6 8. ministers of the new 
testament, not of the letter, but of the spirit ; for the 

* This opinion, that it was inconsistent with the liberty of the gospel to 
consider the decalogue as a law binding on Christians, is probably the 
reason why Milton forbears to mention it, where Michael describes to 
Adam the civil and ritual commandments delivered to the Jews. The 
omission is too remarkable net to have been designed, considering the 
noble opportunity which would have been afforded for enlarging on its 
moral precepts. See Paradise, Lost. XII. 230 248. 


letter killeth, but the spirit giveth life : but if the min 
istration of death, written and engraven in stones, 

was glorious how shall not the ministration of the 

spirit be rather glorious ? v. 1 1 . if that which was 
done away was glorious, much more that which re- 
maineth is glorious. v. 15. the children of Israel 
could not stedfastly look to the end of that which is 
abolished. 7 v. 17. if any man be in Christ, he is a 
new creature ; old things are passed away ; behold, 
all things are become new. Gal. iii. 19. wherefore 
then serveth the law ? it was added because of 
transgressions, till the seed should come, to whom the 
promise was made. v. 25. after that faith is come, 
we are no longer under a schoolmaster. iv. 1, &c. 
the heir, as long as he is a child, differeth nothing 

from a servant until the time appointed of the 

father : even so we, when we were children, were in 
bondage under the elements of the world ; but when 
the fulness of the time was come, God sent forth his 
Son, made of a woman, made under the law, to re 
deem them that were under the law, that we might 
receive the adoption of sons. Compare also v. 21, 
addressed to those who desired to be under the law ; 
and v. 24, of Hagar and Sarah, these are the two 
covenants : the one from the mount Sinai, which gen- 

dereth to bondage, which is Agar but Jerusalem 

which is above, v. 26. is free : hence v. 30. cast 
out the bondwoman and her son ; for the son of the 
bondwoman shall not be heir with the son of the free- 
woman. v. 18. if ye be led of the Spirit, ye are not 
under the law. Eph. ii. 14, 15. who hath broken 
down the middle wall of partition between us, having 
abolished in his flesh the enmity, even the law of 


commandments contained in ordinances. Now not 
only the ceremonial code, but the whole positive law 
of Moses, was a law of commandments and contained 
in ordinances ; nor was it the ceremonial law which 
formed the sole ground of distinction between the 
Jews and Gentiles, as Zanchius on this passage con 
tends, but the whole law ; seeing that the Gentiles, v. 
12, were aliens from the commonwealth of Israel, and 
strangers from the covenant of promise, which prom 
ise was made to the works of the whole law, not to 
those of the ceremonial alone ; nor was it to these 
latter only, that the enmity between God and us was 
owing, v. 16. So Coloss. ii. 14 17. blotting out 
the hand-writing of ordinances that was against us 

he took it out of the way, &c. Heb. vii. 12, 15, 

16. the priesthood being changed, there is made of 

necessity a change also in the law there ariseth 

another priest, who is made not after the law of a 
carnal commandment. v. 18. there is verily a disan 
nulling of the commandment going before, (that is, of 
the commandment of works) for the weakness and 
unprofitableness thereof. viii. 13. in that he saith, a 
new covenant, he hath made the first old ; now that 
which decayeth and waxeth old, is ready to vanish 
away. xii. 18, &c. * ye are not come unto the mount 
that might be touched, and that burned with fire, nor 
unto blackness, and darkness, and tempest, and the 
sound of a trumpet, and the voice of words ; which 
voice they that heard entreated that the word should 

not be spoken to them any more but ye are come 

unto mount Sion and to Jesus the mediator of the 

new covenant. 

It is generally replied, that all these passages are to 
be understood only of the abolition of the ceremonial 
law. This is refuted, first, by the definition of the 
law itself, as given in the preceding chapter, in which 
are specified all the various reasons for its enactment : 
if therefore, of the causes which led to the enactment 
of the law considered as a whole, every one is revoked 
or obsolete, it follows that the whole law itself must 
be annulled also. The principal reasons then which 
are given for the enactment of the law are as follows ; 
that it might call forth and develope our natural de 
pravity ;* that by this means it might work wrath ; 
that it might impress us with a slavish fear through 
consciousness of divine enmity, and of the hand-writ 
ing of accusation that was against us ; that it might 
be a schoolmaster to bring us to the righteousness of 
Christ ; and others of a similar description. Now the 
texts quoted above prove clearly, both that all these 
causes are now abrogated, and that they have not the 
least connexion with the ceremonial law. 

First then, the law is abolished principally on the 
ground of its being a law of works ; that it might 
give place to the law of grace. Rom. iii. 27. by what 
law ? of works ? nay, but by the law of faith. xi. 6. 
if by grace, then is it no more of works ; otherwise 
grace is no more grace. Now the law of works was 
not solely the ceremonial law, but the whole law. 

Secondly, iv. 15. the law worketh wrath; for 
where no law is, there is no transgression. It is not 
however a part, but the whole of the law that work- 

* Therefore was law giv n them to evince 

Their natural pravity, by stirring up 

Sin against law to fight. Paradise Lost, XII. 287. 


eth wrath ; inasmuch as the transgression is of the 
whole, and not of a part only. Seeing then that the 
law worketh wrath, but the gospel grace, and that 
wrath is incompatible with grace, it is obvious that 
the law cannot co-exist with the gospel. 

Thirdly, the law of which it was written, the 
man that doeth them shall live in them, Gal. iii. 12. 
Lev. xviii. 5. and, 6 cursed is every one that continu- 
eth not in all things which are written in the book of 
the law to do them, Deut. xxvii. 26. Gal. iii. 10. was 
the whole law. From the curse of this law 
>,. Christ hath redeemed us, v. 13. inasmuch as we were 
unable to fulfil it ourselves. Now to fulfil the cere 
monial law could not have been a matter of difficulty ; 
it must therefore have been the entire Mosaic law 
from which Christ delivered us. Again, as it was 
against those who did not fulfil the whole law that 
the curse was denounced, it follows that Christ could 
*V * not have redeemed us from that curse, unless he had 
* abrogated the whole law ; if therefore he abrogated 
the whole, no part of it can be now binding upon us. 

Fourthly, we are taught, 2 Cor. iii. 7. that the law 
4 written and engraven in stones was the ministra 
tion of death, and therefore was done away. Now 
the law engraven in stones was not the ceremonial 
law, but the decalogue. 

Fifthly, that which was, as just stated, a law of 
sin and death, (of sin, because it is a provocative to 
sin ; of death, because it produces death, and is in 
opposition to the law of the spirit of life,) is certainly 
not the ceremonial law alone, but the whole law. But 
the law to which the above description applies, is 
abolished ; Rom. viii. 2. the law of the spirit of life 


in Christ Jesus hath made me free from the law of 
sin and death. 

Sixthly, it was undoubtedly not by the ceremonial 
law alone that the motions of sin which were by the 
law, wrought in our members to bring forth fruit unto 
death, Rom. vii. 5. But of the law which thus 
operated it is^said that we are become dead thereto, 
v. 4. and that being dead wherein we were held, v. 
6. we are delivered from it, as a wife is free from 
the law of her husband who is dead, v. 3. We are 
therefore < delivered, v. 6. not from the ceremonial 
law alone, but from the whole law of Moses. 

Seventhly, all believers, inasmuch as they are jus 
tified by God through faith, are undoubtedly to be 
accounted righteous ; but Paul expressly asserts that 
4 the law is not made for a righteous man, 1 Tim. i. 
9. Gal. v. 22, 23. If however any law were to be 
made for the righteous, it must needs be a law which 
should justify. Now the ceremonial law alone 
was so far from justifying, that even the entire Mo 
saic law had not power to effect this, as has been 
already shown in treating of justification : Gal. iii. 
11, &c. therefore it must be the whole law, and not 
the ceremonial part alone, which is abrogated by rea 
son of its inability in this respect. 

To these considerations we may add, that that law 
which not only cannot justify, but is the source of 
trouble and subversion to believers ; which even 
tempts God if we endeavour to perform its requisi 
tions ; which has no promise attached to it, or, to 
speak more properly, which takes away and frustrates 
all promises, whether of inheritance, or adoption, or 
grace, or of the Spirit itself; nay, which even sub- 


jects us to a curse ; must necessarily have been abol 
ished. If then it can be shown that the above effects 
result, not from the ceremonial law alone, but from 
the whole law, that is to say, the law of works in a 
comprehensive sense, it will follow that the whole 
law is abolished ; and that they do so result, I shall 
proceed to show from the clearest passages of Scrip 
ture. With regard to the first point, Acts xv. 24. i we 
have heard that certain which went out from us have 
troubled you with words, subverting your souls, say 
ing, Ye must be circumcised, and keep the law. v. 10. 
why tempt ye God, to put a yoke upon the neck of 
the disciples ? Certain of the Pharisees which believ 
ed, said that * it was needful for them to keep the 
whole law, 5 v. 5. when therefore Peter in opposition 
to this doctrine contends, that the yoke of the law 
ought to be removed from the necks of the disciples, 
it is clear that he must mean the whole law. Sec 
ondly, that the law r which had not the promise was 
not the ceremonial law only, but the whole law, is 
clear from the consideration, that it would be suffi 
cient if one part had the promise, although the other 
were without it ; whereas the law which is so often 
the subject of discussion with Paul has no promise 
attached to either of its branches. Rom. iv. 13, 16. 
the promise that he should be the heir of the world, 
was not to Abraham, or to his seed through the law, 
but through the righteousness of faith. Gal. iii. 18. 
4 if the inheritance be of the law, it is no more of 
promise ; but God gave it to Abraham by promise ; 
and therefore not by the law, or any part of it ; whence 
Paul shows that either the whole law, or the promise 
itself, must of necessity be abolished, Rom. iv. 14. 


4 if they which are of the law be heirs, faith is madt 
void, and the promise is made of none effect. Com 
pare also Gal. iii. 18. as above. By the abolition of 
the promise, the inheritance and adoption are abolish 
ed ; fear and bondage, which are incompatible with 
adoption, are brought back, Rom. viii. 15. Gal. iv. 1, 
&c. v. 21, 24, 26, 30. as above ; union and fellow 
ship with Christ are dissolved, Gal. v. 4. Christ is 
become of no effect unto you, whosoever of you are 
justified by the law, whence follows the loss of glo 
rification ; nay, grace itself is abolished, unless the 
abolition of the law be an entire abolition : Gal. v. 4. 
4 whosoever of you are justified by the law, ye are 
fallen from grace, where by the word i law, is in 
tended the entire code, as appears not only from the 
preceding verse, * he is a debtor to do the whole law, 
but from other considerations ; finally, the Spirit it 
self is excluded; Gal. v. 18. 4 if ye be led of the 
Spirit, ye are not under the law; therefore, vice versa, 
if ye be under the law, ye are not led of the Spirit. 
We are consequently left under the curse : Gal. iii. 
10. * as many as are of the works of the law, are under 
the curse ; for it is written, Cursed is every one that 
continueth not in all things which are written in the 
book of the law, to do them ; therefore all things 
which are written in the law, and not the things of 
the ceremonial law alone, render us obnoxious to the 
curse. Christ therefore, when he redeemed us from 
the curse, v. 13. redeemed us also from the causes 
of the curse, namely, the works of the law, or, which 
is the same, from the whole law of works ; which, 
as has been shown above, is not the ceremonial part 
alone. Even supposing, however, that no such con- 
VOL. n. 1.8 


sequences followed, there could be but little induce 
ment to observe the conditions of a law which has 
not the promise ; it would be even ridiculous to at 
tempt to observe that which is of no avail unless it be 
fulfilled in every part, and which nevertheless it is 
impossible for man so to fulfil ; especially as it has been 
superseded by the more excellent law of faith, which 
God in Christ has given us both will and power to 

It appears therefore as well from the evidence of 
Scripture, as from the arguments above adduced, that 
the whole of the Mosaic law is abolished by the gos 
pel. It is to be observed, however, that the sum and 
essence of the law is not hereby abrogated ; ItiTpur- 
pose being attained in that love of God and our neigh 
bour, which is born of the Spirit through faith. It 
was with justice therefore that Christ asserted the 
permanence of the law, Matt. v. 17. * think not that 
I am come to destroy the law, or the prophets ; I am 
not come to destroy, but to fulfil. Rom. iii. 31. do 
we then make void the law through faith ? God for 
bid : yea, we establish the law. viii. 4. that the 
righteousness of the law might be fulfilled in us, who 
walk not after the flesh, but after the Spirit. 

9 peace 

Of conscience, which the law by ceremonies 

Cannot appease, nor man the moral part 

Perform, and, not performing, cannot live. 

So law appears imperfect, and but giv n 

With purpose to resign them, in full time, 

Up to a better cov nant, disciplined 

From shadowy types to truth, from flesh to spirit, 

From imposition of strict laws to free 

Acceptance of hrje grace, from servile fear 

To filial, works of law to works of faith. Paradise Lost, XII. 


The common objection to this doctrine is anticipat 
ed by Paul himself, who expressly teaches that by 
this abrogation of the law, sin, if not taken away, is 
at least weakened rather than increased in power : 
Rom. vi. 14, 15. sin shall not have dominion over 
you ; for ye are not under the law, but under grace : 
what then ? shall we sin, because we are not under 
the law, but under grace? God forbid. Therefore, 
as was said above, the end for which the law was 
instituted, namely, the love of God and our neighbour, 
is by no means to be considered as abolished : it is the 
tablet of the law, so to speak, that is alone changed, 
its injunctions being now written by the Spirit in the 
hearts of believers ; with this difference, that in cer 
tain precepts the Spirit appears to be at variance with 
the letter, namely, wherever by departing from the 
letter we can more effectually consult the love of God 
and our neighbour. Thus Christ departed from the 
letter of the law, Mark ii. 27. the sabbath was made 
for man, and not man for the sabbath, if we compare 
his words with the fourth commandment. Paul did 
the same in declaring that a marriage with an unbe 
liever was not to be dissolved, contrary to the express 
injunction of the law ; 1 Cor. vii. 12. to the rest 
speak I, not the Lord. In the interpretation of these 
two commandments, of the sabbath and marriage, a 
regard to the law of love is declared to be better than 
a compliance with the whole written law ; a rule 
which applies equally to every other instance. Matt. 
xxii. 37 40. < on these two commandments (namely, 
the love of God and our neighbour) hang all the law 
and the prophets. Now neither of these is propound 
ed in express terms among the ten commandments. 


the former occurring for the first time Deut. vi. 5. the 
latter, Lev. xix. 18. and yet these two precepts are 
represented as comprehending emphatically, not only 
the ten commandments, but the whole law and the 
prophets. Matt. vii. 12. * all things whatsoever ye 
would that men should do unto you, do ye even so to 
them ; for this is the law and the prophets. Rom. 
xiii. 8, 10. he that loveth another hath fulfilled the 
law ; love is the fulfilling of the law. Gal. v. 14. all 
the law is fulfilled in one word, even in this, Thou 
shalt love thy neighbour as thyself. 1 Tim. i. 5. 
4 the end of the commandment is charity out of a 
pure heart, and of a good conscience, and of faith 
unfeigned. If this is the end of the Mosaic com 
mandment, much more is it the end of the evangelic. 
James ii. 8. if ye fulfil the royal law according to 
the scripture, Thou shalt love thy neighbour as thy 
self, thou shalt do well. Hence all rational interpre 
ters have explained the precepts of Christ, in his ser 
mon on the mount, not according to the letter, but in 
the spirit of the law of love. So also that of Paul, 1 
Cor. xi. 4. every man praying or prophesying, hav 
ing his head covered, dishonoureth his head ; a text 
which will come under consideration in Book II. 
(-hap. iv. on the outward deportment befitting prayer. 
Hence it is said, Rom. iv. 15. where no law is, 
there is no transgression ; that is, no transgression in 
disregarding the letter of the law, provided that under 
the direction of the Spirit the end of the institution 
be attained in the love of God and our neighbour. 

On the united authority of so many passages of 
Scripture, I conceived that I had satisfactorily estab 
lished the truth in question against the whole body of 


theologians, who, so far as my knowledge then extend 
ed, concurred in denying the abrogation of the entire 
Mosaic law. I have since however discovered, that 
Zanchius, in his commentary on the second chapter 
of Ephesians, declares himself of the same opinion,* 
remarking, very justly, that no inconsiderable part 
of divinity depends on the right explanation of this 
question ; and that it is impossible to comprehend the 
Scriptures properly, especially those parts which relate 
to justification and good works, (he might have ad 
ded, the whole of the New Testament) unless the 
subject of the abrogation of the law be thoroughly 
understood. He proves his point with sufficient 
accuracy, but neglects to follow up his conclusions ; 
losing himself in a multitude of minute exceptions, 
and apparently fluctuating between the two opinions, 
so as to leave the reader, if not extremely attentive, 
in a state of uncertainty. I have also observed that 
Cameron somewhere expresses the same opinion re 
specting the abolition of the whole law .* 

It is asserted, however, by divines in general, who 
still maintain the tenet of the converted Pharisees, 
that it is needful for those who are under the gospel 

* * These authorities, without long search, I had to produce But God 

(I solemnly attest him) withheld from my knowledge the consenting judg 
ment of these men so late, until they could not be my instructor?, but only 
ny unexpected witnesses to partial men . Ttlrachordon. Prose Works, 
II. 237. 

t Cameron appears to have been a favourite author with Milton. He 
elsewhere calls him 4 a late writer much applauded, and characterizes an 
observation which he makes on Matt. xix. 3. as 4 acute and learned. Ttlra- 
chordon. Prose Works, II. 174. Mr. Todd also, in noticing that Cameron 
was one of the few contemporary authors whom Milton has mentioned in 
terms of respect, quotes another passage in praise of him from the treatise 
cited above, where he is spoken of as c an ingenious writer, and in higb 
esteem. Tetrachordon, U. 210. Life of Milton, p. 153. 

to observe the law (a doctrine which in the infancy 
of the church was productive of much mischief) that 
the law may be highly useful, in various ways, even 
to us who are Christians ; inasmuch as we are thereby 
led to a truer conviction of sin, and consequently to a 
more thankful acceptance of grace, as well as to a more 
perfect knowledge of the will of God. With regard 
to the first point, I reply, that I am not speaking of 
sinners, who stand in need of a preliminary impulse 
to come to Christ, but of such as are already believers, 
and consequently in the most intimate union with 
Christ ; as to the second, the will of God is best 
learnt from the gospel itself under the promised guid 
ance of the Spirit of truth, and from the divine law 
written in the hearts of believers. Besides, if the 
law be the means of leading us to a conviction of sin 
and an acceptance of the grace of Christ, this is 
effected by a knowledge of the law itself, not by the 
performance of its works ; inasmuch as through the 
works of the law, instead of drawing nearer to Christ, 
we depart farther from him ; as Scripture is perpetu 
ally inculcating. 

In the next place a distinction is made ; and Pola- 
nus in particular observes, that when it is said that 
w r e are not under the law, it is not meant that we are 
not under an obligation to obey it, but that we are 
exempt from the curse and restraint of the law, as 
well as from the provocation to sin which results 
from it. * If this be the case, what advantage do 
believers reap from the gospel ? since even under the 

* l Non esse sub lege, non est, non teneri obedientia legis, sed liberura 
esse a maledictiooe, et coaciione legis, et peccati irritatione. Polani 
Syntagm. Theol. lib. vi. cap. 10. De Lege Dei. 


law they at least were exempted from the curse and 
provocation to sin : and since to be free from the 
restraint of the law can mean nothing but that for 
which I contend, an entire exemption from the obli 
gation of the law. For as long as the law exists, 
it constrains, because it is a law of bondage ; con 
straint and bondage being as inseparable from the 
dispensation of the law, as liberty, from the dispensa 
tion of the gospel ; of which shortly. 

Polanus contends, on Gal. iv. 4, 5. to redeem 
them that were under the law, that when Chris 
tians are said to be redeemed from subjection to the 
law, and to be no longer under the law, this is 
not to be taken in an absolute sense, as if they 
owed no more obedience to it. What then do the 
words imply ? They signify, that Christians are no 
longer under the necessity of perfectly fulfilling the 
law of God in this life, inasmuch as Christ has ful 
filled it for them. 5 That this is contrary to the truth, 
is too obvious not to be acknowledged. So far from 
a less degree of perfection being exacted from Chris 
tians, it is expected of them that they should be 
more perfect than those who were under the law ; as 
the whole tenor of Christ s precepts evinces. The 
only difference is, that Moses imposed the letter, or 
external law, even on those who were not willing to 
receive it ; whereas Christ writes the inward law of 
God by his Spirit on the hearts of believers,* and 

* what the Spirit within 

Shall on the heart engrave. Paradise Lost, XII. 523. 

4 The state of religion under the gospel is far differing from what it was 
under the law; then was the state of rigour, childhood, bondage, and 
works, to all which force was not unbefitting; now is the state of grace, 


leads them as willing followers. Under the law, those 
who trusted in God were justified by faith indeed, but 
not without the works of the law ; Rom. iv. 12. the 
father of circumcision to them who are not of the 
circumcision only, but who also walk in the steps of 
that faith of our Father Abraham, which he had being 
jet uncircumcised. 5 The gospel, on the contrary, 
justifies by faith without the works of the law. 
Wherefore, we being freed from the works of the law, 
no longer follow the letter, but the spirit ; doing the 
works of faith, not of the law. Neither is it said to 
us, whatever is not of the law is sin, but, whatever is 
not of faith is sin ; faith consequently, and not the 
law, is our rule. It follows, therefore, that as faith 
cannot be made matter of compulsion, so neither can 
the works of faith.* See more on this subject in the 
fifteenth chapter, on Christ s kingly office, and on the 
inward spiritual law by which he governs the church. 
Compare also Book II. chap. i. where the form of 
good works is considered. 

From the abrogation, through the gospel, of the law 
of servitude, results Christian liberty ; though liberty, 
strictly speaking, is the peculiar fruit of adoption, and 
consequently was not unknown during the time of 
the law, as observed in the twenty-third chapter. In- 

manhood, freedom, and faith, to all which belongs willingness and reason, 
not force : the law was then written on tables of stone, and to be perform 
ed according to the letter, willingly or unwillingly; the gospel, our new 
covenant, upon the heart of every believer, to be interpreted only by the 
sense of charity and inward persuasion. Treatise of Civil Power in Eccle 
siastical Causes. Prose Works, III. 335. 

* Surely force cannot work persuasion, which is faith ; cannot there 
fore justify or pacify the conscience : and that which justifies not in the 
gospel, condemns ; is not only not good, but sinful to do: Rom. xiv. 23. 
whatsoever is not of faith, is sin. Ibid. Prosq Works, III. 342. 


asmuoh, however, as it was not possible for our liberty 
either to be perfected or made fully manifest till the 
coming of Christ our deliverer, liberty must be con 
sidered as belonging in an especial manner to the gos 
pel, and as consorting therewith :* first, because truth 
is principally known by the gospel,! John i. 17. 
1 grace and truth came by Jesus Christ, and truth has 
an essential connexion with liberty ; viii. 31, 32. if 
ye continue in my word, then are ye my disciples in 
deed ; and ye shall know the truth, and the truth 
shall make you free. v. 36. if the Son therefore 
shall make you free, ye shall be free indeed. Second 
ly, because the peculiar gift of the gospel is the 
Spirit ; but where the Spirit of the Lord is, there is 
liberty. 2 Cor. iii. 17. 

Christian liberty is that whereby we are loosed as 
it were by enfranchisement, through Christ our deliv 
erer, from the bondage of sin, and consequently from 
the rule of the law and of man ; to the intent that 
being made sons instead of servants, and perfect men 
instead of children, ive may serve God in love through 
the guidance of the Spirit of truth. Gal. v. 1 . < stand 
fast therefore in the liberty wherewith Christ hath 
made us free ; and be not entangled again with the 
yoke of bondage. Rom. viii. 2. the law of the 
Spirit of life in Christ Jesus hath made me free from 
the law of sin and death. v. 15. ye have not receiv 
ed the spirit of bondage again to fear ; but ye have 

* what will they then 

But force the Spirit of grace itself, and bind 
His consort Liberty? Paradise Lost, XII. 524. 

t c In respect of that verity and freedom which is evangelical, St. Paul 
comprehends both ends alike, &c. v2 Treatise of Civil Power, &c. Prcse 
Works, IV. 338. 

VOL. IT. 14 


received the Spirit of adoption, whereby we cry, 
Abba, Father. Gal. iv. 7. wherefore thou art no 
more a servant, but a son. Heb. ii. 15. that he 
might deliver them who through fear of death were 
all their lifetime subject to bondage. 1 Cor. vii. 23. 
* ye are bought with a price ; be not ye the servants 
of men. James i. 25. whoso looketh into the per 
fect law of liberty, and continueth therein. ii. 12. so 
speak ye, and so do, as they that shall be judged by 
the law of liberty. 

That we may serve God. Matt. xi. 29, 30. take 

my yoke upon you for my yoke is easy, and my 

burden is light, compared w r ith 1 John v. 3 5. this 
is the love of God, that we keep his commandments, 
and his commandments are not grievous. Rom. vi. 1 8. 
being then made free from sin, ye became the ser 
vants of righteousness. v. 22. now being made free 
from sin, and become servants to God, ye have your 
fruit unto holiness. vii. 6. * now we are delivered 
from the law, that being dead wherein we were held, 
that we should serve in newness of spirit, and not in 
the oldness of the letter. xii. 1, 2. present your 

bodies a reasonable service ; and be not conformed 

to this world ; but be ye transformed by the renewing 
of your mind, that ye may prove what is that good 
and acceptable and perfect will of God. James i. 
25. whoso looketh into the perfect law of liberty, 
and continueth therein, he being not a forgetful hearer, 
but a doer of the work, this man shall be blessed in 
his deed. 1 Pet. ii. 16. as free, and not using 
your liberty for a cloke of maliciousness, but as the 
servants of God. Hence we are freed from the yoke 
of human judgments, much more of civil decrees and 



penalties in religious matters. Rom. xiv. 4. who art 
thou that judgest another man s servant ? to his own 
master he standeth or falleth. v. 8. whether we live 
or die, we are the Lord s. Matt. vii. 1. judge not, 
that ye be not judged. Rom. xiv. 10. why dost 
thou judge thy brother? or why dost thou set at 
nought thy brother ? for we shall all stand before the 
judgment-seat of Christ. If we are forbidden to 
judge (or condemn) our brethren respecting matters of 
religion or conscience in common discourse, how 
much more in a court of law, which has confessedly 
no jurisdiction here ; since Paul refers all such matters 
to the judgment-seat of Christ, not of man ? James ii. 
12. so speak ye, and so do, as they that shall be 
judged by the law of liberty ; namely, by God, not 
by fallible men in things appertaining to religion ; 
wherein if he will judge us according to the law of 
liberty, why should man prejudge us according to the 
law of bondage ? 

By the guidance of the Spirit of truth in love. 
Rom. xiv. throughout the whole of the chapter ; and 
chap. xv. 1 15. In these chapters Paul lays dow T n 
two especial cautions to be observed ; first, that what 
ever we do in pursuance of this our liberty, we should 
do it in full assurance of faith, nothing doubting that 
it is permitted us.* v. 5. 4 let every man be fully per 
suaded in his own mind. v. 23. 4 whatever is not of 
faith, is sin. Secondly, that we should give no just 
cause of offence to a weak brother, v. 20, 21. for 

In religion whatever we do under the gospel, we ought to be thereof 
persuaded without scruple ; and are justified by the faith we have, not by 
the work we do : Rom. xiv. 5. l let every man be fully persuaded in his own 
mmd. A Treatise of Ciril Poiver, &c. Frose Works, III. 341. 


meat destroy not the work of God : all things indeed 
are pare, but it is evil for that man who eateth W 7 ith 
offence. 1 Cor. viii. 13. if meat make my brother 
to offend, I will eat no flesh while the world standeth, 
lest I make my brother to offend ; which resolution, 
however, must be considered as an effect of the extra 
ordinary love which the apostle bore his brethren, 
rather than a religious obligation binding on every 
believer to abstain from flesh for ever, in case a weak 
brother should think vegetable food alone lawful, ix. 
19 22. though I be free from all men, yet have I 
made myself servant unto all, that I might gain the 
more; unto the Jews I became as a Jew. them 
that are under the law, as under the law.... to them 
that are without law, as without law T ; being not with 
out law to God, but under the law to the 
weak became I as weak.... I am made all things to all 
men. x. 23. all things are lawful for me, but all 
things are not expedient. Gal. v. 13. for, brethren, 
ye have been called unto liberty ; only use not liberty 
for an occasion to the flesh ; but by love serve one 
another. 2 Pet. ii. 19. w T hile they promise them 
selves liberty, they themselves are the servants of cor 
ruption. 1 Cor. viii. 9. take heed lest by any means 
this liberty of yours become a stumbling-block to 
them that are weak. 

This appears to have been the sole motive for the 
command given to the churches, Acts xv. 28, 29. * to 
abstain from blood, and from things strangled ; 
namely, lest the Jews who were not yet sufficiently 
established in the faith should take offence. For that 
the abstinence from blood was purely ceremonial, is 
evident from the reason assigned Lev. xvii. 11. * the 


life of the flesh is in the blood, and I have given it 
to you upon the altar to make an atonement for your 
souls. Thus the eating of fat was forbidden by the 
law, vii. 23, &c. yet no one infers from hence that 
the use of fat is unlawful, this prohibition applying 
only to the sacrificial times : Acts x. 13, &c. 

No regard, however, is to be paid to the scruples 
of the malicious or obstinate. Gal. ii. 4, 5. and that 
because of false brethren unawares brought in, who 
came in privily to spy out our liberty which we have 
in Christ Jesus, that they might bring us into bondage ; 
to whom we gave place by subjection, no, not for an 
hour ; that the truth of the gospel might continue with 
you. 1 Cor. xiv. 38. if any man be ignorant, let him 
be ignorant. Christ was not deterred by the fear of 
giving offence to the Pharisees, from defending the 
practice of his disciples in eating bread with unwashen 
hands, Matt. xv. 2, 3. and plucking the ears of corn, 
which it was considered unlawful to do on the sab 
bath-day, Luke vi. 1, fcc. Nor would he have suf 
fered a woman of condition to anoint his feet with 
precious ointment, and to wipe them with her hair, 
still less would he have vindicated and praised the 
action, John xii. 3, &c. neither would he have availed 
himself of the good offices and kindness of the women 
who ministered unto him, whithersoever he went, if it 
were necessary on all occasions to satisfy the unrea 
sonable scruples of malicious or envious persons. 
Nay, we must withstand the opinions of the brethren 
themselves, if they are influenced by motives unwor 
thy of the gospel. Gal ii. 11, &c. < when Peter was 
come to Antioch, I withstood him to the face, because 
he was to be blamed. Nor ought the weak believer 


to judge rashly of the liberty of a Christian brother 
whose faith is stronger than his own, but rather to 
give himself up to be instructed with the more willing 
ness. Rom. xiv. 13. let us not therefore judge one 
another any more. 

Neither this reason, therefore, nor a pretended con 
sideration for the weaker brethren, afford a sufficient 
warrant for those edicts of the magistrate which con 
strain believers, or deprive them in any respect of their 
religious liberty.* For so the apostle argues 1 Cor. 
ix. 19. though I be free from all men, yet have I 
made myself servant unto all ; I was not made so by 
others, but became so of my own accord ;f * free 
from all men, and consequently from the magistrate 
in these matters at least. When the magistrate takes 
away this liberty, he takes away the gospel itself; he 
deprives the good and the bad indiscriminately of their 
privilege of free judgment, contrary to the spirit of 
the well known precept, Matt. xiii. 29, 30. < lest while 
ye gather up the tares ye root up also the wheat with 
them : let both grow together until the harvest. ! 

* I have shown that the civil power hath neither right, nor can do 
right, by forcing religious things : I will now show the wrong it doth, by 
violating the fundamental principle of the gospel, the new birthright of 
every true believer, Christian liberty. A Treatise of Civil Power, c. 
Prose Works, III. 337. * Liberty, which is inseparable from Christian 
religion. Ibid. 352. 

t l None more cautious of giving scandal than St. Paul. Yet while he 
made himself servant to all, that he might gain the more, he made himself 
so of his own accord, was not made so by outward force, testifying at 
the same time that he was free from all wen. Ibid. III. 342. 

t On earth 

Who against faith and conscience can be heard 
Infallible ? Paradise Lost, XII. 528. 

; Seeing then that in matters of religion, as hath been proved, none can 


jud;e or determine here on earth, no not church-governors themselves 
against the consciences of other believers, my inference is, or rather not 
mine, but our Saviour s own, that in those matters they neither can com 
mand or use constraint, lest they run rashly on a pernicious consequence, 
forewarned in that parable, Matt. xiii. from the 29th to the 31st verse, lest 
while ye gather up the tares ye roo/ up also the wheat with them : let both 
grow together until the harvest ; and in the time of harvest I will say to 
the reapers, Gather ye together first the tares &c. Jl Treatise of Civil 
Power, &c. III. 323. 




THE manifestation of the covenant of grace, under the 
law and the gospel respectively, has been considered ; 
we are now to speak of the sealing of that covenant, 
or rather of its representation under certain outward 

This representation, like the covenant itself and its 
manifestation, is common both to the law and the gos 
pel : under the former it consisted in Circumcision and 
the Passover ; under the latter it consists in Baptism 
and the Supper of the Lord. These ceremonies, par 
ticularly the two latter, are generally known by the 
name of Sacraments. 

A Sacrament is a visible sign ordained by God, 
whereby he sets his seal on believers in token of his 
saving grace, or of the satisfaction of Christ ; and 
whereby we on our part testify our faith and obedi 
ence to God with a sincere heart and a grateful re 

Respecting circumcision, compare Gen. xvii. 1 0, &c. 
c this is my covenant which ye shall keep between me 


and you, and thy seed after thee ; every man child 
among you shall be circumcised ; and ye shall circum 
cise the flesh of your foreskin ; and it shall be a token 
of the covenant between me and you. Rom. iv, 1 1, 12. 
he received the sign of circumcision, a seal of the 
righteousness of faith which he had yet being uncir- 
cumcised ; that he might be the father of all them 
that believe, though they be not circumcised, that 
righteousness might be imputed unto them also ; and 
the father of circumcision to them who are not of the 
circumcision only, but who also walk in the steps of 
that faith of our father Abraham, which he had being 
yet uncircumcised Deut. x. 16. circumcise the fore 
skin of your heart, and be no more stiff-necked. xxx. 
6. Jehovah thy God will circumcise thine heart, and 
the heart of thy seed, to love Jehovah thy God . 
Jer. iv. 4. circumcise yourselves to Jehovah, and 
take away the foreskins of your heart. Sometimes, 
by a similar figure, it signifies sanctification even 
under the gospel. Col. ii. 11, in whom also ye are 
circumcised with the circumcision made without 
hands, in putting off the body of the sins of the flesh 
by the circumcision of Christ. 

Subsequently, however, to the giving of the law 
circumcision seems to have typified the covenant of 
works. Rom. iv. 12. the father of circumcision to 
them who are not of the circumcision only. ii. 25. 
4 for circumcision verily profiteth, if thou keep the law; 
but if thou be a breaker of the law, thy circumcision 
is made uncircumcision. Gal. v. 3. I testify again to 
every man that is circumcised, that he is a debtor to 
do the whole law. Hence it is said to have been 
given by Moses, John vii. 22, 23. 

VOL. n. 15 


Respecting the passover, compare Exod. xli. 3, &<% 
in the tenth day of this month they shall take to them 
every man a lamb, according to the house of their 
fathers, a lamb for an house, &c. v. 13. * the blood 
shall be to you for a token upon the houses where ye 
are, and when I see the blood I will pass over you, 
and the plague shall not be upon you to destroy you, 
when I smite the land of Egypt. v. 15. seven days 
shall ye eat unleavened bread ; even the first day ye 
shall put away leaven out of your houses. 

The passover typified the sacrifice of Christ, and 
the efficacy of the sprinkling of his blood for the sal 
vation of such as celebrated the feast with purity of 
heart. John i. 29. John seeth Jesus coming unto 
him, and saith, Behold the Lamb of God, which 
taketh away the sin of the world, xix. 36. these 
things were done that the scripture should be fulfilled, 
A bone of him shall not be broken. 1 Cor. v. 7. 
purge out therefore the old leaven, that ye may be 
a new lump, as ye are unleavened : for even Christ 
our passover is sacrificed for us. 

Under the gospel, the first of the sacraments com 
monly so called is baptism, wherein the bodies of 
believers ivho engage themselves to pureness of life 
are immersed in running water* to signify their re~ 

* In proflucntem aquam. By the admission of this word into the defi- 
uilion, it is evident that Milton attributed some importance to this circum 
stance, probably considering that the superior purity of running water was 
peculiarly typical of the thing signified. Hence it appears that the same 
epithet employed in Paradise Lost, in a passage very similar to the present,- 
i? not merely a pcetical ornament. 

Them who shall believe 

Baptizing in the profluent stream, the sign, 
Of washing them from guilt of sin, to life. 


generation by the Holy Spirit, and their union with 
Christ in his death, burial, and resurrection. 

Of believers. Matt, xxviii. 19. teach all nations, 
baptizing them . Mark xvi. 15, 16. < preach the gos 
pel he that believeth and is baptized, shall be sa\cd. ! 

Acts viii. 36, 37. what doth hinder me to be bap 
tized ? if them believest with all thine heart, thou 

mayest. Eph. v. 26. that he might cleanse it with 
the .washing of water by the word. 1 Pet. iii. 21. 
4 the like figure whereunto even baptism doth also now 
save us (not the putting away of the filth of the flesh, 
but the answer of a good conscience towards God) 
by the, resurrection of Jesus Christ. 

Hence it follows that infants are not to be baptized, 
inasmuch as they are incompetent to receive instruc 
tion, or to believe, or to enter into a covenant, or to 
promise or answer for themselves, or even to hear the 

word. For how can infants, who understand not the 

/? * 
word, be purified thereby ; any more than adults canr /r- 

receive edification by hearing an unknown language ? < 
For it is not that outward baptism, which purifies * 
only the filth of the flesh, that saves us, but the an 
swer of a good conscience, as Peter testifies ; of 
which infants are incapable.* Besides, baptism is 
not merely a covenant, containing a certain stipula- 

Pure, and in mind prepared, if so befal, 

For death, like that which the Redeemer died. XII. 441. 

Tertullian concludes differently, arguing that any water which can be con 
veniently procured, is sufficient for the spirit of the ordinance. c Nulla 
distinctio est inari quis an stagno, flumine an fonte, lacu an alveo diluatnr ; 
nee quidquam refert inter eos quos Joannes in Jordana, et quos Petrus in 
Tiberi tinxit ; nisi et ille spado quern Philippus inter vias fortuita aqua 
tinxit, plus salutis aut minus retulit. De Baptismo, IV. 

* For an answer to this see Wall s Df.fcnce of his History of Infant 
Baptism, p. 243. and Whitby on Matt. iii. 16. 


tion on one side, with a corresponding engagement on 
the other, which in the case of an infant is impossible ; 
but it is also a vow, and as such can neither be pro 
nounced by infants, nor required of them. See Book 
II. Chap. iv. under the head of vows. 

It is remarkable to what futile arguments those 
divines have recourse, who maintain the contrary 
opinion. They allege, Matt. xix. 14. suffer little chil 
dren, and forbid them not to come unto me, for of such 
is the kingdom of heaven.* It appears however that 
they were not brought to him for the purpose of being 
baptized ; v. 13. then were there brought unto him 
little children, that he should put his hands on them 
and pray ; neither did Christ baptize them, but only 
put his hands on them, v. 15. Mark x. 16. * he took 
them up in his arms, put his hands upon them, and 
blessed them. Seeing then that they were neither 
brought to Christ to be baptized, nor, when received, 
were actually baptized by him, it is impossible to 
admit the sophistical inference, that they were prop 
erly qualified for baptism ; or, which is still more 
difficult to conceive, that not little children merely, 
but infants, are so qualified. For if competent to be 
baptized, they are competent on the same grounds to 
be partakers of the Lord s Supper. Let the church 
therefore receive infants which come unto her, after 
the example of Christ, with imposition of hands and 
benediction, but not with baptism. Again, they re 
mind us, that of such is the kingdom of heaven. Is 
this to be understood of all without distinction, or 
only of such as shall subsequently believe? How per- 

t See Beveridge on the Ticenly-seventh Article. 


fleetly soever God may know them that are his, the 
church does not know them ; what they are in the 
sight of God is one thing, and what they are by 
church privilege is another. It must mean, therefore, 
of such in respect of simplicity and innocence ; 
whereas neither simplicity nor innocence, all hough 
they may be predicated of little children, can pro 
perly be attributed to infants, who have not as yet 
the faculty of reason : neither does it follow, that 
because any one is an inheritor of the kingdom of 
heaven, he is therefore admissible to every religious 
sacrament ; or that, because he is included in the cov 
enant, he has therefore the right of participating in 
such signs and seals of that covenant as demand the 
exercise of mature faith and reason. For the thing 
signified in the Supper of the Lord appertains no less 
to infants than the thing signified in baptism ; and yet 
infants are not admitted to the former rite, although 
they were admitted to the passover, which held the 
same place in the former dispensation as the Lord s 
Supper in the present. Hence, by the way, we may 
perceive how weak it is to reason as follows : baptism 
has succeeded to circumcision ; but infants were cir 
cumcised, therefore infants are to be baptized : seeing 
that it is equally certain that the Lord s Supper has 
succeeded to the passover, notwithstanding which, 
infants, who were admitted to the latter rite, are not 
admitted to the former. 

They argue, again, that as it is said we were all 
baptized unto Moses in the cloud and in the sea, 
1 Cor. x. 2. 4 infants must be included in the general 
expression. 1 answer, that i all did eat the same 
spiritual meat, and did all drink the same spiritual 


drink, iii. 4. yet that infants are not on this ground 
admitted to partake of the Lord s Supper. 

They lay much stress likewise on Gen. xvii. 7. 4 I 
will establish my covenant between me and thee and 

thy seed after thee in their generations. No one, 

however, will seriously affirm that this is to be under 
stood of infants, and not of the adult posterity of 
Abraham in their generations, that is, successively. 
Otherwise, we must suppose that God intended to 
give the land also to infants, v. 8. and that infants are 
commanded to keep the covenant, v. 9. Again, Acts 
11. 39. the promise is unto you and to your children, 
and to all that are afar off, even as many as the Lord 
our God shall call. Your children, that is, as they 
understand it, your infants : in other words, God calls 
those who cannot understand, and addresses those 
who cannot hear ; an interpretation which can only 
have proceeded from the infancy of reasoning. Had 
these commentators but read two verses farther, they 
would have found it expressly stated, they that glad 
ly received his word were baptized ; whence it 
appears that understanding and will were necessary 
qualifications for baptism, neither of which are pos 
sessed by infants. So also Acts viii. 37. if thoube- 
iievest with all thine heart, thou mayest be baptized ; 
whereas infants, so far from believing with all their 
heart, are incapable of even the slightest degree of 
faith. With regard, however, to the text on which 
they insist so much, the promise is unto you and to 
your children, if they had attended sufficiently to 
Paul s interpretation of this passage, Rom. ix. 7, 8. 
they would have understood that the promise was not 
to all seed indiscriminately, seeing that it was not 


evetito the seed of Abraham according to the flesh/ 
but only to the children of God, that is, to believ 
ers, who alone under the gospel are the children of 
the promise, and are counted for the seed. But 
none can be considered by the church as believers, till 
they have professed their belief. To those therefore 
to whom it does not appear that the promise was ever 
made, the church cannot with propriety give the seal 
of the promise in baptism. 

Again, they allege, the analogy between baptism and 
circumcision, which latter was performed on infants.* 
Coloss. ii. 11. in whom also ye are circumcised with 
the circumcision made without hands, in putting off 
the body of the sins of the flesh by the circumcision 
of Christ ; buried with him in baptism . In the 
first place, there is no other analogy between being 
circumcised and being buried with him in baptism, 
than that which exists among all sacraments by which 
the same thing is signified, the mode of signification 
being different. But, secondly, why is it necessary 
that things which are analogous should coincide in all 
points ? Of circumcision, for instance, women were 
not partakers ; in baptism they are equally included 
with men, whether as being a more perfect sign, or a 
symbol of more perfect things. For circumcision, 
although a seal of the righteousness of faith, Rom. 
iv. 11, 12. was such only to Abraham, who being 
uncircumcised had already believed, and to others 
who should believe in like manner ; not to his pos 
terity, who in after times were circumcised before 
they were of an age to exercise faith, and who, con- 

* See Wall on Infant Baptism. Part II. Chap- x. Sect. 1. Bps. Burnet, 
Beveridge, and Tomlinc on ike. Twenty-seventh Artir.h. 


sequently, could not believe in the uncireumcision. 
To them it was a seal in the flesh, indistinctly and 
obscurely given, of that grace which was at some dis 
tant period to be revealed ; whereas baptism is a seal 
of grace already revealed, of the remission of sins, of 
sanctification ; finally, a sign of our death and resur 
rection with Christ. Circumcision w r as given under 
the law and the sacrifices, and bound the individual to 
the observance of the whole law, (Gal. v. 3.) which 
was a service of bondage, and a schoolmaster to bring 
its followers to Christ ; through baptism, on the other 
hand, we are initiated into the gospel, which is a rea 
sonable, manly, and in the highest sense free service. 
For under the law men were not merely born, but 
grew up infants in a spiritual sense ;* under the gos 
pel, in baptism, we are born men. Hence baptism 
requires, as from adults, the previous conditions of 
knowledge and faith ; whereas in circumcision all con 
ditions are omitted, as unnecessary in the case of ser 
vants, and impracticable in that of infants. Lastly, 
circumcision was performed not by the priests and 
Levites, but by the master of a family, Gen. xvii. by 
the mother, Exod. iv. 26. or by any other person, a 
surgical operator for instance ; whereas baptism, ac 
cording to our opponents themselves, can only be 
administered by a teacher of the gospel ; and even 
those who hold a wider opinion on the subject, allow 
that it can only be performed by a believer, and by 
one who is neither a new convert, nor unlearned in 
the faith. To what purpose is this, unless that the 
person to be baptized may be previously instructed in 

* 4 They will be always learnine and never knowing 1 ; always infants. 
The likeliest Means to remove Hireling*, &c. Prose Works, III. 391. 


the doctrines of the gospel ? which in the case of an 
infant is impossible. There is therefore no necessary 
analogy between circumcision and baptism ; and it is 
our duty not to build our belief on vague parallels, but 
to attend exclusively to the institution of the sacra 
ment itself, and regard its authority as paramount, 
according to the frequent admonition of our opponents 

They contend, however, that circumcision was the 
seal of the righteousness of faith, Rom. iv. 11, 12. 
notwithstanding which infants were circumcised, who 
were incapable of belief.* I answer, as above, that it 
was indeed the seal of the righteousness of faith, but 
only to Abraham, and to such as after his example 
believed being yet uncircumcised; in the case of in 
fants it was a thing of entirely different import, name 
ly, an outward and merely national consecration to 
the external service of God, and, by implication, to 
the Mosaic form of worship, which was in due time 
to be ordained. 

Lastly, it is urged that the apostles baptized whole 
families, and consequently infants among the rest.f 
The weakness of this argument is clearly shown by 
Acts viii. 12. < when they believed they were bap 
tized, both men and women, infants not being in 
cluded, xvi. 3134. < believe on the Lord Jesus 
Christ, and thou shalt be saved, and thy house : and 
they spake unto him the word of the Lord, and to all 

that were in his house : and he took them and was 

baptized, he and all his, straightway.. .and he rejoiced, 
believing in God with all his house. Here the ex- 

* See Bps. Beveridje and Burnet on the Twenty-sertnth Article. 
t See Bp. Tomline on the Twenty-seventh Article. 
VOL. II. Ifi 


pression alt his house obviously comprehends only 
those who believed in his house, not infants ; therefore 
those alone unto whom they spake the word of the 
Lord, and who believed, were baptized. The same 
is evident from chap. xi. 17. 4 forasmuch then as God 
gave them the like gift as he did unto us who be 
lieve . xviii. 8. Crispus... .believed on the Lord 
with all his house : and many of the Corinthians hear 
ing believed, and were baptized. Even the baptism 
of John, which was but the prelude to that of Christ, 
is called the baptism of repentance, 5 Mark i. 4. and 
those who came to it 4 were baptized, confessing their 
sins, Matt. iii. 6. whereas infants are incapable 
either of repentance or confession. If then infants 
were not meet for the baptism of John, how can they 
be meet for the baptism of Christ, which requires 
knowledge, repentance, and faith, before it can be 

Immersion* It is in vain alleged by those who, on 
the authority of Mark vii. 4. Luke xi. 38.* have in 
troduced the practice of affusion in baptism instead of 
immersion, that to dip and to sprinkle mean the same 
thing ; since in washing we do not sprinkle the hands, 
but immerse them. 

To signify their regeneration. John iii. 5. except 
a man be born of water and of the Spirit, he cannot 
enter into the kingdom of God ; that is, if the omis 
sion proceed from neglect. Acts xxii. 1 6. why tar- 
riest thou ? arise and be baptized, and wash away thy 
sins, calling on the name of the Lord. 1 Cor. vi. 11. 
* but ye are washed, but ye are sanctified, but ye are 

* See Wall on Infant Baptism, Part II. Chap. viii. Vol. II. p. 300. and 
Defence, &c. Vol. III. p. 106133. 


justified in the name of the Lord Jesus, and by the 
Spirit of our God. Eph, v. 26. that he might sanc 
tify and cleanse it with the washing of water by the 
word. Tit. iii. 5. by the washing of regenera 

Union with Christ in his death ,, &c. 1 Cor. xii. 
13. by one Spirit are we all baptized into one body. 
Gal. iii. 27. as many of you as have been baptized 
into Christ have put on Christ. Rom. vi. 3. 4 know 
ye not that so many of us as were baptized into Jesus 
Christ were baptized into his death ? therefore we are 
buried with him by baptism into death. Coloss. ii. 
12. buried with him in baptism. Hence it appears 
that baptism was intended to represent figuratively the 
painful life of Christ, his death and burial, in which 
he was immersed, as it were, for a season : Mark x. 
38. i can ye be baptized with the baptism that I am 
baptized with ? Compare also Luke xii. 50. Respect 
ing the administration of baptism, see Chap. xxix. on 
the visible church, and Chap. xxxi. on particular 

The baptism of John was essentially the same as 
the baptism of Christ ; but it differed in the form of 
words used in its administration, and in the compara 
tive remoteness of its efficacy. If it had not been 
really the same, it would follow that w r e had not un 
dergone the same baptism as Christ, that our baptism 
had not been sanctified by the person of Christ, that 
Christ had not fulfilled all righteousness, Matt. iii. 15. 
finally, that the apostles would have needed to be 
rebaptized, which we do not read to have been the 
case. In some respects, however, there was a differ 
ence : for although both baptisms were from God, 


Luke iii. 2, 3. vii. 29, 30. and both required repent 
ance and faith, Acts xix. 4, 5. these requisites were 
less clearly propounded in the one case than in the 
other, and the faith required in the former instance 
was an imperfect faith, founded on a partial mani 
festation of Christ; in the latter, it was faith in a 
fully revealed Saviour. The baptism of Christ was 
also administered with a more solemn form of words, 
in the name of the Father, and of the Son, and of the 
Holy Ghost, (although it is nowhere said that this 
form was ever expressly used by the apostles) and at 
tended, as above observed, with a more immediate 
efficacy ; inasmuch as the baptism of John was with 
water only, Matt. iii. 11. John i. 33. Acts i. 5. xix. 2* 
except in the single instance of Christ, the design of 
which exception was not to prove the virtue of John s 
baptism, but to bear testimony to the Son of God. 
Hence the apostles did not receive the Holy Ghost till 
a much later period, Acts i. 5. and the Ephesians, 
who had been baptized with the baptism of John, 
4 had not so much as heard whether there was any 
Holy Ghost, xix. 1, 2. whereas the baptism of Christ, 
which was with water and the Spirit, conferred the 
gifts of the Spirit from the very beginning. 

It is usually replied, that in the plices where the 
baptism of John is said to be with water only, it is 
not intended to oppose the baptism of John to baptism 
with water and the Spirit, but to distinguish between 
the part which Christ acts in baptism, and that of the 
mere minister of the rite. If however this were true, 
the same distinction would be made with respect to 
other ministers of baptism, the apostles for instance ; 
which is not the case : on the contrary , it is abun- 


dantly evident that the apostles baptized both with 
water and the Holy Spirit. 

Considering, therefore, that the baptism of John 
either did not confer the gifts of the Spirit at all, or 
not immediately, it would appear to have been rather 
a kind of initiatory measure, or purification prepara 
tory to receiving the doctrine of the gospel, in conform 
ity with the ancient Hebrew custom that all proselytes 
should be baptized, than an absolute sealing of the 
covenant ; for this latter is the province of the Spirit 
alone ; 1 Cor. xii. 13. 

Hence it appears that the baptism of Christ, although 
not indispensable, might without impropriety be super- 
added to the baptism of John. Acts xix. 5. when 
they heard this, they were baptized in the name of 
the Lord Jesus ; those, namely, who had been already 
baptized by John, v. 3. I have said, not indispens 
able, inasmuch as the apostles and many others appear 
to have rested in the baptism of John ; according to 
which analogy, I should be inclined to conclude, that 
those persons who have been baptized while yet in 
fants, and perhaps in other respects irregularly, have 
no need of second baptism, when arrived at maturity : 
indeed, 1 should be disposed to consider baptism itself 
as necessary for proselytes alone, and not for those born 
in the church, had not the apostle taught that baptism 
is not merely an initiatory rite, but a figurative repre 
sentation of our death, burial and resurrection with 

Previously to the promulgation of the Mosaic law, 
Noah s ark was the type of baptism: 1 Pet. iii. 20, 21. 

f while the ark was a preparing, &c the like figure 

whereunto even baptism doth also now save us . 

Under the law it was typified by the cloud. 1 Cor. x. 2. 
5 all our fathers were baptized unto Moses in the cloud 
and in the sea. 

The Lord/s Supper is a solemnity in which the 
death of Christ is commemorated by the breaking of 
bread and pouring out of wine, both of which ele 
ments are tasted by each individual communicant, and 
the benefits of his death thereby sealed to believers. 
Matt, xx vi. 26 29. as they were eating, Jesus took 
bread, and blessed it, and brake it, and gave it to the 
disciples, and said, Take, eat, this is my body ; and 
he took the cup, and gave thanks, and gave it to them, 
saying, Drink ye all of it : for this is my blood of the 
new testament, which is shed for many for the remis 
sion of sins I will not drink henceforth of this fruit 

of the vine until that day, &c...See also Mark xiv. 22 
25. Luke xxii. 19,20. he took bread, and gave 
thanks, and brake it, and gave unto them, saying, 
This is my body which is given for you ; this do in 
remembrance of me : likewise also the cup after sup 
per, saying, This cup is the new testament in my 
blood, which is shed for you. John vi. 33. the bread 
of God is he which cometh down from heaven, and 
giveth life unto the world. v. 35. 1 1 am the bread of 
life ; he that cometh to me shall never hunger, and he 
that believeth on me shall never thirst. v. 50, 51. 
i this is the bread which cometh down from heaven, 
that a man may eat thereof, and not die : I am the 
living bread which came down from heaven : if any 
man eat of this bread he shall live for ever : and the 
bread that I give is my flesh, which I will give for 
the life of the world. v. 53 58. c he that eateth my 
flesh and drink eth my blood, dwelleth in me, and I in 


him : as the living Father hath sent me, and I live by 
the Father, so he that eateth me, even he shall live by 
me. v. 63. i it is the Spirit that quickeneth, the flesh 
profiteth nothing ; the words that I speak unto you, 
they are spirit, and they are life. It is true that this 
chapter of John does not relate exclusively to the 
Lord s Supper, but to the participation in general, 
through faith, of any of the benefits of Christ s incar 
nation : for what is called so repeatedly, v. 50, &c. 
4 eating the flesh of Christ and drinking his blood, 
is described in v. 35. as coming to Christ and be 
lieving in him ; in the same manner as the phrase in 
chap. iv. 10, 14. c that living water, of which whoso 
ever drinketh he shall never thirst, cannot be referred 
in a primary sense either to baptism, or to the Lord s 
Supper, but must be considered as an expression 
purely metaphorical. Nevertheless the words of 
Christ to his disciples in this chapter throw a strong 
light, by anticipation, on the nature of the sacrament 
which was to be so shortly afterwards instituted, (for 
4 the passover was nigh, v. 4.) They teach us, by 
an obvious inference, that flesh, or the mere bodily 
food received, has no more spiritual efficacy in the 
sacrament than it had in the miracle of the loaves 
there recorded ; and that the flesh which he verily 
and indeed gives is not that which can be eaten 
with the teeth, and by any one indiscriminately, 
but the food of faith alone ; a heavenly and spirit 
ual bread, which came down from heaven, not 
earthly, (as it must be, if we suppose that what he 
gave on that occasion, was his literal flesh born of the 
Virgin) but heavenly in a higher sense than manna 
itself, and of which he that eateth shall live for ever, 


v. 58. Were it, as the Papists hold, his literal flesh, 
and eaten by all in the Mass, the consequence would 
be that the very worst of the communicants (to say 
nothing of the mice and worms by which the eucha- 
rist is occasionally devoured) would through the 
virtue of this heavenly bread attain eternal life. That 
living bread therefore which Christ calls his flesh, 
and that blood which is drink indeed, can be nothing 
but the doctrine of Christ s having become man in 
order to shed his blood for us; a doctrine which who 
soever receives by faith, shall as surely attain eternal 
life, as the partaking of meats and drinks supports our 
brief term of bodily existence : nay, more surely ; for 
thus, as above quoted, Christ dwells in us, and we 
in him ; whereas the food which is received into the 
body does not dwell there, being carried off partly by 
natural transpiration,* and partly in other ways, as 
soon as the process of digestion is completed. 

This solemnity is called by Paul the Lord s Sup 
per, 1 Cor. xi. 20. and its original institution by 
Christ, together with an explanation of the rite, is 
given v. 23 30. < I have received of the Lord that 
which also I delivered unto you, that the Lord Jesus 
the same night in which he \vas betrayed took bread, 
and when he had given thanks, he brake it, and said, 
Take, eat ; this is my body which is broken for you : 
this do in remembrance of me : after the same man 
ner also he took the cup, when he had supped, saying, 
This cup is the new testament in my blood ; this do 

* with keen dispatch 

Of i>al hunger, and concoctive heat 

To tra -ub^taritiate ; what redounds, transpires 

Through spirits with ease. Paradise Lost, V. 436, 


ye, as oft as ye drink it, in remembrance of me : for 
as often as ye eat this bread, and drink this cup, ye do 
shew the Lord s death till he come. It is also inci 
dentally explained x. 16, 17, 21 the cup of blessing 
which we bless, is it not the communion of the blood 
of Christ ? the bread which we break, is it not the 
communion of the body of Christ ? for we being 
many are one bread, and one body ; for we are all 
partakers of that one bread. 

Under the law, the Lord s Supper was typified by 
the manna, and the water flowing from the rock. 1 
Cor. x. 3, 4. our fathers did all eat the same spiritual 
meat, and did all drink the same spiritual drink : for 
they drank of that spiritual rock that followed them, 
and that rock was Christ. If they under a carnal 
covenant partook spiritually of the body of Christ, 
surely we do not partake of it carnally under a spirit 
ual covenant. 

I have quoted the above passages at jength, inas 
much as iii them is comprised the whole Scripture 
doctrine relative to the Lord s Supper. Whosoever 
interprets these with true Christian simplicity of 
heart according to their plain and obvious meaning, 
will be at a loss to account for the numberless absurd 
speculations on this subject, by which the peace of the 
church has been destroyed, and which have well nigh 
converted the Supper of the Lord into a banquet of 

Consubstantiation,* and above all the papistical 
doctrine of trans instantiation (or rather anthropoph- 

1 The Lutheran holds consubstantiation ; an error indeed, but not 
mortal. Of true Religion, c. Prose Works, IV. 262. 

VOL. II. 17 


agy, for it deserves no better name) are irreconcilea- 
ble, not only with reason and common sense, and the 
habits of mankind, but with the testimony of Scrip 
ture, with the nature and end of a sacrament, with 
the analogy of baptism, with the ordinary forms of 
language, with the human nature of Christ, and final 
ly with the state of glory in which he is to remain till 
the day of judgment. 

In speaking of sacraments, as of most other subjects 
between whose parts an analogy exists, a figure is 
frequently employed, by which whatever illustrates or 
signifies any particular thing is used to denote, not 
what it is in itself, but what it illustrates or signifies. 
In sacraments, on account of the peculiarly close 
relation between the sign and the thing signified, this 
kind of identification is not uncommon ; an inatten 
tion to which peculiarity has been, and continues to 
be, a source of error to numbers. Thus circumcision 
is called a covenant, Gen. xvii. 10. and a token of 
the covenant, v. 11. Again, a lamb is called the 
passover, Exod. xii. 11. which text is defended 
against the exceptions of objectors by the similar pas 
sages, Luke xxii. 7. the passover must be killed. v. 
8. prepare us the passover. v. 11. where I shall 
eat the passover. v. 13. they made ready the pass- 
over. A similar expression occurs 2 Sam. xxiri. 17. 
4 is not this the blood of the men that went in jeopardy 
of their lives ? Accordingly, the same form of speech 
is used in regard to baptism : Eph. v. 26. that he 
might cleanse it with the washing of water by the 
word : Col. ii. 12. buried with him in baptism ; and 
to the Lord s Supper : Matt. xxvi. 26, 27. as they 
were eating, Jesus took bread, &c take, eat; 


this is my body. 3 Compare also Mark xiv. 23. and 
Luke xxii. 20. this cup is the new testament. See 
also 1 Cor. xi. 25. Again, 1 Cor. x. 4. 4 that rock 
was Christ. The object of the sacred writers, in 
thus expressing themselves, was probably to denote 
the close affinity between the sign and the thing sig 
nified, as well as, by a bold metaphor, to intimate the 
certainty with which the seal is thus set to spiritual 
blessings ; the same form of speech being used in 
other instances, where the certainty of a thing is to 
be emphatically expressed : Gen. xli. 27. the seven 
kine are seven years. Rev. i. 20. xvii. 9. the seven 
heads are seven mountains, and v. 12. the ten horns 
are ten kings. 

Lastly, since every sacrament is, by its very defini 
tion, a seal of the covenant of grace, it is evident that 
the Papists err, when they attribute to the outward 
sign the power of bestowing salvation or grace by 
virtue of the mere opus operatum ; seeing that sacra 
ments can neither impart salvation nor grace of them 
selves, but are given as a pledge or symbol to believ 
ers of the actual blessing. 1 Pet. iii. 21. not the 
putting away of the filth of the flesh, but the answer 
of a good conscience. 

Hence it follows, that sacraments are not absolutely 
indispensable : first, because many have been saved 
without partaking of them ; thus circumcision was 
dispensed with in the case of women, baptism in that 
of the thief on the cross, and doubtless of many 
infants and catechumens. Thus also many have ob 
tained the gifts of the Spirit through the word and 
faith alone. Acts x, 44, * the Holy Ghost fell on all 
them which heard the word. Nor was John himself, 


the first who administered the rite, baptized, although 
he testified that he also had need of baptism, Matt, 
iii. 14. The same was not improbably the case with 
Apollos, inasmuch as this latter does not appear to 
have left his native city of Alexandria for Ephesus till 
long after the death of John ; nor can it be inferred 
with certainty, from its being said of him that he 
knew only the baptism of John, that he had actually 
undergone the ceremony. Yet, as far as appears, 
Aquila and Priscilla considered a more thorough initi 
ation in the gospel all that was wanting to him, with 
out requiring that he should be baptized, Acts xviiL 
24 26. Secondly, the seal does not constitute the 
covenant, but is only an evidence of it ; whence 
Abraham, after that he had already believed and was 
justified, received circumcision as the seal of his 
righteousness. When therefore it is said John iii. 5. 
except a man be born of water and of the Spirit, 
he cannot enter into the kingdom of God, this must 
be understood in a conditional sense, assuming that a 
fit opportunity has been offered, and that it has not 
been lost through neglect. The same may be said of 
Eph. v. 26. that he might cleanse it with the wash 
ing of water by the word, and Tit. iii. 5. < by the 
washing of regeneration ; for the gospel is also call 
ed the power of God unto salvation, Rom. i. 16. 
and we are said to be born again by the word, 1 
Pet. i. 23, although those who die in infancy must 
either be regenerated by the Spirit alone, without any 
outward reception of the gospel or word, or they 
must perish altogether. In the same manner, he who 
believes only, drinks of that living water which is the 
blood of Christ, and eats of that heavenly bread 


which is the flesh of Christ, and has eternal life : 
John iv. and vi. as above. When therefore the neces 
sity of the sacraments is under discussion, it may in 
like manner be urged, that it is the Spirit which 
quickens, and that it is faith which feeds upon the 
body of Christ; that on the other hand the outward 
feeding of the body, as it cannot always take place 
conveniently, so neither is it absolutely necessary. 
Assuredly, if a sacrament be nothing more than what 
it is defined, a seal, or rather visible representation of 
God s benefits to us, he cannot be wrong, who reposes 
the same faith in God s promises without as with this 
confirmation, in cases where it is not possible for him 
to receive it duly and conveniently ; especially as so 
many opportunities are open to him through life of 
evincing his gratitude to God, and commemorating 
the death of Christ, though not in the precise mode 
and form which God has instituted. 

We no where read in Scripture of the Lord s Sup 
per being distributed to the first Christians by an 
appointed minister ; we are only told that they par 
took of it in common, and that frequently, and in 
private houses. Acts ii. 42. " they continued sted- 
fastly in the apostles doctrine and fellowship, and in 
breaking of bread, and in prayers. v. 46. i they con 
tinuing daily with one accord in the temple, and 
breaking bread from house to house, did eat their 
meat with gladness and singleness of heart. xx. 7. 
upon the first day of the week, when the disciples 
came together to break bread, Paul preached unto 
them . 1 know no reason therefore why ministers 
refuse to permit the celebration of the Lord s Supper, 
except where they themselves are allowed to adminis- 


ter it; for if it be alleged that Christ gave the braed and 
wine to his disciples, it may be replied, first, that we 
no where read of his giving them to each individually, 
and secondly, that he was then acting in the charac 
ter, not of a minister, but of the founder of a new in 
stitution. With regard to the expression in 1 Cor. 
iv. 1 . let a man so account of us, as of the ministers 
of Christ, and stewards of the mysteries of God, it 
is evident that Paul is there speaking of himself and 
the other ministers of his own order, who were the 
exclusive stewards of the divine mysteries, that is, of 
the doctrine of the gospel, before hidden, but then 
first revealed from God ; not of bread and wine, for 
they did not serve tables, Acts vi. 2. not even those 
at which we may suppose them to have met con 
stantly for the celebration of the sacrament ; in like 
manner as Paul himself was not sent l to baptize, but 
to preach the gospel, 1 Cor. i. 17. That the mys 
teries in question are to be understood of doctrine, is 
evident from the verse following, it is required in 
stewards that a man be found faithful ; for it would 
be derogating from the dignity of such a steward as 
Paul to consider faithfulness in administering bread 
and wine (which are mere elements, and not myste 
ries) as of sufficient importance to be specified in his 
case among the requisite qualifications for the office. 
So also chap. x. 16, 17. the cup of blessing and the 
breaking of bread is spoken of as common to all, who 
are qualified to participate in the communion itself. 
For Christ is the sole priest of the new covenant, 
Heb. vii. 23, 24. nor is there any order of men which 
can claim to itself either the right of distributing or 
the power of withholding the sacred elements, seeing 


that in Christ we are all alike priests, 1 Pet. ii. 9. Rev. 
i. 6.* Even were it otherwise, however, it is not: 
conceivable that there should he any such essential 
distinction between the passover and the Lord s Sup 
per, that whereas under the law, when it was forbid 
den to all but the priests and Levites even to touch 
the sacred things, there was no ordinance restricting 
the celebration of the passover to the members of that 
body, under the gospel, by which these ceremonial 
sanctities have been abolished, and a wider scope 
given to the rights and liberties of believers, the dis 
pensing of the elements, which in Scripture is com 
mitted to no one in particular, should be considered as 
an unfit office for any but the ministers of the church ; 
so that the master of a family, or any one appointed 
by him, is not at liberty to celebrate the Lord s Sup 
per from house to house, as was done in the dispensa 
tion of the passover : if indeed we are to suppose that 
any distribution of the elements by an individual 
officiator was then, or is now, requisite. 

The sacraments are not to be approached without 
self-examination and renunciation of sin. 2 Chron* 
xxx. 13 15, they arose and took away the altars 
that were in Jerusalem, and all the altars for incense 
took they away, and cast them into the brook Kidron : 
then they killed the passover. Ezra vi. 21. all such 
as had separated themselves unto them from the filth- 
iness of the heathen of the land, to seek Jehovah, 
God of Israel, did eat. 1 Cor. xi. 28. let a man 
examine himself. 

* * We now under Christ, a royal priesthood, 1 Pet. ii. 9. as vre are 
coheirs, kings and priests with him. 1 Tht likeliest Means to remove Hire 
lings, &c. p ro ?e Works, III. 359. 


The neglect, or the improper celebration of the 
sacraments, equally provokes the indignation of the 
Deity. Exod. iv. 24 26. Jehovah met him and 
sought to kill him : then Zipporah took a sharp stone, 

and cut off the foreskin of her son so he let him 

go. 1 Cor. xi. 29, &c. he that eateth and drinketh 
unworthily, eateth and drinketh damnation to himself, 
not discerning the Lord s body : for this cause many 
are weak and sickly among you . Hence it is not 
only allowable, but necessary to defer partaking in 
them, till such time as a proper place and season, 
purity of heart and life, and a regular communion of 
believers, concur to warrant their celebration. Exod. 
KUI. 5. < it shall be when Jehovah shall bring thee into 

the land of the Canaanites that thou shalt keep this 

service in this month. Numb. ix. 10, 11. if any 
man of you or of your posterity shall be unclean by 
reason of a dead body, or be in a journey afar off, 
yet he shall keep the passover unto Jehovah ; the 
fourteenth day of the second month at even they shall 
keep it. Compare also 2 Chron. iii. 2, 3. Josh. v. 
5. all the people that were born in the wilderness, 
by the way as they came forth out of Egypt, them 
they had not circumcised. 

The mass of the Papists differs from the Lord s 
Supper in several respects. In the first place, the 
one is an ordinance of our Lord, the other an insti 
tution of the Pope. Secondly, the Lord s Supper is 
celebrated in remembrance of Christ once offered, 
which offering he himself made by virtue of his own 
peculiar priesthood, Heb. vii. 24, 25, 27. ix. 15, 25, 
26. x. 10, 12, 14. whereas in the mass the offering 
itself is supposed to be repeated daily, and that by 


innumerable petty priests at the same point of time. 
Thirdly, Christ offered himself, not at the holy sup 
per, but on the cross ; whereas it is in the mass that 
the pretended daily sacrifice takes place. Fourthly, 
in the Lord s Supper the real body of the living Lord, 
made of the Virgin Mary, was personally present ; in 
the mass, by the mere muttering of the four mystical 
words, this is my body, it is supposed to be created out 
of the substance of the bread at some given moment, 
for the sole purpose of being broken in pieces as soon 
as created. Fifthly, in the Lord s Supper the bread 
and wine, after consecration, remain unchanged in 
substance as in name ; in the mass, if we believe the 
Papists, although the outward appearance remains the 
same, they are converted by a sudden metamorphosis 
into the body of our Lord. Sixthly, in the Lord s 
Supper, according to the original institution, all the 
communicants drink of the cup ; in the mass, the cup 
is refused to the laity. Lastly, in the mass the sacred 
body of Christ, after having completed its appointed 
course of hardship and suffering, is dragged back from 
its state of exaltation at the right hand of the Father 
to a condition even more wretched and degrading than 
before ; it is again exposed to be broken, and crushed, 
and bruised by the teeth not only of men, but of brutes ; 
till, having passed through the whole process of diges 
tion, it is cast out at length into the draught ; a pro 
fanation too horrible to be even alluded to without 

It is manifest from the very definition of the word, 
that the other sacraments so called by the Papists, 
namely, confirmation, repentance, extreme unction, 
ordination, and marriage, cannot be such in the proper 

VOL. JT. 18 


sense of the term ; inasmuch as they are not of divine 
institution, neither do they possess any sign appointed 
by God for the sealing of the covenant of grace. 

Confirmation or imposition of hands was, it is true, 
-administered by Christ, not however as a sacrament, 
but as a form of blessing, according to a common 
Jewish custom, derived probably from patriarchal 
times, when fathers were accustomed to lay their 
hands on their children in blessing them, and magis 
trates on those whom they appointed their successors, 
as Moses on Joshua, Numb, xxvii. 18. Hence the 
apostles usually laid hands on such as were baptized, 
or chosen to any ecclesiastical office ; usually, I say, 
not always : for, although we read of imposition of 
hands on the seven deacons, Acts vi. 6. we do not 
find that this ceremony was practised towards Matthi 
as, when he was numbered with the eleven apostles, 
Acts i. 26. In the case of the baptized, imposition of 
hands conferred, not indeed saving grace, but miracu 
lous powers, and the extraordinary gifts of the Spirit : 
Acts viii. 17, &c. xix, 6. 1 Tim. iv. 14. 2 Tim. i. 
6. Hence, although the church rejects this ceremony 
as a sacrament, she retains it with great propriety and 
advantage as a symbol of blessing. Heb. vi. 2. the 
doctrine of baptisms, and of laying on of hands. 

With respect to ordination, and to the act of re 
pentance, for sins committed subsequently to baptism, 
(the only kind of repentance to which the Papists 
apply the name of a sacrament) we have no objection 
to their being called sacraments, in the sense of reli 
gious emblems, or symbols of things sacred, analogous 
to the ancient custom of washing the feet of the poor, 
and the like. It is unnecessary to be very scrupulous 


as to the sense of a word which no where occurs in 
Scripture. Repentance however lias no peculiar sign 
attached to it, neither is it a seal of the covenant, an\ 
more than faith. 

With regard to marriage, inasmuch as it is not an 
institution peculiar to Christian nations, but common 
to all by the universal law of mankind, (unless it be 
meant to restrict the word to the union of believers 
properly so called,) it is not even a religious ceremo 
ny, still less a sacrament, but a compact purely civil ; 
nor does its celebration belong in any manner to the 
ministers of the church.* 

As to the unction of the sick, it is true that the 
apostles anointed with oil many that were sick, and 
healed them, Mark vi. 13. and James enjoins the 
same custom, v. 14, 15. This rite, however, was not 
of the nature of a sacrament ; and as it was employ 
ed solely in conjunction with miraculous powers, with 
the cessation of those powers its use must have also 
ceased. There is therefore no analogy betw r een the 
anointing of the first Christians, and the extreme 

* They insinuated that marriage was not holy without their benedic 
tion, and for the better colour, made it a sacrament ; being of itself a civil 
ordinance, a household contract, a thing indifferent and free to the whole 
race of mankind, not as religious, but as men ; best indeed undertaken to 
religious ends, and as the apostle saith, 1 Cor. vii. l in the Lord ; yet not 
therefore invalid or unholy without a minister and his pretended necessary 
hallowing, more than any other act, enterprize, or contract of civil life, 
which ought all to be done also in the Lord and to his glory: all which, no 
less than marriage, were, by the cunning of priests heretofore, gs material 
to their profit, transacted at the altar. Our divines deny it to be a sacra 
ment, yet retained the celebration, till prudently a late parliament recov 
ered the civil liberty of marriage from their encroachment, and transferred 
the ratifying and registering thereof from the canonical shop to the proper 
cognizance of civil magistrates. Considerations on the likeliest Jfttaw to 
remote Hireling* out of Iht Church. Prose Works, III. 371. 


unction of the modern Papists ; seeing that, in the 
first place, the apostles anointed not only those who 
were at the point of death, as is now the custom, but 
all, as many as were grievously sick ; and that, sec 
ondly, this unction was attended with the cure of their 
disorder : Mark vi. 13. 

To the above may be added, that sacraments, being 
instituted chiefly for purposes in which all are con 
cerned, namely, as tokens of the sealing of the cove 
nant of grace, and for the confirmation of our faith, 
ought to be imparted equally to all believers ; whereas 
of the five papistical sacraments above-mentioned, 
four are exclusively appropriated to particular classes 
of individuals ; repentance to the lapsed, ordination to 
the clergy, extreme unction to the sick, marriage to 
the lay members of the church alone* 



WE have hitherto treated of the vocation of man, and 
of the effects thereby produced, whether consisting in 
a mere outward change of character, or in actual re 
generation ; of the spiritual increase of the regenerate ; 
of the various manifestations of the offered covenant ; 
and, finally, of the sealing of that covenant by sa 

The assembly of those who are called is termed the 
visible church. By the called, I mean those indiscrim 
inately who have received the call, whether they be 
actually regenerate or otherwise. Matt, iii, 12. 
* whose fan is in his hand, and he will throughly 
purge his floor, and gather his wheat into his garner ; 
but he will burn up the chaff with unquenchable fire. 
xiii. 24, 25. the kingdom of heaven is likened unto 
a man which sowed good seed in his field ; but while 
men slept, his enemy came and sowed tares among the 
wheat. v. 47. l the kingdom of heaven is like unto a 
net that was cast into the sea, and gathered of every 
kind. xxii. 9, 10. * go ye therefore into the high 
ways and they gathered together all as many as 


they found, both bad and good. xxv. 1,2. then shall 

the kingdom of heaven be likened unto ten virgins < 

and five of them were wise, and five were foolish. 5 
1 John ii. 19. they went out from us, but they 
were not of us. 

The tokens of the visible church are, pure doctrine ; 
the proper external worship of God ; genuine evan 
gelical love, so far as it can be distinguished from the 
fictitious by mere human perception ; and a right ad 
ministration of the seals of the covenant. Malt. 
xxviii. 19, 20. go ye therefore and teach all nations, 

baptizing them teaching them to observe all things 

whatsoever I have commanded you. Acts ii. 42. 
* they continued stedfastly in the apostles doctrine 
and fellowship, and in breaking of bread, and in 
prayers. 1 Tim. iii. 15. the church of the living 
God, the pillar and ground of the truth. The tokens 
of the Jewish church enumerated by St. Paul are not 
dissimilar : Rom. ix. 4. who are Israelites ; to whom 
pertaineth the adoption, and the glory, and the cove 
nants, and the giving of the law, and the service of 
God, and the promises. On the other hand, he inti 
mates, that where thqse tokens are wanting, there is 
no church. Eph. ii. 12. at that time ye were with 
out Christ, being aliens from the commonwealth of 
Israel, and strangers from the covenant of promise, 
having no hope, and without God in the world. 

As to what are called signs, Mark xvi. 17, 18. 
4 these signs shall follow them that believe ; in my 
name shall they cast out devils ; they shall speak with 
new tongues ; they shall take up serpents ; and if 
they drink any deadly thing, it shall not hurt them : 
they shall lay hands on the sick, and they shall rccov- 


er ; these are not to be considered as tokens uniform 
ly attending the visible church, but as testimonies 
which, however necessary at the time of its first 
establishment, when the doctrines of Christianity 
were to Jews and Gentiles alike, new, unheard of, 
and all but incredible, are less requisite at the present 
period, when men are educated in the apostolical faith, 
and begin their belief from their earliest childhood. 
Under these circumstances, the same end is answered 
by their hearing and reading of the miracles perform 
ed at the beginning by Christ and his apostles. Deut. 
xxxi. 13. i that their children, which have not known 
anything, may hear, and learn to fear Jehovah your 
God, as long as ye live . So also 1 Cor. xiv. 22. 
; tongues are for a sign, not to them that believe, but 
to them that believe not, and they shall cease, 1 
Cor. xiii. 8. The working of miracles was some 
times permitted even to impostors, and to a false 
church. Deut. xiii. 1 3. if there arise among you 
a prophet, or a dreamer of dreams, and giveth thee 
a sign or a wonder, and the sign or the wonder 

come to pass whereof he spake unto thee thou 

shalt not hearken unto the words of that prophet, 
or that dreamer of dreams ; for Jehovah your God 
proveth you, to know whether ye love Jehovah your 
God with all your heart and with all your soul. 
Matt. vii. 22, 23. many will say to me in that day, 
Lord, Lord, have we not prophesied in thy name, and 
in thy name have cast out devils, and in thy name 
have done many wonderful works ? and then will I 
profess unto them, I never knew you. xxiv. 24. 
there shall arise false Christs, and false prophets, and 
shall show great signs and wonders, insomuch that, if 


it were possible, they shall deceive the very elect. 
Gal. i. 8. though we, or an angel from heaven, 
preach any other gospel unto you than that which we 
have preached unto you, let him be accursed. 2 
Thess. ii. 9. whose coming is after the working of 
Satan with all power and signs and lying wonders. 
Rev. xiii. 13. he doeth great wonders. 

Neither is the re-establishment of the church uni 
formly attended by miracles ; in like manner as this 
species of attestation was not granted to several of the 
prophets, nor to the Baptist, John x. 41. nor in all 
cases to the apostles themselves, Matt. xvii. 16. I 
brought him to thy disciples, and they could not cure 
him. 2 Tim. iv. 20. Trophimus have I left at Mile- 
turn sick : whence it appears that Paul was unable 
to heal, not only one who was a believer, but who was 
of note among the believers. 

Miracles have no inherent efficacy in producing be 
lief, any more than simple preaching ; it is God that 
gives the right heart in the one case as in the other.* 
Deut. xxix. 2 4. ye have seen all that Jehovah did 

before your eyes in the land of Egypt yet Jehovah 

hath not given you an heart to perceive, and eyes to 
see, and ears to hear, unto this day. Psal. Ixxviii. 
11. they forgat his wonders. v. 32. they believed 
not his wondrous works. Luke xvi. 31. if they 
hear not Moses and the prophets, neither will they be 
persuaded, though one rose from the dead. Acts iv. 
16, 17. that a notable miracle hath been done by 
them is manifest to all them that dwell in Jerusalem, 

* l It is God only who gives as well to believe aright, as to believe at 
all. Considerations touching the likeliest Means to remove Hirelings out 
of the Church. Prose Works, III. 351. 


and we cannot deny it. Those also are declared 
blessed who believe without the testimony of mira 
cles. John xx. 29. * blessed are they that have not 
seen, and yet have believed. Matt. xii. 39, &c. an 
evil and adulterous generation secketh after a sign, 
and there shall no sign be given it, but the sign of the 
prophet Jonas.. ..the men of Nineveh shall rise in judg 
ment with this generation, and shall condemn it, be 
cause they repented at the preaching of Jonas. Luke 
x. 20. in this rejoice not, that the spirits are subject 
unto you, but rather rejoice because your names are 
written in heaven. 

So long therefore as charity, the greatest of all 
gifts, exists, and wheresoever it is found, we cannot 
doubt that the visible church there established is a 
true church. John xiii. 35. by this shall all men 
know that ye are my disciples, if ye have love one to 
another. 1 Cor. xii. 31. covet earnestly the best 
gifts ; and yet show I you a more excellent way. 
xiii. 1, &c. though I speak with the tongue of men 
and of angels, and have not charity, I am become as 
sounding brass . v. 8. charity never faileth : but 
whether there be prophecies, they shall fail . v. 13. 
*now abideth faith, hope, charity, these three ; but the 
greatest of these is charity. 

As Christ is the head of the mystical church, so no 
one besides Christ has the right or power of presiding 
over the visible church.* Matt, xviii. 20. there am 

* Man over men 

He made not lord ; such title to himself 

Reserving, human left from human free. Paradise, Lost, XII. 69. 
Christ hath a government of his own, sufficient of itself to all his ends 
and purposes in governing his church. Treatise of Civil Power in Eccle 
siastical Causes. Prose Works, III. 331. 
VOL. II. 19 

I in the midst of them. xxviii. 20. fc I am with you 
alway, even unto the end of the world. 1 Cor. v. 4. 
4 in the name of our Lord Jesus Christ, when ye are 
gathered together, and my spirit, with the power of 
our Lord Jesus Christ. Heb. iii. 6. Christ as a son 
over his own house. Rev. ii. 1. ; who vvalketh in the 
midst of the seven golden candlesticks. They are 
therefore in error, who would set up an earthly head 
over the church in the person of the apostle Peter, and 
his successors commonly so called, the Roman pon 
tiffs ; for which no authority can be found in Scrip 
ture.* As to Peter, it does not appear that any pre 
ference was given to him over the other apostles, 
either with regard to his mission, Matt. x. 1. or to 
any special command assigned to him, John xx. 21, 
22. or to any authority reposed in him for the decid 
ing of controversies, Acts xv. 2, 6, 7, 19, 23, 25. or 
to his knowledge of the faith, at least to his constan 
cy in professing it, since he fell grievously in his denial 
of Christ, and was afterwards reprehensible, though 
in a less degree, in the matter for which he was re 
proved by Paul, GaL ii. 11. He was also an elder 
like the others, 1 Pet. v. 1. neither is he promised 
any distinction of honours hereafter, Matt. xix. 28. 
nor is superiority of any kind attributed to him rather 
than to James, or John, or Paul and Barnabas, GaL 
ii. 9. Nay, he was the apostle of the circumcision 

* l All Protestants hold that Christ in his church hath left no vicegerent 
of his power ; but himself, without deputy, is the only head thereof, gov 
erning it from heaven : how then can any Christian man derive his king- 
sship from Christ, but with worse usurpation than the pope his headship 
over the church? since Christ not only hath not left the least shadow of 
a command for any such vicegerence from him in the state, as the pope 
pretends for his in the church 1 . Ready Way to establish a Free Com 
monwealth. Prose Work?, 111. 41 1 


only, as was Paul of the Gentiles, v. 8, 9. who was 
not a whit behind the very chiefest apostles, 2 Cor. 
xi. 5. He was likewise sent as the colleague of John 
into Samaria, Acts viii. 14. and gave an account of 
his apostleship to those who contended with him, xi. 
2. Lastly, the church is not said to be built upon 
the foundation of Peter alone, but of the apostles," 
Eph. ii. 20. Rev. xxi. 14. Even supposing, however, 
that it were otherwise, how can a foundation have 
any succession ? Nor does the celebrated text, Matt. 
xvi. 18, 19. which is perverted by the Pope to form 
the charter of his authority, confer any distinction on 
Peter beyond what is not enjoyed by other professors 
of the same faith. For inasmuch as many others 
confessed no less explicitly than Peter that Christ 
was the Son of God (as is clear from the narrative 
of the evangelists) the answer of Christ is not, upon 
thee Peter, but upon this rock I will build my 
church, that is, upon this faith which thou hast in 
common with other believers, not upon thee as an 
individual ; seeing that, in the personal sense of the 
word, the true rock is Christ, 1 Cor. x. 4. nor is 
there any other foundation, iii. 11. whence also faith 
in Christ is called the foundation, Jude 20. * building 
up yourselves on your most holy faith ; and the same 
term is applied to the apostles as the original teachers 
of that faith, though not to the exclusion of others. 
Eph. ii. 20. ye are built upon the foundation of the 
apostles and prophets. Nor is it to Peter exclusively 
that the keys of the kingdom of heaven are commit 
ted,* inasmuch as the power of those keys, as it is 

Milton elsewhere, to ridicule the notion that Peter and his successor? 
are specially entrusted with the keys of heaven, places him at the wicket, 

called, or the right of binding and loosing, is not en 
trusted to him alone, Matt, xviii. 18, 19. whatso 
ever ye shall bind on earth, shall be bound in heaven, 
&c. John xx. 23. whosoever sins ye remit, they 
are remitted unto them. Nor does the passage of 
John, xxi. 15, &,c. imply that the office of feeding the 
flock of Christ was committed to Peter in any higher 
sense than to the others; the meaning of the repetition 
is, that he who had fallen by denying his master thrice, 
is here, by a confession as often repeated, restored to 
the place from whence he fell ; and that he who in his 
overweening self-confidence had maintained that he 
loved Christ more than all the rest, is at once remind 
ed of the event by which his weakness had been 
manifested, and admonished that if he really loved 
Christ more than the other disciples, he should show 
that love by a greater assiduity in feeding Christ s 
flock, and more particularly his lambs ; being in effect 
a repetition of the charge he had shortly before re 
ceived, Luke xxii. 32. < when thou art converted, 
strengthen thy brethren. For to feed the sheep of 
Christ, that is, to teach all nations, was the common 
office of all the apostles. Matt, xxviii. 19. 

Granting, however, to Peter all that is claimed for 
him, what proof have we that the same privileges are 

while embryos and idiots, eremites and friars, white, black and gray, with 
all their trumpery, are l blown transverse into the paradise of fools. 

And now Saint Peter at heaven s wicket seems 

To wait them with his keys . Paradise Lost, III. 484. 
In Lycidas, however, the allusion to the keys is introduced more sen 

Last came, and last did go 

The pilot of the Galilean lake ; 

Two massy keys he bore of metals twain, 

The golden opes, the iron shuts amain. 108. 


continued to his successors ? or that these successors 
are the Roman pontiffs ? 

The visible church is either universal or particular. 

The universal visible church is the whole multitude 
of those who are called in every part of the world, and 
who openly worship God the Father through Christ in 
any place whatever, either individually, or in conjunc 
tion with others. 

In any place whatever. John iv. 21. the hour 
cometh, when ye shall neither in this mountain, nor 
yet at Jerusalem, worship the Father. 1 Cor. i. 2. 
with all that in every place call upon the name of 
Jesus Christ our Lord. 

Either individually, &c. for although it is the duty 
of believers to join themselves, if possible, to a church 
duly constituted,* Heb. x. 25. not forsaking the 

* This is an important passage, because it discloses Milton s real views 
upon a point on which his opinions have been represented in a more un 
favourable light than they seem to have deserved. Bishop Newton re 
marks that 4 in the latter part of his life he was not a professed member of 
any particular sect of Christians, he frequented no public worship, nor 
used any religious rite in his family. Whether so many different forms of 
worship as he had seen had made him indifferent to all forms ; or whether 
he thought that all Christians had in some things corrupted the purity and 
simplicity of the gospel ; or whether he disliked their endless and unchar 
itable disputes, and that love of dominion and inclination to persecution 
which he said was a piece of popery inseparable from all churches ; or 
whether he believed that a man might be a good Christian without joining 
in any communion ; or whether he did not look upon himself as inspired, 
as wrapt up in God, and above all forms and ceremonies, it is not easy to 
determine : to his own master he standtlh or falleth : but if he was of any 
denomination, he was a sort of Quietist, and was full of the interior of 
religion, though he so little regarded the exterior. The note of Mr. Haw 
kins on this passage, (Hawkins s Edition of Milton s Poetical Works, Vol. 
I. p. 101.) deserves to be mentioned as containing the most candid and 
judicious estimate of Milton s character which has ever been taken. Many 
parts of the present treatise bear & remarkable testimony to the acuteness 
with which Mr. Hawkins has detected sorue of the errors of Milton s re- 


assembling of ourselves together, as the manner of 
some is, but exhorting one another ; yet such as can 
not do this conveniently, or with full satisfaction of 
conscience, are not to be considered as excluded from 
the blessing bestowed by God on the churches. 1 
Kings xix. 10, 14. 4 I, even I only, am left. v. 18. 
* yet I have left me seven thousand in Israel. John 
iv. 23. the hour cometh, and now is, when the true 
worshippers shall worship the Father in spirit and in 
truth ; for the Father seeketh such to worship him. 1 
Cor. i. 2. unto the church of God which is at Cor 
inth, to them that are sanctified in Christ Jesus, called 
to be saints, with all that in every place call upon the 
name of Jesus Christ our Lord, both their s and 
our s. 2 Cor. i. 1. unto the church of God which 
is at Corinth, with all the saints which are in all 

The universal church consists of ministers and peo 
ple* 1 Cor. \\\. 9. we are labourers together with 
God ; ye are God s husbandry, ye are God s build 
ing. 2 Cor. iv. 5. ourselves your servants for Jesus 
sake. Matt. xx. 25 28. even as the Son of man 
came not to be ministered unto, but to minister. Rom. 
x. 14. how shall they hear without a preacher ? 

ligious system, by the unprejudiced spirit in which he has examined the 
imperfect materials afforded him in the printed works. He observes as 
follows on Milton s alleged disuse of public worship, which is asserted on 
the authority of Toland. l The reproach that has been thrown upon him 
of frequenting no place of public worship in his latter days, should be re 
ceived, as Dr. Symmons observes, with some caution. His blindness and 
other infirmities might be in part his excuse ; and it is certain that his 
daily employments were always ushered in by devout meditation and study 
of the Scriptures. 

* Let no man cavil, but take the church of God as meaning the whole 
consistence of orders and members, as St. Paul s epistles express. Of 
Reformation in England. Prose Works, I. 11. 


Ministers are persons appointed by divine commis 
sion to perform various offices in the church of Christ, 

By divine commission. Jer. xxiii. 21. 4 I have not 
sent these prophets, yet they ran ; I have not spoken 
to them, yet they prophesied. Matt, xxviii. 19, 20. 
< go ye therefore, and teach all nations . Rom. x. 15. 
4 how shall they preach, except they be sent ? 1 Cor. 
ii. 1. I came not with excellency of speech or of 
wisdom, declaring unto you the testimony of God. 
v. 4. my speech and my preaching was not with 
enticing words of man s wisdom, but in demonstration 
of the spirit and of power. v. 13. ; which things also 
we speak, not in the words which man s wisdom 
teacheth, but which the Holy Ghost teacheth ; com 
paring spiritual things with spiritual. 1 Tim. iv. 6. 
4 if thou put the brethren in remembrance of these 
things, thou shalt be a good minister of Jesus Christ, 
nourished up in the words of faith and of good doc 
trine, whereunto thou hast attained. 

Various offices. 1 Cor. xii. 28. God hath set 
some in the church, first apostles, secondarily proph 
ets, thirdly teachers, after that miracles, then gifts of 
healings, helps, governments, diversities of tongues. 
Acts xx. 20, 21. < I kept back nothing that was profit 
able unto you, but have shewed you, and have taught 
you publicly, and from house to house, testifying both 
to the Jews, and also to the Greeks, repentance to 
wards God, and faith towards our Lord Jesus Christ. 
2 Tim. iv. 2. preach the word, be instant in season, 
out of season, reprove, rebuke, exhort with all long- 
suffering and doctrine. 2 Pet. i. 12. 4 I will not be 
negligent to put you always in remembrance of these 
things, though ye know them, and be established in 
the present truth. 


Ministerial labours are of no efficacy in themselves, 
independently of divine grace. 1 Cor. iii. 7. 4 neither 
is he that planteth any thing, neither he that watereth, 
but God that giveth the increase. A reward, how 
ever, is laid up for such as are faithful in the ministry. 
Isai. xlix. 4. then I said, I have laboured in vain, I 
have spent my strength for nought, and in vain ; yet 
surely my judgment is with Jehovah, and my work 
with my God. Dan. xii. 3. they that be wise shall 
shine as the brightness of the firmament, and they 
that turn many to righteousness as the stars for ever 
and ever. 

The ministers of the universal church are either 
extraordinary or ordinary. I Cor. xii. 28. as above. 
Eph. iv. 11 13. * he gave some, apostles ; and some, 
prophets ; and some, evangelists ; and some, pastors 
and teachers ; for the perfecting of the saints, for the 
work of the ministry, for the edifying of the body of 
Christ ; till we all come in the unity of the faith and 
of the knowledge of the Son of God : where it is 
observable that pastors and teachers are used synony 
mously ; for the apostle does not say, he gave some, 
pastors, some, teachers, but merely adds the second 
or proper title as an explanation of the figurative* 
term ; whereby is evinced the futility of the modern 
academical title of doctor, as distinguishing its pos 
sessor from other ministers of the word.* For the 

* Titles of honour are spoken of in the same slighting manner in the 
prophetic view which Michael unfolds to Adam of the corruptions which 
chouM prevail in the latter times of the church. 

Then shall they seek to avail themselves of names, 
Places, and titles, and with these to join 
Secular power. Paradise Lost, XII. 515. 


provinces of teaching and of exhortation are no where 
separated, but are both alike assigned to the pastor, 
no less than to the teacher so called ; the functions 
are twofold, but the office and the agent are one ; 
although individuals may possess peculiar powers 
either of teaching or of exhortation, and may be dis 
tinguished as such, Rom. xii. 7, 8. 

Extraordinary ministers are persons inspired and 
sent on a special mission by God, for the purpose of 
planting the church where it did not before exist, or 
of* reforming its corruptions, either through the me 
dium of preaching or of writing. To this class belong 
the prophets, apostles, evangelists, and the like. 1 
Cor. iv. 1 . let a man so account of us as of the 
ministers of Christ ; and stewards of the mysteries of 
God. Gal. i. 1. * Paul, an apostle, not of men, 
neither by man, but by Jesus Christ, and God 
the Father, who raised him from the dead. v. 17. 
4 neither went I up to Jerusalem to them which were 
apostles before me. ii. 6. 4 of those who seemed to 
be somewhat, whatsoever they were, it maketh no 
matter to me ; God accepteth no man s person : for 
they who seemed to be somewhat, in conference added 
nothing unto me. Acts xiii. 2. the Holy Ghost said, 
Separate me Barnabas and Saul for the work where- 
unto I have called them. 2 Tim. iv. 5, do the work 
of an evangelist. 

Any believer is competent to act as an ordinary 
minister * according as convenience may require, pro- 

* It is evident from many passages in the printed works of Milton, that 
even the presbyterian institutions did not accord with his notions of Chris 
tian liberty. He often attacks the presbyters, during the time when epis 
copacy was abolished, with as much severity as the bishops during their 
ascendency. Warton observes, that he contended for that sort of indi- 

VOL. ii. 20 


vided only he be endowed with the necessary gifts ;* 
these gifts constituting his mission. Such were, be 
fore the law, the fathers or eldest sons of families,f 
as Abel, Noah, Abraham, &c. Jethro, Exod. xviii. 
12. xix. 22. let the priests also, which come near to 
Jehovah, sanctify themselves . xxiv. 5. he sent 
young men of the children of Israel, which offered 
burnt-offerings, and sacrificed peace-offerings of oxen 
unto Jehovah. 3 Such were, under the law, Aaron 
and his posterity, the whole tribe of Levi, and lastly 
the prophets. In like manner, any one, who appeared 
to be in other respects qualified, was allowed to teach 
openly in the synagogue, though he were neither priest 
nor Levite ; a permission which was granted to Christ, 
and subsequently to Paul at Antioch. Acts xiii. 15. 
1 after the reading of the law and the prophets, the 
rulers of the synagogue sent unto them, saying, Ye 

vidual or personal religion, by which every man is to be his own priest. 
See his edition of Milton s smaller Poems, p. 326. Edit. 1785. < The 
third priesthood only remaining, is common to all the faithful. 1 Consider 
ations, &c. Prose Work*, III. 383. l If all the faithful be now a holy and 
a royal priesthood, 1 Pet. ii. 5, 9. not excluded from the dispensation of 
thing? holiest, after free election of the church, and imposition of hands.... 
for the gospel makes uo difference from the magistrate himself to the mean 
est arti6cer, if God evidently favour him with spiritual gifts, as he can 
a?ily, and oft hath done. Ibid. 390. * So is he by the same appoint 
ment (of God) ordained, and by the church s call admitted, to such offices 
of discipline in the church, to which his own spiritual gifts have au 
thorized him. Reason of Church Government, &c. I. 138. See also p. 
139. * The functions of church government commend him. 

* Heretofore in the first evangelic times (and it were happy for Chris 
tendom if it were so again) ministers of the gospel were by nothing ele 
distinguished from other Christians but by their spiritual knowledge and 
sanctity of life. Considerations, &c. III. 390. 

t In the beginning this authority seems to have been placed, as all 
both civil and religious rites once were, only in each father of a family. 
Reason of Church Government, c. Prose Works, I. 134. l In those 
days was no priest, but the father, or the first-born of each family. Con 
siderations, &c. III. 359, 


men and brethren, if ye have any word of exhorta 
tion for the people, say on. How much more then 
must every believer endowed with similar gifts enjoy 
the same liberty under the gospel ? Accordingly, this 
liberty is expressly conceded : Mark ix. 38, 39. we 
saw one casting out devils in thy name, and he fol- 
loweth not us ; and we forbad him, because he follow- 
eth not us : but Jesus said, Forbid him not. Acts viii. 
4. they that were scattered abroad went every where 
preaching the word. xi. 19, &c. they which were 
scattered abroad upon the persecution that arose about, 
Stephen, travelled as far as Phenice, and Cyprus, and 

Antioch which spake unto the Grecians, preaching 

the Lord Jesus ; and the hand of the Lord was with 
them, and a great number believed, and turned unto 

the Lord they sent forth Barnabas who when he 

came, and had seen the grace of Cod, was glad, and 
exhorted them all that with purpose of heart they 
would cleave unto the Lord. If our modern clergy, 
as they are called by way of distinction, who clairn 
to themselves the exclusive right of preaching the gos 
pel, had seen this grace imparted to those whom they 
are pleased to denominate the laity, it would have 
been to them a subject, not of rejoicing, but of cen 
sure and obloquy, xviii. 24, 25. a certain Jew named 
Apollos, born at Alexandria, an eloquent man and 
mighty in the Scriptures, came to Ephesus : this man 
was instructed in the way of the Lord, and being fer 
vent in the spirit, he spake and taught diligently the 
things of the Lord, knowing only the baptism of John. 
2 Tim. ii. 2. * the things that thou hast heard of me 
among many witnesses, the same commit thou to 
faithful men, who shall be able to teach others also. 

Exod. xix. 6. compared with Isai Ixi. 6. ye shall be 
named the priests of Jehovah ; men shall call you the 
ministers of our God. 1 Pet. ii. 9. l ye are a chosen 
generation, a royal priesthood, an holy nation, a pecu 
liar people ; that ye should shew forth the praises of 
him who hath called you out of darkness into his 
marvellous light. Rev. i. 6. who hath made us kings 
and priests unto God and his Father. Again, 1 Pet. 
v. 3. neither as being lords over God s heritage. If 
in this passage the word heritage, (clerus, Lat. whence 
the term clergy, appropriated by the ecclesiastics to 
themselves) has any meaning at all, it must designate 
the whole body of the church.* Nor is the name of 
prophet applied exclusively to such as foretel future 
events, but to any one endowed with extraordinary piety 
and wisdom for the purposes of teaching. Thus it was 
said of Abraham, Gen. xx. 7. he is a prophet, and 
he shall pray for thee, and thou shalt live. So also 
Miriam is called a prophetess, Exod. xv. 20. and 
Deborah, Judges iv. 4. and the same title is applied 
to believers in general, Psal. cv. 15. ; touch not mine 
anointed, and do my prophets no harm. Hence 
under the gospel likewise, the simple gift of teaching, 
especially of public teaching, is called prophecy. 1 
Cor. xiv. 1. desire spiritual gifts, but rather that ye 
may prophesy. v. 3. * he that prophesieth, speaketh 

* This all Christians ought to know, that the title of clergy St. Peter 
gave to all God s people, till Pope Hygiuus and the succeeding prelates 
took it from them, appropriating that name to themselves and their priests 
only, and condemning the rest of God s inheritance to an injurious and 
alienate condition of laity. Reasons of Church Government urged 
against Prelaty. Prose Works, I. 135. c EcclesiasUeorurn duntaxat bona 
fuere, qui hoc niaxime ensu clerici, vel etiam holoclerici, ut qui sortern 
totam invashsent, rectius norninari poterant. Defensio Srcunda pro 
Populo Jlnglicano, V. 247. 


unto men to edification; and so through the remainder 
of the chapter. 1 Cor. iii. 8, &c. he that planteth 
and he that vvatereth are one ; and every man shall 
receive his own reward according to his own labour : 
for we are labourers together with God. Pastors 
and teachers, therefore, are the gift of the same God 
who gave apostles and prophets, and not of any hu 
man institution whatever.* 1 Pet. iv. 10, 11. as 
every man hath received the gift, even so let him min 
ister the same one to another, as good stewards of the 
manifold grace of God : if any man speak, let him 
speak as the oracles of God. 

If therefore it be competent to any believer what 
ever to preach the gospel, provided he be furnished 
with the requisite gifts, it is also competent to him to 
administer the rite of baptism ; inasmuch as the latter 
office is inferior to the former. John iv. 2. 4 Jesus 
himself baptized not, but his disciples. 1 Cor. i. 17. 
1 Christ sent me not to baptize, but to preach the 
gospel. Hence Ananias, who was only a disciple, 
baptized Paul. Acts ix. 10, 18. x. 48. he command 
ed them to be baptized in the name of the Lord; 
which command was given to the companions of 
Peter, who are only called brethren, v. 23. and they 

* 4 It is a foul error, though too much believed among us, to think that 
the university makes a minister of the gospel : what it may conduce to 
f>ther arts and .science?, I dispute not now ; hut that which makes fit a 
minister, the Scripture can best inform us to be only from above, whence 
also we are bid to seek them. Matt. ix. 3J3. Acts xx, 28. ROJJU. x. 15. how 
shall they preach,, unless thty be sent ? By whom sent ? By the university, or 
the magistrate, or their belly ? No surely, but sent from God only, and that 
God who is not their belly. Considerations, &c. Prose Works, 111. 386. 
4 Doubtless, if God only be he who gives ministers to his church till the 
world s end, and through the whole gospel never pent us for minister to 
the schools of philosophy. . Ibid. 390. 


which believed, v. 45. And if it be true that baptism 
has succeeded to the place of circumcision, and bears 
the analogy to it which is commonly supposed, why 
should not any Christian whatever (provided he be 
not a mere novice, and therefore otherwise- incompe 
tent) be qualified to administer baptism, in the same 
manner as any Jew was qualified to perform the rite 
of circumcision ? 

With regard to the Lord s Supper also, it has been 
shown in the preceding chapter that all are entitled to 
participate in that rite, but that the privilege of dis 
pensing the elements is confined to no particular man, 
or order of men. There can be still less shadow of 
reason for assigning to the ministers of the church the 
celebration of marriages or funerals,* offices which 
hirelings! are wont to assume to themselves exclu 
sively, without even the feeble semblance of prescrip 
tion derived from the Levitical law. 

The people of the universal church comprise all 
nations: Matt, xxviii. 19, 20. go ye and teach all 
nations ; whose conversion it is the duty of all men 
to promote to the utmost of their power. Rom. i. 14. 
4 1 am debtor both to the Greeks and to the barbari 
ans ; both to the wise and to the unwise. 

* Burinls and marriages are so little to be any part of their gain, that 

they who consider well, may find them to be no part of their function 

As for marriages, that minister? should meddle with them, as not sanctified 
or legitimate without their celebration, I find no ground in Scripture either 
of precept or exau pie. Considerations, Sic. Prose Works, III. 370. 
t Help us to save free conscience from the paw 
Of hireling wolves, whose gospel is their maw. Sonnet XVI. 13. 

1 Of which hireling crew Christendom might soon rid herself and be 

happy, if Christians would but know their own dignity, their liberty, their 

adoption and let it not be wondered if I say their spiritual priesthood, 

whereby they have all equal access to any ministerial function, whenever 
called by their" own abilities and the church, though they never came near 
the university. Considerations, &c. Prose Works, III. 391. 



THE writings of the prophets, apostles and evangelists, 
composed under divine inspiration, are called the Holy 
Scriptures. 2 Sam. xxiii. 2. the Spirit of Jehovah 
spake by me, and his word was in my tongue. Matt. 
xxii. 43. how then doth David in spirit call him 
Lord, saying ? 2 Cor. xiii. 3. since ye seek a 
proof of Christ speaking in me. 2 Tim. iii. 16. all 
scripture is given by inspiration of God. J 

With regard to the question, what books of the Old 
and New Testament are to be considered as canoni 
cal, that is to say, as the genuine writings of the 
prophets, apostles, and evangelists, there is little or 
no difference of opinion among the orthodox, as may 
be seen in the common editions of the Bible. 

The books usually subjoined to these under the 
name of apocryphal, are by no means of equal author 
ity with the canonical, neither can they be adduced as 
evidence in matters of faith. 

The reasons for their rejection are, first, because, 
although written under the old dispensation, they are 
not in the Hebrew language, which they would un- 


doubtedly be if genuine ; for as the Gentiles were not 
then called, and the church consisted wholly of He 
brews, Rom. iii. 2. ix. 4. it would have been prepos 
terous to write in the language of a people who had 
no concern in the things discoursed of. Secondly, 
their authority is deservedly called in question, inas 
much as they are never quoted in the New Testament. 
Lastly, they contain much that is at variance with the 
acknowledged parts of Scripture, besides some things 
fabulous, low, trifling, and contrary to true religion 
and wisdom. 

The Holy Scriptures were not written for occasion 
al purposes only, as is the doctrine of the Papists, but 
for the use of the church throughout all ages, as well 
under the gospel as under the la\v. Exod. xxxiv. 27. 
4 write thou these words ; for after the tenour of these 
words I have made a covenant with thee and with 
Israel. Deut. xxxi. 19. write ye this song for you 

that this song may be a witness for me. Isai. 

viii. 20. to the law and to the testimony : if they 
speak not according to this word, it is because there 

is no light in them. xxx. 8. write it that it may 

be for the time to come forever and ever. Habak. ii. 

2. * write for the vision is yet for an appointed 

time. Luke xvi. 29. * they have Moses and the 
prophets ; let them hear them. John v. 39. search 
the scriptures, for in them ye think ye have eternal 
life. Rom. xv. 4. whatsoever things were written 
aforetime were written for our learning, that we 
through patience and comfort of the scriptures might 
have hope. 1 Cor. x. 11. they are written for our 
admonition, upon whom the ends of the world are 



Almost every thing advanced in the New Testa 
ment is proved by citations from the Old. The use 
of the New Testament writings themselves is declared 
John xx. 31. these are written that ye might be 
lieve . Eph. ii. 20. built upon the foundation of the 
apostles and prophets. Philipp. iii. 1. to write the 
same things to you, to me indeed is not grievous, but 
for you it is safe. 1 Thess. v. 27. I charge you by 
the Lord, that this epistle be read unto all the holy 
brethren. 1 Tim. iii. 15. * if I tarry long, that thou 
mayest know how thou oughtest to behave thyself in 
the house of God. 2 Tim. iii. 15 17. from a child 
thou hast known the holy scriptures, which are able 
to make thee wise unto salvation through faith which 
is in Christ Jesus : all scripture is given by inspiration 
of God, and is profitable for doctrine, for reproof, for 
correction, for instruction in righteousness. It is true 
that the Scriptures which Timothy is here said to 
have known from a child, and which were of them 
selves able to make him wise unto salvation through 
faith in Christ, were probably those of the Old Tes 
tament alone, since no part of the New Testament 
appears to have existed during the infancy of Timothy : 
the same is, however, predicated of the whole of Scrip 
ture in the succeeding verse, namely, that it is profit 
able for doctrine ; even to such as are already wise 
and learned, 1 Cor. x. 15. I speak as unto wise men, 
judge ye what I say, to men arrived at Christian 
maturity, Philipp. iii. 15. let us therefore, as many 
as be perfect, be thus minded, such as Timothy 
himself, and Titus, to whom Paul wrote ; and to the 
strong in faith, 1 John ii. 14. * I have written unto 
you, young men, because ye are strong, and the word 

VOL. ii. 21 


of" God abideth in you. 5 2 Pet. i. 12, 15. wherefore 
1 will not be negligent to put you always in remem 
brance of these things, though ye know them, and be 
established in the present truth : moreover I will en 
deavour that ye may be able after my decease to have 
these things always in remembrance. iii. 15, 16. 
4 even as our beloved brother Paul also, according 
unto the wisdom given unto him, hath written unto 
you. For although the epistle of Paul here alluded 
to was more immediately directed to the Romans. 
Rom. i. 7. 15. Peter in the above passage expressly 
intimates that it was addressed not to that church 
alone, but to believers generally. 2 Pet. iii. 1, 2. 
* this second epistle, beloved, I now write unto you ; 
in both which I stir up your pure minds by way of 
remembrance. 1 John ii. 21. I have not written 
unto you, because ye know not the truth, but because 
ye know it. Rev. i. 19. write the things which thou 
hast seen, and the things which are, and the things 
which shall be hereafter. 

From all these passages it is evident, that the use 
of the Scriptures is prohibited to no one ; but that, 
on the contrary, they are adapted for the daily hearing 
or reading of all classes and orders of men ;* of 
princess, Deut. xvii. 19. of magistrates, Josh. i. 8. of 
men of all descriptions, Deut. xxxi. 9 11. < Moses 
wrote this law, and delivered it unto the priests the 
sons of Levi and unto all the elders of Israel : and 

* l The papal antichristian church permits not her laity to read the 
Bible in their own tongue ; our church on the contrary hath proposed it 

to all men Neither let the countryman, the tradesman, the lawyer, 

the physician, the statesman excuse himself by his much business, from 
the studious reading thereof. 1 Of true Religion, &c. Prose Works. 
IV. 266. 


Moses commanded them, saying Thou shalt read 

this law before all Israel. xi. 18 20. therefore 
shall ye lay up these my words in your heart, and in 

your soul, and bind them for a sign upon your hand 

and thou shalt write them upon the door-posts of thine 
house. xxix. 29. those things which are revealed 
belong unto us and to our children for ever, that we 
may do all the words . xxx. 11. for this com 
mandment which I command thee this day, it is not 
hidden from thee, neither is it far off. 2 Chron. 
xxxiv. 30. he read in their ears all the words of the 
book of the covenant. Isai. viii. 20. to the law and 
to the testimony. Nehem. ix. 3. they stood up in 
their place, and read in the book of the law of Je 
hovah ; that is, the whole people, as appears from 
the second verse of the chapter. To the same pur 
pose may be adduced the testimony of a writer whom 
the opponents of this opinion regard as canonical. 1 
Mace. i. 56, 57. wheresoever was found with any 
the book of the testament, the king s commandment 
was that they should put him to death. 

The New Testament is still more explicit. Luke 
x. 26. what is written in the law ? how readest 
thou ? This was the question of Christ to one of 
the interpreters of the law, of whom there were many 
at that time, Pharisees and others, confessedly neither 
priests nor Levites ; neither was Christ himself, 
whom we cannot suppose to have been considered as 
particularly learned in the law, forbidden to expound 
in the synagogue ; much less therefore could it have 
been unlawful to read the Scriptures at home. xvi. 
29. they have Moses and the prophets ; let them 
hear them. John v. 39. search the scriptures." 


Acts viii. 28. he read Esaias the prophet. 5 xvii. 11. 
1 they searched the scriptures daily. xviii. 24. 
mighty in the scriptures. 2 Tim. iii. 15. from a 
child thou hast known the holy scriptures. Rev. i. 
3. blessed is he that readeth. 

The Scriptures, therefore, partly by reason of their 
own simplicity, and partly through the divine illumina 
tion, are plain and perspicuous in all things necessary 
to salvation, and adapted to the instruction even of 
the most unlearned, through the medium of diligent 
and constant reading.* PsaL xix. 7. the law of 
Jehovah is perfect, converting the soul ; the testimony 
of Jehovah is sure, making wise the simple. cxix. 
105. thy word is a lamp unto my feet, and a light 
unto my path. v. 130. the entrance of thy words 
giveth light, it giveth understanding unto the simple ; 
whence it follows that the liberty of investigating 
Scripture thoroughly is granted to all. v. 18. open 
thou mine eyes, that I may behold wondrous things 
out of thy law. Luke xxiv. 45. then opened he 
their understanding, that they might understand the 
scriptures. Acts xviii. 28. he mightily convinced 
the Jews, and that publicly, shewing by the scrip 
tures that Jesus was Christ. 2 Pet. i. 20, 21. no 
prophecy of the scripture is of any private interpreta 
tion ; for the prophecy came not in the old time by 

* < I offer it to the reason of any man, whether he think the knowledge 
of Christian religion harder than any other art or science to attain. I 
suppose he will grant that it is far easier, both of itself, and in regard of 

God s assisting Spirit Therefore are the Scriptures translated into 

every vulgar tongue, as heing held in main matters of belief and salvation 
plain and easy to the poorest, and such no less than their teachers have the 
the Spirit to guide them in all truth, John xiv. 26. xvi. 13. Considera 
tions on the likeliest Means to remove Hirelings out of the Church. Proe 
Works, III. 372. 


the will of man ; neither therefore is it to be inter 
preted by the judgment of men, that is, by our own 
unassisted judgment, but by means of that Holy 
Spirit promised to all believers.* Hence the gift of 
prophecy, mentioned 1 Cor. i. 4. 

If then the Scriptures be in themselves so perspicu 
ous, and sufficient of themselves to make men wise 
unto salvation through faith, and that the man of God 
may be perfect, thoroughly furnished unto all good 
works, through what infatuation is it, that even Prot 
estant divines persist in darkening the most momen 
tous truths of religion by intricate metaphysical com 
ments,! on the plea that such explanation is necessary ; 
stringing together all the useless technicalities and 
empty distinctions of scholastic barbarism, for the 
purpose of elucidating those Scriptures, which they 
are continually extolling as models of plainness? As 

* the truth, 

Left only in those written records pure, 

Though not but by the Spirit understood. Paradise Lost, XII. 511 

he, who receives 

Light from above, from the fountain of light, 

No other doctrine needs, though granted true. 

Paradise Regained, IV. 288. 

4 The study of Scripture, which is the only true theology . Considera 
tions on the likeliest Means to remove Hirelings, &c. Prose Works, III. 

t Considering the language employed iu parts of this treatise, Milton 
more frequently censures the metaphysical divinity than might have been 
expected. His practice at least, in this as well as in some other points, is 
not very consistent with his theory. He speaks however in other works in 
the same slighting manner of the sophistry of the schools. In the follow 
ing passage it is not impossible that he may allude to the very Treatise 
which is now for the first time published. l Somewhere or other, I trust, 
may be found some wholesome body of divinity, as they call it, without 
school-terms and metaphysical notions, which have obscured rather than 
explained our religion, and made it difficult without cause. Considera 
tions, &c. Prose Works, III. 375. 


if Scripture, which possesses in itself the clearest 
light, and is sufficient for its own explanation, espe 
cially in matters of faith and holiness, required to 
have the simplicity of its divine truths more fully de 
veloped, and placed in a more distinct view, by illus 
trations drawn from the abstrusest of human sciences, 
falsely so called. 

It is only to those who perish that the Scriptures are 
obscure, especially in things necessary for salvation. 
Luke viii. 10. unto you it is given to know the mys 
teries of the kingdom of God, but to others in para 
bles ; that seeing they might not see, and hearing they 
might not understand. 1 Cor. i. 1 8. the preaching 
of the cross is to them that perish foolishness ; but 
unto us which are saved, it is the power of God. ii. 
14. the natural man receiveth not the things of the 
Spirit of God, for they are foolishness unto him ; 
neither can he know them, because they are spiritual 
ly discerned. 2 Cor. iv. 2, 3. by manifestation of 
the truth commending ourselves to every man s con 
science in the sight of God : but if our gospel be hid, 
it is hid to them that are lost. 2 Pet. iii. 16. speaking 
of the epistles of Paul, * in which are some things 
hard to be understood, which they that are unlearned 
and unstable wrest, as they do also the other scrip 
tures unto their own destruction. 

No passage of Scripture is to be interpreted in more 
than one sense ; in the Old Testament, however, this 
sense is sometimes a compound of the historical and 
typical, as in Hosea xi. 1. compared with Matt. ii. 15. 
* out of Egypt have I called my son, which may be 
explained in a double sense, as referring partly to the 
people of Israel, and partly to Christ in his infancy. 


The custom of interpreting Scripture in the church 
is mentioned Nehem. viii. 8, 9. they read in the book 
in the law of God distinctly, and gave the sense, and 
caused them to understand the reading : and Nehemi- 
ah, which is the Tirshatha, and Ezra the priest the 
scribe, arid the Levites that taught the people . 2 
Cliron. xvii. 9. they taught in Judah, and had the 
book of the law of Jehovah with them, and went about 
throughout all the cities of Judah, and taught the 
people. Luke iv. 17. then was delivered unto him 
the book of the prophet Esaias. 1 Cor. xiv. 1. de 
sire spiritual gifts, but rather that ye may prophesy. 

The requisites for the public interpretation of 
Scripture have been laid down by divines with much 
attention to usefulness, although they have not been 
observed with equal fidelity. They consist in knowl 
edge of languages ; inspection of the originals ; ex 
amination of the context ; care in distinguishing 
between literal and figurative expressions ; consider 
ation of cause and circumstance, of antecedents and 
consequents ; mutual comparison of texts ; and regard 
to the analogy of faith. Attention must also be paid 
to the frequent anomales of syntax ; as for example, 
where the relative does not refer to the immediate 
antecedent, but to the principal word in the sentence, 
though more remote. See 2 Kings xvi. 2. compared 
with v. 1 . < twenty years old was Ahaz when he began 
to reign, that is, Jotham the father of Ahaz, as ap 
pears by considering the age at which Hezekiah began 
his reign, xviii. 2. See also 2 Chron. xxxvi. 9. when 
he began to reign, compared with 2 Kings xxiv. 8. 
Psal xcix. 6. < Moses and Aaron among his priests/ 
John viii. 44. he is a liar and the father of it. Last- 


ly, no inferences from the text are to be admitted, but 
such as follow necessarily and plainly from the words 
themselves ; lest we should be constrained to receive 
what is not written for what is written, the shadow 
for the substance, the fallacies of human reasoning 
for the doctrines of God : for it is by the declarations 
of Scripture, and not by the conclusions of the 
schools, that our consciences are bound. 

Every believer has a right to interpret the Scrip 
tures for himself, inasmuch as he has the Spirit for his 
guide, and the mind of Christ is in him ;* nay, the 
expositions of the public interpreter can be of no use 
to him, except so far as they are confirmed by his own 
conscience. More will be added on this subject in 
the next chapter, which treats of the members of par 
ticular churches. The right of public interpretation 
for the benefit of others is possessed by all whom God 
has appointed apostles, or prophets, or evangelists, or 
pastors, or teachers, 1 Cor. xii. 8, 9. Eph. iv. 11 13. 
that is, by all who are endowed with the gift of teach 
ing, every scribe which is instructed unto the king 
dom of heaven, Matt. xiii. 52. not by those whose 
sole commission is derived from human authority, or 
academical appointment : of whom it may too often 
be said in the words of Scripture, woe unto you, 
lawyers, for ye have taken away the key of knowl 
edge ; ye enter not yourselves, and them that were 
entering in ye hindered. Luke xi. 52. 

It is not therefore within the province of any visi 
ble church, much less of the civil magistrate, to 

* l Every true Christian, able to give a reason of his faith, hath the word 
of God before him, the promised Holy Spirit, and the mind of Christ with- 
;u : 1 Cor. ii. 16. Treatise, of Civil Power, &c. Prose Works, III, 321. 


impose their own interpretations on us as laws, or as 
binding on the conscience ; in other words, as matter 
of implicit faith.* 

If however there be any difference among professed 
believers as to the sense of Scripture, it is their duty 
to tolerate such difference in each other, until God 
shall have revealed the truth to all. Philipp. iii. 15, 
16. let us therefore, as many as be perfect, be thus 
minded ; and if in any thing ye be otherwise minded, 
God shall reveal even this unto you : nevertheless, 
whereto we have already attained, let us walk by the 
same rule, let us mind the same thing. Rom. xiv. 4. 
to his own master he standeth or falleth : yea, he 
shall be holden up. 

The rule and canon of faith, therefore, is Scripture 
alone.* PsaL xix. 9. the judgments of Jehovah are 
true and righteous altogether. Scripture is the sole 
judge of controversies ; or rather, every man is to 
decide for himself through its aid, under the guidance 
of the Spirit of God. For they who, on the authority 
of 1 Tim. iii. 15. the church of the living God, the 
pillar and ground of the truth, claim for the visible 
church, however defined, the supreme right of inter 
preting Scripture and determining religious contro 
versies, are confuted by a comparison of the words 
in question with the former part of the verse, and 
with that which precedes. What Paul here writes to 
Timothy, and which is intended to have the force 

* 4 What Protestant then, who himself maintains the same principles, 
and disavows all implicit faith, would prosecute, and not rather charitably 
tolerate such men as these ? Of true Religion, &c. IV. 263. 

* Seethe Treatise of Civil Power in Ecclesiastical Causes: First it 

cannot be denied counts all heretics but himself. Prose Works, III, 


VOL. ii. 22 


6f Scripture with him, is a direction by which he 
may know how he ought to behave himself in the 
house of God which is the church ; that is, in any 
assembly of believers. It was not therefore the house 
of God, or the church, which was to be a rule to 
him that he might know, but the Scripture which 
he had received from the hands of Paul. The 
church indeed is, or rather ought to be, (for it is 
not always such in fact) the pillar and ground, that is 
the guardian, and repository, and support of the truth: 
even where it is all this, however, it is not on that 
account to be considered as the rule or arbiter of 
truth and the Scripture; inasmuch as the house of 
God is not a rule to itself, but receives its rule from 
the word of God, which it is bound, at least, to observe 
scrupulously. Besides, the writings of the prophets 
and apostles, in other words the Scriptures themselves 
are said to be the foundation of the church : Eph. ii. 
20. built upon the foundation of the apostles and 
prophets, Jesus Christ himself being the chief corner 
stone. Now the church cannot be the rule or arbiter 
of that on which it is itself founded. 

That some of the instructions of the apostles to 
the churches where not committed to writing, or that, 
if written, they have not come down to us, seems 
probable from 2 John 12. having many things to write 
unto you, I would not write with paper and ink. See 
also 3 John 13. Col. iv. 16. that ye likewise read the 
epistle from Laodicea. Seeing then that the lost par 
ticulars cannot be supposed to have contained any 
thing necessary to salvation, but only matters profit 
able for doctrine, they are either to be collected from 
other passages of Scripture, or, if it be doubtful 


whether this is possible, they are to be supplied, not 
by the decrees of popes or councils, much less by the 
edicts of magistrates, but by the same Spirit which 
originally dictated them, enlightening us inwardly 
through the medium of faith and love. John xvi. 
12, 13. 1 have yet many things to say unto you, but 
ye cannot bear them now ; howbeit when he, the 
Spirit of truth, is come, he shall guide you into all 
truth. So also Peter admonishes us, 2 Eph. i. 19. c to 
take heed to the sure word of prophecy, until the 
day dawn, and the day-star arise in our hearts, that 
is to say, the light of the gospel, which is not to 
be sought in written records alone, but in the heart. 
2 Cor. iii. 3. ye are manifestly declared to be the epis 
tle of Christ ministered by us, written not with ink, 
but with the Spirit of the living God ; not in tables of 
stone, but in fleshy tables of the heart. Eph. vi. 17. 
the sword of the Spirit, which is the word of God. 
1 John ii. 20. ye have an unction from the Holy One, 
and ye know all things. v. 27. ye need not that any 
man teach you ; but as the same anointing teacheth 
you of all things, and is truth, and is no lie, and even 
as it hath taught you, ye shall abide in him. Thus 
when the Corinthians had made inquiry of Paul on 
certain subjects with regard to which there was no 
specific direction in Scripture, he answers them ac 
cording to the natural dictates of Christianity, and the 
unction of the Spirit which he had received: 1 Cor. 
vii. 12. to the rest speak I, not the Lord. v. 25. 
concerning virgins, I have no commandment of the 
Lord : yet I give my judgment as one that hath ob 
tained mercy of the Lord to be faithful : I suppose 
therefore . v. 40. she is happier if she so abide 


alter my judgment; and I think also that 1 have the 
Spirit of God ; whence he reminds them that they 
are also able to give answer to themselves in such 
questions, v. 15. a brother or sister is not under 
bondage in such cases. v. 36. if any man think that 
he behaveth himself uncomely toward his virgin, if 
she pass the flower of her age, and need so require, 
let him do what he will, he sinneth not. 

Under the gospel we possess, as it were, a twofold 
Scripture ; one external, which is the written word, 
and the other internal, which is the Holy Spirit, writ 
ten in the hearts of believers, according to the prom 
ise of God, and with the intent that it should by no 
means be neglected ; as was show^n above, chap, 
xxvii, on the gospel. Isai. lix. 21. * as for me, this is 
my covenant with them, saith Jehovah ; my Spirit 
which is upon thee, and my words which I have put 
in thy mouth, shall not depart out of thy mouth, nor 
out of the mouth of thy seed, nor out of the mouth of 
thy seed s seed, saith Jehovah, from henceforth and for 
ever. See also Jer. xxxi. 33, 34. Acts v. 32. we 
are his witnesses of those things, and so is also the 
Holy Ghost, whom God hath given to them that obey 
him. 1 Cor. ii. 12. we have received, not the 
spirit of the world, but the spirit which is of God, that 
we might know the things that are freely given to us 
of God. 

Hence, although the external ground which we 
possess for our belief at the present day in the writ 
ten word is highly important, and, in most instances 
at least, prior in point of reception, that which is 
internal, and the peculiar possession of each believer, 
is far superior to all, namely, the Spirit itself. 


For the external Scripture, or written word, par 
ticularly of the New Testament (to say nothing of 
spurious books, with regard to which the apostle has 
long since cautioned us, 2 Thess. ii. 2. that ye be 

not shaken in mind by letter as from us ; iii. 17. 

* the salutation of Paul with mine own hand, which is 
the token in every epistle :) the written word, I 
say, of the New Testament, has been liable to fre 
quent corruption, and in some instances has been cor 
rupted, through the number, and occasionally the bad 
faith of those by whom it has been handed down, the 
variety and discrepancy of the original manuscripts, 
and the additional diversity produced by subsequent 
transcripts and printed editions. But the Spirit which 
leads to truth cannot be corrupted, neither is it easy 
to deceive a man who is really spiritual : 1 Cor. ii. 
15, 16. he that is spiritual judgeth all things, yet he 
himself is judged of no man : for who hath known 
the mind of the Lord, that he may instruct him ? but 
we have the mind of Christ. xii. 10. to another, dis 
cerning of spirits. An instance of a corrupted text 
pervading nearly all the manuscripts occurs in Matt. 
xxvii. 9. where a quotation is attributed to Jeremiah, 
which belongs only to Zechariah ;* and similar in 
stances are to be found in almost every page of Eras 
mus, Beza, and other editors of the New Testament. 

Previously to the Babylonish captivity, the law of 
Moses was preserved in the sacred repository of the 
ark of the covenant : after that event, it was commit 
ted to the trust and guardianship of the priests and 
prophets, as Ezra, Zechariah, Malachi, and other men 

* See Home s Introduction to the Critical Study of the, Sf.riplurcs, Vol. 
II. p. 3P>5. Note 2. 


taught of God. There can be no doubt that these 
handed down the sacred volumes in an uncorrupted 
state to be preserved in the temple by the priests their 
successors, who were in all ages most scrupulous in 
preventing alterations, and who had themselves no 
grounds of suspicion to induce them to make any 
change. With regard to the remaining books, par 
ticularly the historical, although it be uncertain by 
whom and at what time they were written, and al 
though they appear sometimes to contradict them 
selves on points of chronology, few or none have ever 
questioned the integrity of their doctrinal parts. The 
New Testament, on the contrary, has corne down to 
us (as before observed) through the hands of a multi 
tude of persons, subject to various temptations ; nor 
have we in any instance the original copy in the au 
thor s hand-writing, by which to correct the errors of 
the others. Hence Erasmus, Beza, and other learned 
men, have edited from the different manuscripts what 
in their judgment appeared most likely to be the au 
thentic readings. It is difficult to conjecture the pur 
pose of Providence in committing the writings of the 
New Testament to such uncertain and variable guard 
ianship, unless it were to teach us by this very circum 
stance that the Spirit which is given to us is a more 
certain guide than Scripture, whom therefore, it is our 
duty to follow. 

For with regard to the visible church, which is also 
proposed as a criterion of faith, it is evident that, since 
the ascension of Christ, the pillar and ground of the 
truth has not uniformly been the church, but the hearts 
of believers, which are properly the house and church 
of flie living God, 1 Tim. iii. 15. Certain it is, that 


the editors and interpreters of the New Testament 
(which is the chief authority for our faith) are accus 
tomed to judge of the integrity of the text, not by its 
agreement with the visible church, but by the number 
and integrity of the manuscripts. Hence, where the 
manuscripts differ, the editors must necessarily be at 
a loss what to consider as the genuine word of God ; 
as in the story of the woman taken in adultery,* and 
some other passages. 

The process of our belief in the Scriptures is, how 
ever, as follows : we set out with a general belief in 
their authenticity, founded on the testimony either of 
the visible church, or of the existing manuscripts; 
afterwards, by an inverse process, the authority of the 
church itself, and of the different books as contained 
in the manuscripts, are confirmed by the internal evi 
dence implied in the uniform tenor of Scripture, con 
sidered as a whole ; and, lastly, the truth of the entire 
volume is established by the inward persuasion of the 
Spirit working in the hearts of individual believers. 
So the belief of the Samaritans in Christ, though 
founded in the first instance on the word of the woman, 
derived its permanent establishment, less from her 
saying, than from the presence and discourses of Christ 
himself, John iv. 42. t Thus, even on the authority 

* For the authenticity of the passage alluded to John vii. 53. and viii. 
I 11. see Whitby and Mill in loco. Selden, Uxor. Hsb- III. 11. Simon, 
Crit. Hist, of the JVew Testament, I. 13. Michaelis, Part I. Chap. vi. Sect. 
11. Against its authenticity, see Beza, Grotius, Wetstein, Hammond and 
Le Clerc in loco. 

t 4 As the Samaritans believed Christ, first for the" woman s word, but 
next and much rather for his own, so we the Scripture : first on the 
church s word, but afterwards and much more for its own, as the word 
of God ; yea the church itself we believe then for the Scripture. 
6f Civil Power in Ecclesiastical Causes. Prose Works, III. 326. 


of Scripture itself, every thing is to be finally referred 
to the Spirit and the unwritten word. 

Hence it follows, that when an acquiescence in 
human opinions or an obedience to human authority 
in matters of religion is exacted, in the name either of 
the church or of the Christian magistrate, from those 
who are themselves led individually by the Spirit of 
God, this is in effect to impose a yoke, not on man, 
but on the Holy Spirit itself.* Certainly, if the apos 
tles themselves, in a council governed by the inspira 
tion of the Holy Spirit, determined that even the 
divinely instituted law was a yoke from which believ 
ers ought to be exempt. Acts xv. 10, 19, 28. why 
tempt ye God ? much less is any modem church, 
which cannot allege a similar claim to the presence of 
the Spirit, and least of all is the magistrate entitled 
to impose on believers a creed no where found in 
Scripture, or which is merely inferred from thence by 
human reasonings, carrying with them no certain 

* From that pretence 

Spiritual laws by carnal power shall force 
On every conscience ; laws which none shall find 
Left them inroll d, or what the Spirit within 
Shall on the heart engrave. What will they then 

But force the Spirit of grace itself? 

for, on earth, 

Who against faith and conscience can be heard 
Infallible? Paradise Lost, XII. 520. 

1 With good cause, therefore, it is the general consent of all sound Pro 
testant writers, that neither traditions, councils, nor canons of any visible 
church, much less edicts of any magistrate or civil session, but the Scrip 
ture only, can be the final judge or rule in matters of religion, and that 
only in the conscience of every Christian to himself. Treatise of Civil 
Power, &c. Prose Works, III. 321. 


An acquiescence in human traditions, whether writ 
ten or unwritten, is expressly prohibited.* Deut. iv. 
2. ye shall not add unto the word which I command 
you, neither shall ye diminish ought from it. Prov. 
xxx. 6. add thou not unto his words, lest he reprove 
thee, and thou be found a liar. Rev. xxii. 18, 19. 

if any man shall add unto these things, &c and 

if any man shall take away from the words, &LC. 
Isai. xxix. 13, 14. their fear toward me is taught by 
the precept of men. See also Matt. xv. 3, 9. Gal. 
i. 8. though we, or an angel from heaven, preach 
any other gospel unto you . 1 Tim. vi. 3. if any 
man teach otherwise, and consent not to wholesome 
words, even the words of our Lord Jesus Christ, and 
to the doctrine which is according to godliness, he is 
proud, knowing nothing, but doting about questions 
and strifes of words. Tit. i. 4. 4 not giving heed to 
Jewish fables and commandments of men, that turn 
from the truth. 1 Tim. i. 4. neither give heed to 
fables and endless genealogies, which minister ques 
tions, rather than godly edifying which is in faith. 
Col. ii. 8. beware lest any man spoil you through 
philosophy and vain deceit, after the tradition of 
men, after the rudiments of the world, and not after 

Neither can we trust implicitly in matters of this na 
ture to the opinions of our forefathers, or of antiquity.! 

* l He hath revealed and taught it us in the Holy Scriptures by in 
spired ministers, and in the gospel by his own Son and his apostles, with 
strictest command to reject all other traditions or additions whatsoever ; 
according to that of St. Paul, Gal. i. 8. and De.ut. iv. 2. Rev. xxii. 18, 
19. 1 Of true. Religion, Sic. Prose Works, IV. 260. 

t l If we turn this our discreet and wary usage cf them into a blind de 
votion towards them, and whatsoever we find written by them, we both 

VOL. ii. 23 


2 Chron. xxix. 6. our fathers have trespassed. Psai. 
Ixxviii. 8, &c. that they might not be as their fa 
thers. Ezek. xx. 18. walk ye not in the statutes of 
your fathers. Amos ii. 4. because they have de 
spised the law of Jehovah, and have not kept his 
commandments, and their lies caused them to err, 
after the which their fathers have walked. Mai. iii. 
7. even from the days of your fathers ye have gone 
aw^ay from mine ordinances. Eccles. vii. 10. say 
not thou, What is the cause that the former days 
were better than these ? for thou dost not inquire 
wisely respecting this. Jeremiah also admonishes 
the people to ask for the old paths, in order to see 
where is the good way, and to choose that alone, vi. 
16.* for in any other sense the argument may be as 
justly employed to defend the idolatries of the heathen, 
and the errors of the Pharisees and Samaritans. Jer. 
xliv. 17. to burn incense unto the queen of hea 
ven, and to pour out drink-offerings unto her, as we 
have done, we, and our fathers, our kings, and our 
princes . Matt. xv. 2, &c. why do thy disciples 
transgress the tradition of the elders ? where Christ 
opposes to their tradition the commandment of God, 
v. 3. c why do ye also transgress the commandment 
of God by your tradition ? See also Mark vii. 8, 9. 
John iv. 20. * our fathers worshipped in this moun 

forsake our own grounds and reasons which led us at first to part from 
Rome, that i?, to hold to the Scriptures against all antiquity. 1 Of Prelati- 
<:al Episcopacy. I. 75. 

* 4 Remonst. He that said I am the way, said thai the old way was 
the good way. Answ. lie bids ask of the old paths, or for the old ways, 
where or which is the good way ; which implies that all old ways are not 
good, but that the good way is to be searched wi(h diligence among the 


Even to the venerable name of our mother church 
itself we are not to attach any undue authority. Hos. 
ii. 2. c plead with your mother, plead ; for she is not 
my wife, neither am I her husband ; let her therefore 
put away her whoredoms out of ker sight : unless 
by this expression we understand exclusively the 
mystical church in heaven ; Gal. iv. 26. Jerusalem 
which is above is free, which is the mother of us all. 

old ways, which is the thing that we do in the oldest records we have, the 
gospel/ Animadversions upon the Remonstrant s Defence. Prose Works, 
I. 177. 



THUS far of the universal visible church. A particu 
lar church is a society of persons professing the faith, 
united by a special bond of brotherhood, and so or 
dered as may best promote the ends of edification and 
mutual communion of the saints. Acts ii. 42. they 
continued stedfastly in the apostles doctrine and fel 
lowship, and in breaking of bread, and in prayers. 

The ordinary ministers of a particular church are 
presbyters and deacons. 

Presbyters are otherwise called Bishops* Acts 
xx. 17. compared with v. 28. he called the elders 
(vptofivTepovf) of the church : take heed therefore unto 
yourselves and to all the flock, over the which the 
Holy Ghost hath made you overseers, (brurxfaove) to 
feed the church of God. The same office of bishop 

* Bishops and presbyters are the same to us both name and thing. 
Speech for the Liberty of Unlicensed Printing. Prose Works, I. 314. 
4 It will not be denied that in the Gospel there be but two ministerial de 
grees, presbyters and deacons. Likeliest Means to remove Hirelings, &c. 
III. 356. 4 Through all which book can be no where, either by plain text, 
or solid reasoning, found any difference between a bishop and a presbyter, 
save that they be two names to signify the same order. Of Prelatical 
Episcopacy, I. 60. 4 A bishop and presbyter is all one both in name and 
office. Ibid. 75, See also p. 76. 


or presbyter is described 1 Tim. iii. 1, fcc. where 
no mention is made of any other minister except 
deacon.* Philipp. i. 1. with the bishops and dea 
cons. Tit. i. 5. that thou shouldest ordain elders 
in every city, as I had appointed thee, compared with 
v. 7. a bishop must be blameless. 1 Pet. v. 1. the 

elders which are among you I exhort feed the flock 

of God which is among you, taking the oversight there 
of, that is, performing the office of bishops. Lastly, in 
the first council of the church, held at Jerusalem, the 
apostles and elders alone are spoken of as present, 
no mention being made of bishops, Acts xv. 6. xvi. 4. 
bishops and presbyters must therefore have been the 

Of the presbyters, some were set apart for the office 
of teaching, others watched over the discipline of the 
church, while in particular instances both these func 
tions were united. 1 Tim. iii. 2. apt to teach. v. 5. 
if a man know not how to rule his own house, how 
shall he take care of the church of God ? v. 17. let 
the elders that rule well be counted worthy of double 
honour, especially they who labour in the word and 
doctrine. Rom. xii. 7, 8. he that teacheth, on 

teaching he that ruleth, with diligence. 1 Cor. 

xii. 28. governments, 1 Pet. v. 1. as above. Hence 
a bishop or presbyter is called the steward of God, 
Tit. i. 7. 

The office of a deacon is properly to administer, in 
the character of a public servant, to the temporal 

* ; More beneath in the 14th verse of the third chapter, when he hath 
delivered the duties of bishops, or presbyters, and deacons, not once 
naming any other order in the church. Reason of Church Government 
against Prelaty. Prose Works, L 86. 


wants of the church in general, and particularly of 
the poor, the sick, and strangers. Acts vi. 3. look 

ye out among you whom we may appoint over this 

business, 1 Tim. iii. 10. let them use the office of a 
deacon, being found blameless. v. 13. they that 
have used the office of a deacon well. Also to teach 
and baptize ; as appears from the example of Philip, 
who in his capacity of deacon (the apostle of that 
name having remained during the same period at Je 
rusalem) converted the people of Samaria to the faith, 
and on his own authority baptized, first his new con 
verts, and afterwards the Ethiopian eunuch. Acts vi. 
5. viii. 1, 12. when they believed Philip preaching 
the things concerning the kingdom of God, and the 
name of Jesus Christ, they were baptized, both men 
and women. v. 38. he baptized him. In allusion 
to this his office of preaching he is called the evan 
gelist, Acts xxi. 8. where his identity is established 
by his being designated as one of the seven. Hence 
1 Tim. iii. 13. they that have used the office of a 
deacon well, purchase to themselves a good degree, 
and great boldness in the faith which is in Christ 

The widows of the church are also associated with 
the deacons in the performance of their duty, 1 Tim* 
v. 3 16. honour widows that are widows in 
deed, &c. 

The choice of ministers belongs to the people.* 
Acts i. 23. they appointed two. vi. 5. the saying 
pleased the whole multitude, and they chose Stephen. 

* l He that ennobled with gifts from God, and the lawful and primitive 
choice of the church assembled in convenient number, faithfully from that 
time forward feeds his parochial flock, has his co-equal and co-presbyterial 


xiv. 23. c when they had ordained them elders in 
every church. xv. 22. then pleased it the apostles 
and elders, with the whole church, to send chosen 
men of their own company to Antioch with Paul and 

It is proper that ministers should undergo a certain 
trial previous to their admission. 1 Tim. iii. 10. let 
these also first be proved ; then let them use the office 
of a deacon, being found blameless. The requisite 
qualifications of an elder, as well as of a deacon, are 
detailed at length in the epistles to Timothy and Titus, 
and particularly 1 Tim. iii. 1, &;c. Tit. i. 5, &c. 

On such as were approved the presbyters laid their 
hands. 1 Tim. iv. 14. neglect not the gift that is in 
thee, which was given thee by prophecy, with the 
laying on of the hands of the presbytery. v. 22. lay 
hands suddenly on no man. The imposition of 
hands, however, was not confined to the election of 
presbyters, but was practised even towards veteran 
ministers, in the way of solemn benediction, on their 
engaging in any work of importance. Acts xiii. 2, 3. 

as they ministered unto the Lord when they had 

fasted and prayed and laid hands upon them, they 
sent them away. 

The right of succession is consequently nugatory, 
and of no force.* Acts xx. 29, 30. * I know this. 

power to ordain ministers and deacons by .public prayer and vote of 
Christ s congregation, in like sort as he himself was ordained, and is a true 
apostolic bishop. Of Reformation in England. Prose Works, I. 9. 
4 He that will mould a modern bishop into a primitive, must yield him to 
be elected by the popular voice. Ibid. 14. 

* See the frowardness of this man ; he would persuade us that the suc 
cession and divine right ofbishopdom hath been unquestionable through ali 
ages. Animadversion? on the Rtmonsiranl l s Defence, Fro?e Work?, 
I. 160. 


that after my departing shall grievous wolves enter in 
among you, not sparing the flock : also of your own 
selves shall men arise, speaking perverse things, to 
draw away disciples after them. 2 Cor. xi. 13. 
< such are false apostles, deceitful workers, transform 
ing themselves into the apostles of Christ. 

With regard to the remuneration to be allotted to 
the ministers of the universal church, as well as to 
those of particular religious communities, it must be 
allowed that a certain recompense is both reasonable 
in itself, and sanctioned by the law of God and the 
declarations of Christ and his apostle.* Matt. x. 10. 
the workman is worthy of his meat. 1 Cor. ix. 7 
13. who goeth a warfare at any time at his own 
charges ? Gal. vi. 6. let him that is taught in the 
word, communicate unto him that teacheth in all 
good things. 1 Tim. v. 17, 18. < let the elders that 
rule well, &c. Hence it is lawful and equitable, and 
the ordinance of God himself, 1 Cor. ix. 14. that 
they which preach the gospel, should live of the gos 
pel. It is how r ever more desirable for example s sake, 
and for the preventing of offence or suspicion, as well 
as more noble and honourable in itself, and conducive 
to our more complete glorying in God, to render an 
unpaid service to the church in this as well as in all 
other instances, and, after the example of our Lord, 
to minister and serve gratuitously. Matt. xx. 28. 
even as the Son of man came not to be ministered 
unto, but to minister. x. 8. freely ye have received, 

* We consider, first, what recompense God hath ordained should be 
given to ministers of the church ; (for that a recompense ought to be given 
them, and may by them justly be received, our Saviour himself from the 
very light of reason and of equity hath declared, Luke x. 7. the labourer 
is worthy of his hire, j 1 Likeliest Cleans to remove Hirelings, &c. III. 354. 


freely give. Acts xx. 35. remember the words of 
the Lord Jesus, how he said, It is more blessed to 
give than to receive. Paul proposed the same to the 
imitation of ministers in general, and recommended 
it by his example.* v. 34, 35. ye yourselves know, 
that these hands have ministered unto my necessities, 
and to them that were with me : I have showed you 
all things, how that so labouring ye ought to support 
the weak. 2 T/iess. iii. 7 9. yourselves know how 
ye ought to follow us ; for we behaved not ourselves 
disorderly among you ; neither did we eat any man s 
bread for nought; but wrought with labour and travail 
night and day, that we might not be chargeable to any 
of you : not because we have not power, but to make 
ourselves an example unto you to follow us. 1 Cor. 
ix. 15, 18. I have used none of these things ; neither 
have I written these things that it should be so done 
unto me ; for it were better for me to die, than that 
any man should make my glorying void : what is my 
reward then ? verily that, when I preach the gospel, 
I may make the gospel of Christ without charge, that 
I abuse not my power in the gospel. 2 Cor. xi. 9. 
* when I was present with you, and wanted, I was 

chargeable to no man in all things I have kept 

myself from being burthensome unto you, and so will 
I keep myself. v. 10. no man shall stop me of this 
boasting. v. 12. what I do, that I will do, that I 
may cut off occasion from them that desire occasion ; 
that wherein they glory, they may be found even as 
we are. xii. 14. behold the third time I am ready 

* Which argues also the difficulty, or rather the impossibility to re 
move them quite, unless every minister were, as St. Paul, contented to 
preach gratis ; but few such are to be found/ Likeliett J^Jtans to removs, 
Hirelings, &c. Prose Works, III. 345. 

VOL. ii. 24 


to come unto you, and I will not be burthen- 
some to you; for I seek not yours but you ; for 
the children ought not to lay up for the parents, 
but the parents for the children. v. 17. did I make 
a gain of you by any of them whom I sent unto you ? 
v. 18. 4 did Titus make a gain of you? walked we not 
in the same spirit? v. 19. < we do all things, dearly 
beloved, for your edifying. And if at any time ex 
treme necessity compelled him to accept the voluntary 
aid of the churches, such constraint was so grievous 
to him, that he accuses himself as if he were guilty of 
robbery. 2 Cor. xi. 8. < I robbed other churches, 
taking wages of them, to do you service. 

If however such self-denial be thought too arduous 
for the ministers of the present day, they will most 
nearly approach to it, when, relying on the providence 
of God who called them, they shall look for the ne 
cessary support of life, not from the edicts of the civil 
power, but from the spontaneous good-will and liber 
ality of the church in requital of their voluntary ser 
vice. Matt. x. 11. inquire who in it is worthy, and 
there abide till ye go thence. Lukex. 7, 8. in the 
same house remain, eating and drinking such things 

as they give and into whatsoever city ye enter, 

and they receive you, eat such things as are set before 
you. xxii. 35. he said unto them, When I sent yon 
without purse, and scrip, and shoes, lacked ye any 
thing ? and they said, Nothing. 2 Cor. xi. 9. that 
which was lacking to me, the brethren which came 
from Macedonia supplied. Philipp. iv. 15, &c. now. 
ye Philippians, know also, that in the beginning of the 
gospel, when I departed from Macedonia, no church 
communicated with me as concerning giving and re- 


ceiving, but ye only : for even in Thessalonica ye sent 
once and again unto my necessity : not because I desire 
a gift, but I desire fruit that may abound to your ac 
count : but I have all, and abound ; I am full, having 
received of Epaphroditus the things which were sent 
from you, an odour of a sweet smell, a sacrifice ac 
ceptable, well pleasing to God. 

For it does not necessarily follow, that because a 
thing is in itself just, a matter of duty and conscience, 
and sanctioned by the word of God, the performance 
of it is therefore to be enjoined and compelled by the 
authority of the magistrate. The same argument, and 
nearly the same words, which are used by Paul to 
prove that provision should be made for the ministers 
of the church, are also used to prove that the Gentiles 
ought to contribute to the support of the poor saints at 
Jerusalem ; 1 Cor. ix. 11. compared with Rom. xv. 
27. i it hath pleased them verily, and their debtors they 
are ; for if the Gentiles have been made partakers of 
their spiritual things, their duty is also to minister 
unto them in carnal things ; yet no one contends that 
the giving of alms should be compelled by authority. 
If then in a case of merely moral and civil gratitude, 
force is not to be employed, how much more ought 
the gratitude which we owe for the benefits of the gos 
pel to be exempt from the slightest shadow of force 
or constraint ? On the same principle, pecuniary con 
siderations ought by no means to enter into our 
motives for preaching the gospel : Acts viii. 20. thy 
money perish with thee, because thou hast thought 
that the gift of God may be purchased with money. 
If it be a crime to purchase the gospel, what must it 
be to sell it ? or what are we to think of the faith of 


those, whom I have so often heard exclaiming in the 
language of unbelief, If you take away church rev 
enues, you destroy the gospel ? * If the Christian 
religion depends for its existence on no firmer sup 
ports than wealth and civil power, how is it more 
worthy of belief than the Mahometan superstition ?t 
Hence to exact or bargain for tithes or other sti 
pendiary payments under the gospel, to extort them 
from the flock under the alleged authority of civil 
edicts, or to have recourse to civil actions and legal 
processes for the recovery of allowances purely eccle 
siastical, is the part of w^olves rather than of ministers 
of the gospel.t Acts xx. 29. l I know this that after 
my departing shall grievous wolves enter in among 
you, not sparing the flock. v. 33. I have coveted no 
man s silver, or gold, or apparel ; whence it follows 

* But of all are they to be reviled and shamed, who crj out with 
the distinct voice of notorious hirelings, that if ye settle not our mainte 
nance by law, farewell the Gospel. Likeliest Means to remove Hirelings, 
&c. Prose Works, III. 389. 

t Si vi et pecunia stat Christiana religio atque fulcitur, quid est quamo- 
brern non aeque ac Turcarum religio suspecta esse videatur? l For if it 
must be thus, how can any Christian object it to a Turk, that his religion 
stands by force only ; and not justly fear from him this reply, yours both 
by force and money, in the judgment of your own teachers? Ibid. 389. 

^ Wolves shall succeed for teachers, grievous wolves. 

Paradise Lost, XII. 508. 

1 Not long after, as the apostle foretold, hirelings like wolves came in 
by herds. Considerations on the likeliest Means, &c. Prose Works, II F. 
358. To the same effect is quoted, in the History of Britain. Gildas s 
character of the Saxon clergy : 4 subtle prowlers, pastors in name, but in 
deed wolves ; intent upon all occasions, not to feed the flock, but to 
pamper and well-line themselves. IV. 112- Irnmo lupi verius plerique 
eorum, quam aliud quid vis erant dicendi..,..pinguia illis plerumque omnia, 
ne ingenio quidem excepto ; decimis enim saginantur, improbato ab aliis 
omnibus ecclesiis more ; Ueoque sic diffidurit ut eas malint per magistratum 
atque per vim suis gregibus extorquere, quam vel divinse providentiae, vel 
ecclesiarum benevolentiaj et gratitudini debere. Deftnsio Secunda pro 
Populo Jlnglicano. V. 246. 


that the apostle neither exacted these things himself, 
nor approved of their exaction by ministers of the 
gospel in general. I Tim. iii. 3. not greedy of fil 
thy lucre ; not covetous ; far less therefore an exact 
or of lucre. Compare also v. 8. Tit. i. 7, 11. 1 Pet. 
v. 2, 3. feed the flock of God which is among you 

not for filthy lucre, but of a ready mind. If it be 

scarcely allowable for a Christian to go to law with 
his adversary in defence even of his own property, 
Matt. v. 39, 40. 1 Cor. vi. 7. what are we to think 
of an ecclesiastic, who for the sake of tithes, that is, 
of the property of others, which, either as an offering 
made out of the spoils of war, or in pursuance of a 
vow voluntarily contracted by an individual, or from 
an imitation of that agrarian law established among 
the Jews, but altogether foreign to our habits, and 
which is not only abolished itself, but of which all the 
causes have ceased to operate, were due indeed for 
merly, and to ministers of another sect, but are now 
due to no one ; what are we to think of a pastor, 
who for the recovery of claims thus founded, (an 
abuse unknown to any reformed church but our 
own,)* enters into litigation with his own flock, or, 
more properly speaking, with a flock which is not his 
own? If his own, how avaricious in him to be so 

* 4 Under the law he gave them tithes ; under the gospel, having left all 
things in his church to charity and Christian freedom, he hath given them 
only what is justly given them. That, as well under the gospel, as under 
the law, say our English divines, and they only of all Protestants, is tithes ; 
and they say true, if any man be so minded to give them of his own the 
tenth or twentieth ; but that the law therefore of tithes is in force under 
the gospel, all other Protestant divines, though equally concerned, yet 
constantly deny. 1 Likeliest J\Ieans to remove Hirelings, &c. Prose 
Works, III. 354. 


eager in making a gain of his holy office ! if not his 
own, how iniquitous ! Moreover what a piece of offi- 
ciousness, to force his instructions on such as are 
unwilling to receive them ; what extortion, to exact 
the price of teaching from one who disclaims the 
teacher, and whom the teacher himself would equally 
disclaim as a disciple, were it not for the profit !* For 
4 he that is an hireling, whose own the sheep are not 

fleeth beause he is an hireling, and careth not for 

the sheep, John x. 12, 13. Many such there are in 
these days, who abandon their charge on the slightest 
pretences, and ramble from flock to flock, less through 
fear of the wolf than to gratify their own wolfish 
propensities, wherever a richer prey invites ; who, 
unlike good shepherds, are for ever seeking out new 
and more abundant pastures, not for their flock, but 
for themselves.f 

* How then, ask they, are we to live ? How 
ought they to live, but as the prophets and apostles 
lived of old ? on their own private resources, by the 
exercise of some calling, by honest industry, after the 

* c Any one may perceive what iniquity and violence hath prevailed 
since in the church, whereby it hath been so ordered, that they also shall 
be compelled to recompense the parochial minister, who neither chose him 
for their teacher, nor have received instruction from him. Ibid. 372 l If 
he give it as to his teacher, what justice or equity compels him to pay for 
learning that religion which leaves freely to his choice whether he will 
learn it, or no, whether of this teacher or of another, and especially to pay 
for what he never learned, or approves not ? Ibid. 380. 

t l They have fed themselves, and not their flocks. Animadversions on 
the Remonstrants Defence. Prose Works, T. 200. Rambling from ben- 
efice to benefice, like ravenous wolves, seeking where they may devour the 
biggest. Tenure of Kings and Magistrates, II. 303. AJiis fortasse in 
locis haud seque ministris provisum ; nostris jam satis superque bene erat ; 
oves potius appellandi quam pastores, pascuntur magis quam pascunt. 
Defentie Secunda pro Populo Jlnglicano, V. 247. 


example of the prophets, who accounted it no disgrace 
to be able to hew their own wood, and build their 
own houses, 2 Kings vi. 2. of Christ, who wrought 
with his own hands as a carpenter, Mark vi. 3. and 
of Paul, Acts xviii. 3. 4. to whom the plea so impor 
tunately urged in modern times, of the expensiveness 
of a liberal education, and the necessity that it should 
be repaid out of the wages of the gospel, seems never 
to have occurred.! Thus far of the ministers of 
particular churches. 

With regard to the people of the church (especially 
in those particular churches where discipline is main 
tained in strictness) such only are to be accounted of 
that number, as are well taught in Scripture doctrine, 
and capable of trying by the rule of Scripture and 
the Spirit any teacher whatever, or even the whole 
collective body of teachers, although arrogating to 
themselves the exclusive name of the church.}: 

* Our great clerks think that these men, because they have a trade, 
(as Christ himself and St. Paul had) cannot therefore attain to some good 
measure of knowledge. ^Animadversions on the Remonstrant s Defence^ 
I. 162. This was the breeding of St. Paul, though horn of no mean 
parent*, a free citizen of the Roman empire ; so little did his trade debase 
him, that it rather enabled him to use that magnanimity of preaching the 
gospel through Asia and Europe at his own charges. 1 Likeliest Jlleans to 
remove Hirelings, &c. III. 377. The church elected them to be her teach 
ers and overseers, though not thereby to separate them from whatever cal 
ling she then found them following beside ; as the example of St. Paul 
declares, and the first times of Christianity. Ibid. 390. 

t 4 They pretend that their education, either at school or university, 
hath been very chargeable, and therefore ought to be repaired in future 
by a plentiful maintenance. Likeliest Means, &c. Prose Works, III. 385. 
See also Animadversions on the, Remonstrant s Defence, I. t93. 

$ * I shall not decline the more for that, to speak my opinion in the con 
troversy next moved, whether the people may be allowed for competent 
judges of a minister s ability. For how else can be fulfilled that which God 
hath promised, to pour out such abundance of knowledge upon all sorts 


Matt. vii. 15, 16. beware of false prophets, which 
come to you in sheep s clothing, but inwardly they are 
ravening wolves : ye shall know them by their fruits. 
xvi. 6. take heed and beware of the leaven of the 
Pharisees and Sadducees, compared with v. 12. then 
understood they how that he bade them not beware of 
the leaven of bread, but of the doctrine . John vii. 
17, 18. if any man will do his will, he shall know of 
the doctrine, whether it be of God, or whether I speak 
of myself : he that speaketh of himself, seeketh his 
own glory. Acts xvii. 11. they searched the scrip 
tures daily, whether these things were so. 1 Cor. ii. 
15. he that is spiritual, judgeth all things. x. 15. I 
speak as to wise men; judge ye what I say. Eph. 
iv. 14. that we henceforth be no more children, 
tossed to and fro, and carried about with every wind 
of doctrine. vi. 14, &c. stand therefore, having 
your loins girt about with truth. Philipp. iii. 2. 
beware of dogs ; beware of evil workers ; beware 
of the concision. 1 Thess. v. 21. prove all things ; 
hold fast that which is good. Heb. xiii. 9. be not 
carried about with divers and strange doctrines. See 
more on this subject above, chap. xxi. on the discern 
ment of spiritual things. 

of men in the times of the gospel ? How should the people examine the 
doctrine which is taught them, as Christ and his apostles continually bid 
them do ? How should they discern and beware of false prophets, and try 
every spirit, if they must be thought unfit to judge of the minister s abili 
ties ? Apology for Smectymnus. Prose Works, I. 255. l Every member 
of the church, at least of any breeding or capacity, so well ought to be 
grounded in spiritual knowledge, as, if need be, to examine their teachers 
themselves, Ads xvii. 11. Rev. ii. 2. How should any private Christian 
try his teachers, unless he be well grounded himself in the rule of Scrip 
ture by which he is taught Of true Religion, &c. IV. 267. 


Hence the people are warned not to take delight in 
vain teachers. 2 Tim. iv. 3. the time will come 
when they will not endure sound doctrine, but after 
their own lusts shall they heap to themselves teachers, 
having itching ears. 1 Pet. ii. 2. as new born babes, 
desire the sincere milk of the word, that ye may grow 
thereby. False teachers are not to be tolerated. Rev. 
ii. 2. I know thy works, and thy labour, and thy 
patience, and how thou canst not bear them which are 
evil ; and thou hast tried them which say they are 
apostles, and are not, and hast found them liars. v. 7. 
6 he that hath an ear, let him hear what the Spirit 
saith unto the churches. 

Every church consisting of the above parts, how 
ever small its numbers, is to be considered as in itself 
an integral and perfect church, so far as regards its 
religious rights ; nor has it any superior on earth, 
whether individual, or assembly, or convention, to 
whom it can be lawfully required to render submis 
sion ; inasmuch as no believer out of its pale, nor any 
order or council of men whatever, has a greater right 
than itself to expect a participation in the written 
word and the promises, in the presence of Christ, in 
the presiding influence of the Spirit, and in those 
gracious gifts which are the reward of united prayer. 
Matt, xviii. 20. where two or three are gathered to 
gether in my name, there am I in the midst of them. 
Acts xiv. 23. 6 when they had ordained them elders 
in every church, and had prayed with fasting, they 
commended them to the Lord, on whom they be 

Hence all particular churches, whether in Judea, 
where there was originally one church comprehending 

VOL. ii. 25 


the whole nation, or in any other country whatever, 
are properly called churches: 2 Cor. viii. 1. the 
churches of Macedonia ; Gal. i. 2. < the churches of 
Galatia ; v. 22. ; the churches of Judea ; see also 1 
Thess. ii. 14. Rev. i. 4. the seven churches which 
are in Asia : even where they consist of but few 
members : Rom. xvi. 5. l greet the church that is in 
their house. See also 1 Cor. xvi. 19. Col. iv. 15. 
6 the church which is in his house. Philem. 2. the 
church in thy house. 

In this respect a particular church differs from the 
Jewish synagogue, which, although a particular as 
sembly, and convened for religious purposes, was 
not a particular church, inasmuch as the entire wor 
ship of God could not be there duly celebrated, by 
reason that the sacrifices and ceremonies of the law 
were to be performed in the temple alone. Under 
the gospel, on the contrary, all that pertains to the 
worship of God and the salvation of believers, all, in 
short, that is necessary to constitute a church, may be 
duly and orderly transacted in a particular church, 
within the walls of a private house, and where the 
numbers assembled are inconsiderable. Nay, such a 
church, when in compliance with the interested views 
of its pastor it allows of an increase of numbers be 
yond what is convenient, deprives itself in a great 
measure of the advantages to be derived from meet 
ing in common. 

It was indeed necessary for Jews and proselytes to 
meet together at Jerusalem from all quarters of the 
world for religious purposes, Acts ii, 5, &;c. viii. 27. 
because at that time there was only one national or 
universal Jewish church, and no particular churches : 


whereas at present there is no national church, but a 
number of particular churches,* each complete and 
perfect in itself, t and all co-equal in divine right and 
power ; which, like similar and homogeneous parts of 
the same body, connected by a bond of mutual equal 
ity, form in conjunction one catholic church ; nor need 
any one church have recourse to another for a grace 
or privilege which it does not possess in its independ 
ent capacity. 

Particular churches, however, may communicate 
with each other in a spirit of brotherhood and agree 
ment, and co-operate for purposes connected with the 
general welfare. 2 Cor. viii. 19. < who was also 
chosen of the churches to travel with us. i. 24. not 
for that we have dominion over your faith, but are 
helpers of your joy. 1 Pet. v. 3. neither as being 
lords over God s heritage. 

Of councils, properly so called, I find no trace in 
Scripture ;t for the decision recorded Acts xv. 2, &c. 
is rather to be considered as an oracular declaration 
obtained from the inspired apostles, to whom recourse 

* l But to proceed further in the truth yet more freely, seeing the Chris 
tian church is not national, but consisting of many particular congrega 
tions . Likeliest Means to Remove Hirelings, &c. Prose Works, III. 

t Suis in se numeris omnes absolute : a Ciceronian expression which he 
has imitated elsewhere; speaking of the Deity : 

Through all numbers absolute, though one. Paradise L*/, VIII. 421. 

^ It is probably owing to Milton s dislike of councils, that hu describes 
in his epic poems the consultations of the fallen angels in terms bor 
rowed from ecclesiastical assemblies. The devils are said to s-il in secret 
conclave, Paradise Lost , I. 795; and their council is styled a gloomy con 
sistory, Paradise Regained, I. 442. He also says in a letter to a friend, 
written in the year 1659, l I pray that the Protestant synod, which you 
say is soon to meet at Ley den, may have a happy termination, which has 
never yet happened to any ?yned that has ever met before. Prose 
Works. I. 40. 


was had in a doubtful matter, as to the supreme au 
thority on controverted points, while there was as yet 
no written word. This was very different from a 
modern council composed of bishops or elders, who 
have no gift of inspiration more than other men ; 
whose authority is not, like that of the apostles, co 
ordinate with the Scriptures ; who are equally liable 
to error with their brethren, insomuch that they can 
not pronounce with certainty, like the Apostles, Acts 
\v. 28. it hath seemed good to the Holy Ghost and 
to us : who nevertheless assume the right of impos 
ing* laws on the churches, and require the rest of 
mankind to obey their mandates ; forgetting that at 
the assembly in Jerusalem* the whole multitude of 
believers were present, and gave their voices : Acts 
xv. 12,22, 23. Where however they content them 
selves with the fraternal office of admonition, their 
counsel is not to be despised. 

The enemies of the church are partly heretics, and 
partly profane opponents. 

The hostility of heretics originates either in their 
own evil dispositions, Philipp. i. 16. the one preach 
Christ of contention, not sincerely ; or in the imposi 
tion of some unnecessary yoke on the church, Matt, 
ix. 16. that which is put in to fill it up taketh from 
the garment, and the rent is made worse. \et even 
these are not without their use. 1 Cor. xi. 19. there 
must be also heresies among you, that they which are 
approved may be made manifest among you. 

* That way which (he apostles used, was to call a council ; irorn 
which, by any thing that can be learned from the fifteenth of the Acts, no 
faithful Christian was debarred, to whom knowledge and piety might give 
entrance. 1 Reason of Church Government urged against Prelaly. Prose 
Works, I. 105. 


The enemies of the church are various, but the de 
struction of all is portended. Psal. cxxxvii. 7 9, 

* remember, O Jehovah, the children of Edom O 

daughter of Babylon, who art to be destroyed, happy 
shall he be that rcwardeth thee as thou hast served 
us. Jer. xxx. 16. all they that devour thee shall be 
devoured. 1. 29, 30. call together the archers against 
Babylon, all ye that bend the bow . v. 34. their 
Redeemer is strong. li. 11. the vengeance of Jeho 
vah, the vengeance of his temple. v. 24. I will ren 
der unto Babylon. v. 34. * Nebuchadrezzar hath 
devoured me, he hath crushed me. v. 49. as < Babylon 
hath caused the slain of Israel to fall, so at Babylon 
shall fall the slain of all the earth. Ezek. xxv. 3, &c. 
6 because thou saidst, Aha, against my sanctuary . 
xxviii. 24. i there shall be no more a pricking brier 
unto the house of Israel. xxxv. 5, &c. because thou 
hast had a perpetual hatred . Joel iii. 2, &c. ; I 
will bring them down into the valley of Jehoshaphat 
. Amos i. 3, &c. for three transgressions of Da 
mascus . Obad. 10, &c. for thy violence against 
thy brother Jacob. Micah iv. 13. arise and thresh, 
O daughter of Zion. Zech. xii. 3, &c. I will make 
Jerusalem a burthensome stone for all people . Rev. 
xix. 2. he hath avenged the blood of his servants at 
her hand. 

The great enemy of the church is called Antichrist, 
who according to prediction is to arise from the church 
itself. 2 Thess. ii. 3, &c. that man of sin, the son 
of perdition, who opposeth and exalteth himself above 
all that is called God, or that is worshipped ; so that 
he as God sitteth in the temple of God, showing him- 


self that he is God. 1 John ii. 18, &c. i even now 

are there many antichrists they went out from us. 

iv. 3. every spirit that confesseth not that Jesus 
Christ is come in the flesh, is not of God ; and this is 
that spirit of antichrist, whereof ye have heard that it 
should come. 2 John 7. many deceivers are en 
tered into the world, who confess not that Jesus Christ 
is come in the flesh : this is a deceiver and an anti 
christ. See also nearly the whole of the latter part 
of Revelations, from chap. xiii. to the end of the 

The frauds and persecutions practised by the ene 
mies of the church are of various kinds. Numb. xxxi. 
16. behold, these caused the children of Israel, 
through the counsel of Balaam, to commit trespass 
against Jehovah . compared with Rev. ii. 14. Neh. 
vi. 6, &;c. he pronounced this prophecy against me ; 
for Tobiah and Sanballat had hired him. Ezra iv. 
12. the rebellious and the bad city. See also Neh. 
ii. 19. Esther iii. 8. there is a certain people scat 
tered abroad and dispersed among the people in all the 
provinces of thy kingdom ; and their laws are diverse 
from all people, neither keep they the king s laws. 
Jer. xxvi. 8. the priests took him. xxix. 26. 4 Jeho 
vah hath made thee priest in the stead of Jehoiada the 

priest that thou shouldest put him in prison and 

in the stocks. Amos vii. 10, 13. then Amaziah the 
priest of Bethel sent . Matt. v. 10, 11. blessed 
are they which are persecuted . x. 25. if they have 
called the master Beelzebub, how much more shall 
they call them of his household ? Gal. iv. 29. but 
as then he that was born after the flesh persecuted him 


that was born after the Spirit, even so it is now. 
Heb. xi. 36, fee. * others had trial of cruel mockings 
and scourgings . 

Hence we are enjoined to flee from persecution, and 
the precept is confirmed by the example of Elijah, 1 
Kings xix. 3. of Joseph, Matt. ii. 13. and x. 16, 17. 
4 behold, I send you forth as sheep in the midst of 

wolves but beware of men, for they will deliver 

you up to the councils. v. 23. when they persecute 
you in this city, flee ye into another; of Christ, 
Matt. xii. 15. Luke iv. 30. John viii. 59. xi. 54. of 
the disciples, Acts viii. 4. of Paul and Barnabas, xiv. 
6. 2 Cor. xi. 32, 33. Rev. xii. 6. the woman fled 
into the wilderness. v. 14. * to the woman were given 
two wings . Except where flight would not be 
conducive to the glory of God. Hence Paul declares, 
Acts xxi. 13. I am ready not to be bound only, but 
also to die. 

There are appropriate consolations for the perse 
cuted. Matt. x. 32. whosoever shall confess me 
before men, him will I confess also. Luke xii. 4, 5, 
fee. be not afraid of them that kill the body. xxi. 
18, 19. there shall not an hair of your head perish/ 
John xv. 18 20. if the world hate you, ye know 
that it hated me before it hated you. Acts v. 41. 
4 rejoicing that they were counted worthy to suffer 
shame for his name. Rom. viii. 35, fee. who shall 

separate us shall persecution ? 2 Cor. iv. 8, 9. 

4 we are persecuted, but not forsaken. Philipp. ii. 
17. if I be offered upon the sacrifice of your faith, 
I joy. 2 Tim. iii. 12. all that will live godly in 
Christ Jesus, shall suffer persecution. 1 Pet, iv. 14. 
; if ye be reproached for the name of Christ, happy 


are ye. v. 16. if any man suffer as a Christian, let 
him not be ashamed. 

A compensation is also promised. Mark x. 30. he 
shall receive an hundred-fold. Luke vi. 23. behold, 
your reward is great in heaven. Rom. viii. 18. i I 
reckon that the sufferings of this present time are not 
worthy to be compared with the glory which shall be 
revealed in us. 2 Thess. i. 6, 7. tribulation to them 
that trouble you ; and to you who are troubled rest 
with us. Heb. x. 34. knowing in yourselves that 
ye have in heaven a better and an enduring substance. 
v. 36. that ye might receive the promise. xi. 26. 
i he had respect unto the recompense of the reward. 



THE bond by which a particular church is held to 
gether, is its discipline* 

Church discipline consists in a mutual agreement 
among the members of the church to fashion their 
lives according to Christian doctrine, and to regulate 
every thing in their public meetings decently and with 
order. Rom. xii. 4. to the end of the chapter. Eph. 
iv. 1 3. I therefore, the prisoner of the Lord, be 
seech you that ye walk worthy of the vocation where 
with ye are called, with all lowliness and meekness, 
with long-suffering, forbearing one another in love ; 
endeavouring to keep the unity of the Spirit in the 
bond of peace. Col. iii. 16. i let the word of Christ 
dwell in you richly in all wisdom, teaching and ad 
monishing one another in psalms and hymns and 
spiritual songs, singing with grace in your hearts unto 
the Lord. 1 Thess. iv. 18. comfort one another with 

* Let whoso will interpret or determine, so it be according to true 
church discipline, which is exercised on them only who have willingly 
joined themselves in that covenant of union. Treatise of Civil Power in 
Ecclesiastical Causes. Prose Works, III. 323. 

VOL. ii. 26 


these words. Heb. iii. 13. exhort one another daily, 
while it is called to-day, lest any of you be hardened 
through the deceitfulness of sin. x. 24. i let us con 
sider one another to provoke unto love and to good 
works. 1 Cor. xi, 17, 18. I praise you not, that 
ye come together not for the better, but for the 
worse ; for first of all, when ye come together in the 
church, I hear that there be divisions among you. 
xiv. 40. ; let all things be done decently and in order. 
Col. ii. 5. t though I be absent in the flesh, yet am I 
with you in the spirit, joying, and beholding your 
order, and the stedfastness of your faith in Christ. 

It is a prudent, as well as a pious custom, to sol 
emnize the formation or re-establishment of a partic 
ular church by a public renewal of the covenant ; as 
was frequently done in the reformations of the Jewish 
church ; Deut. xxix. 1. l these are the words of the 
covenant which Jehovah commanded Moses to make 
with the children of Israel in the land of Moab, be 
side the covenant \vhich he made with them in 
Horeb. The same took place under Asa, Ezra, 
Nehemiah, and others. 

So also, when an individual unites himself to a 
particular church, it is requisite that he should enter 
into a solemn covenant with God and the church, to 
conduct himself in all respects, both towards the one 
and the other, so as to promote his own edification 
and that of his brethren. This covenant ought prop 
erly to take place in baptism, as being the rite ap 
pointed for the admission of all persons (that is, of all 
adults) into the church. Seeing, also, that most men 
are liable to a frequent change of residence, it will be 
necessary that this promise should be repeated so 



often as they pass from one particular church to 
another, unless they are provided with the most satis 
factory testimonials from some other orthodox church ; 
this being apparently the only means by which disci 
pline can be adequately maintained, or prevented 
from sinking into gradual decline and dissolution. 

The custom of holding assemblies is to be main 
tained, not after the present mode, but according to 
the apostolical institution, which did not ordain that, 
an individual, and he a stipendiary, should have the 
sole right of speaking from a higher place, but that 
each believer in turn should be authorized to speak, 
or prophesy, or teach, or exhort, according to his 
gifts ; insomuch that even the weakest among the 
brethren had the privilege of asking questions, and 
consulting the elders and more experienced members 
of the congregation. 1 Cor. xiv. 26, &c. * when ye 
come together, every one of you, &c. 

This custom was derived by the apostles from the 
synagogue, and transferred by them to the churches. 
Luke ii. 46. hearing them, and asking them ques 
tions. * iv. 16. he stood up for to read. Compare 
also other places where Christ is related to have 
taught in the synagogue, and even in the temple, 
Matt. xxvi. 55. John vii. 14. a permission which was 
granted to him, not as Christ, but simply as a gifted 
individual, in the same manner as it was afterwards 
granted to the apostles. Acts xiii, 5. they preached 

* At our great feast 

I went into the temple, there to hear 

The teachers of our law, and to propose 

What might improve my knowledge or their own. 

Paradise, Regained ^ I. 210. 


the word of God in the synagogues of the Jews. 
v. 15. i after the reading of the law and the prophets, 
the rulers of the synagogue sent unto them, saying, 
Ye men and brethren, if ye have any word of exhor 
tation for the people, say on. These rulers of the 
synagogue were persons appointed to see that all 
things were done in order. Mark v. 22. one of the 
rulers of the synagogue. Luke viii, 41* a ruler of 
the synagogue. xiii, 14. 4 the ruler of the synagogue 
answered with indignation, because that Jesus had 
healed on the sabbath day. Acts xiii. 15. as 
above, &c. 

Women, however^ are enjoined to keep silence in 
the church. 1 Cor. xiv. 34, 35. let your women 
keep silence in the churches, for it is not permitted 
unto them to speak, but they are commanded to be 
under obedience, as saith the law (Gen. iii, 16.) ; and 
if they will learn any thing, let them ask their hus 
bands at home ; for it is a shame for women to speak 
in the church. 1 Tim. ii. 11, 12. let the woman 
learn in silence in all subjection : but I suffer not a 
woman to teach, nor to usurp authority over the man, 
but to be in silence. * 

* The texts quoted in this paragraph appear to have been in Milton s 
mind in that passage of Paradise Lost, where Eve is represented as retiring 
from table as soon as she perceived from Adam s countenance that the 
conversation was beginning to assume an abstruse cast : 

Such pleasure she reserved, 
Adam relating, she sole audilress ; 
Her husband the relater, she preferred 
Before the angel, and of him to ask 
Chose rather. VIM. 50. 

This same decorum is observed subsequently, when Eve is not permitted to 
see the vision which Michael displays to Adam from the highest hill of 


The administration of discipline is called, the 
power of the keys ; * a power not committed to Peter 
and his successors exclusively, or to any individual 
pastor specifically, but to the whole particular church 
collectively, of whatever number of members com 
posed. Matt, xvi, 19. I will give unto thee the keys 
of the kingdom of heaven ; and whatsoever thou shalt 
bind on earth, shall be bound in heaven, compared 

with xviii, 17 20. tell it unto the church verily 

I say unto you, Whatsoever ye shall bind on earth 
shall be bound in heaven, and whatsoever ye shall 
loose on earth shall be loosed in heaven : again, I say 
unto you, that if two of you shall agree on earth, as 
touching any thing that they shall ask, it shall be done 
for them of my Father which is in heaven : for 
where two or three are gathered together in my name, 
there am I in the midst of them. John xx, 22, 23. 
6 when he had said this, he breathed on them, and 
saith unto them, Receive ye the Holy Ghost ; whose 
soever sins ye remit, they are remitted unto them ; 
and whose soever sins ye retain, they are retained. 
1 Cor. v. 4. when ye are gathered together, and my 

Paradise. On descending from the specular mount 1 to (he bower where 
Eve had been left sleeping, the angel says to his companion, 

Thou, at season fit, 

Let her with thee partake what thou hast heard ; 
Chiefly what may concern her faith to know. XII. 597. 

* Surely much rather might the heavenly n.inistry of the evangel hind 
himself about with far more piercing beams of majt-sty and awe, by wanting 
the beggarly help of halings and amercements in the use of her powerful 
keys. Reason of Church, Government urged against Prelaty. Prose 
Works, I. 131. The church in all ages, primitive, Romish, or Protestant, 
held it ever no less their duty, than the power of their keys, 1 c. Tenure 
of Kings and Magistrates. Ibid. 290. 


spirit. 2 Cor. ii. 7, 8. ye ought rather to forgive 
him wherefore I beseech you that ye would con 
firm your love toward him. Rev. iii. 7, 8. these 
things saith he that is holy, he that is true, he that hath 
the key of David, he that openeth, and no man shut- 

teth ; and shutteth, and no man openeth behold, 1 

have set before thee an open door, and no man can 
shut it. 

The administration of discipline consists, first, in 
receiving and treating with gentleness the weak or 
lapsed members of the church. Rom. xiv. 1. < him 
that is weak in the faith receive ye, but not to doubt 
ful disputations. Gal. vi. 1. brethren, if a man be 
overtaken in a fault, ye which are spiritual restore 
such an one in the spirit of meekness, considering 
thyself, lest thou also be tempted. Matt, ix, 16. i no 
man putteth a piece of new cloth unto an old garment ; 
for that which is put in to fill it up taketh from the 
garment, and the rent is made worse. John xvi. 12. 
I have yet many things to say unto you, but ye can 
not bear them now. 1 Thess. v. 14. comfort the 
feeble-minded, support the weak. Jude 22, 23. < of 
some have compassion, making a difTerence. It 
was for the sake of such that those temporary de 
crees were made, Acts xv. For similar reasons Paul 
circumcised Timothy, xvi. 3. and purified himself in 
the temple, xxi. 26. 

Secondly, in composing differences between the 
brethren, Matt, xviii. 17. if he shall neglect to hear 
them, tell it to the church. 

Thirdly, in admonishing, or openly rebuking 
grievous offenders. 1 Tim. v. 20. them that sin 
rebuke before all. Tit. iii. 10. < a man that is an 


heretic, after the first and second admonition reject. 1 
1 Cor. iv. 21. shall I come unto you with a rod, or 
in love, and in the spirit of meekness ? 2 Cor. ii. 6. 
sufficient to such a man is this punishment, which 
was inflicted of many. 1 Thess. v. 14. warn them 
that are unruly. 1 Tim. v. 1. rebuke not an elder. 
3 John 10. if I come, I will remember his deeds 
which he doeth. 

Fourthly, in separating the disobedient from the 
communion of the church. Rom. xvi. 17. I beseech 
you, brethren, mark them which cause divisions and 
offences contrary to the doctrine which ye have learn 
ed, and avoid them. 1 Cor. v. 11. with such an 
one no not to eat. 2 Thess. iii. 6. we command 
you, brethren, in the name of our Lord Jesus Christ, 
that ye withdraw yourselves from every brother that 
walketh disorderly, and not after the tradition which 
he received of us. v. 14. if any man obey not our 
word by this epistle, note that man, and have no com 
pany with him, that he may be ashamed. 2 John 
10, 11. if there come any unto you, and bring 
not this doctrine, receive him not into your house, 
neither bid him God speed ; for he that biddeth him 
God speed, is partaker of his evil deeds. Rev. ii. 14. 
I have a few things against thee, because thou hast 
there them that hold the doctrine of Balaam. 

Or even, lastly, in ejecting them from the church ;* 
not however for their destruction, but rather for their 

* Quos ecclesiae est e coetu fidr-Hum ejicere, non masfMtratoum e civitate 
pellere, siqnidern in leges civiles non peccant. Pro Populo dtnglictmo 
Defenrio. Prose Works, V. 47. The various degrees of church censure, 
its design, and its effects, are described in a most eloquent passage of the 
treatise on Church Government^ &c. I. 140 142. Compare also p. 53, 54. 
Of Reformation in England. 


preservation, if so they may be induced to repent ; as 
was done in the ancient synagogue, John ix. 22. 34. 
\ii. 42. Matt, xviii. 17. if he neglect to hear the 
church, let him be unto thee as an heathen man and a 
publican. 1 Cor. v. 5. deliver such an one unto 
Satan (that is, give him over again to the world, 
which, as being out of the pale of the church, is the 
kingdom of Satan,) i for the destruction of the flesh, 
that the spirit may be saved in the day of the Lord 
Jesus. 2 Cor. ii. 7, 8. so that contrariwise ye ought 
rather to forgive him, and comfort him, lest perhaps 
such an one should be swallowed up with overmuch 
sorrow. xiii. 10. therefore I write these things, be 
ing absent, lest being present I should use sharpness, 
according to the power which the Lord hath given 
me to edification, and not to destruction. 2 Thess. iii. 
15. yet count him not as an enemy, but admonish 
him as a brother. 1 Tim. i. 20. whom I have de 
livered unto Satan, that they may learn not to blas 
pheme. Rev. ii. 2. I know thy patience, and how 
thou canst not bear them that are evil. 

There are some, however, who may justly be con 
sidered irrecoverable. 1 Cor. xvi. 22. if any man 
love not the Lord Jesus Christ, let him be Anathema, 
Maran-atha; by which form of words an incurable 
sinner is abandoned to the dreadful judgment of the 
Lord at his final advent. 1 John v. 16. there is a 
sin unto death ; I do not say that he shall pray for it. 

The civil power differs from the ecclesiastical in 
the following respects. First, every man is subject to 
the civil power ; that is to say, in matters properly 
civil. Rom. xiii. 1: let every soul be subject unto 
the higher powers. On the contrary, none but the 


members of the church are subject to ecclesiastical 
power, and that only in religious matters, with a 
liability to ecclesiastical punishment alone, that is, to 
punishment inflicted by their own body : Matt, xviii. 

15, 16. if thy brother shall trespass against thee 

tell it unto the church ; if he neglect to hear the 
church, let him be unto thee as an heathen man and 
a publican. John viii. 11. neither do I condemn 
thee. 1 Cor. v. 11 13. now 1 have written unto 
you not to keep company, if any man that is called a 

brother be a fornicator with such an one no not to 

eat : for what have I to do to judge also them that 
are without ? Secondly, the civil power has dominion 
only over the body and external faculties of man ; the 
ecclesiastical is exercised exclusively on the faculties 
of the mind, which acknowledge no other jurisdic 
tion.* Luke xii. 14. who made me a judge or a 
divider over you? Acts v. 4. whiles it remained, 
was it not thine own ? 1 Cor. vi. 4. if then ye have 
judgments of things pertaining to this life, set them to 
judge who are least esteemed in the church. 2 Cor. 
x. 3, 4. though we walk in the flesh, we do not war 
after the flesh ; for the weapons of our warfare are 

* Especially for that the church hath in her immediate cure those inner 
parts and affections of the mind, where the seat of reason is. Reason of 
Church Government, &c. Prose Works, I. 79. l The magistrate hath 
only to deal with the outward part. ...God hath committed this other office, 
of preserving in healthful constitution the inner man, to his spiritual deputy, 
the minister of each congregation," &c. Ibid. 134. c Christ hath a govern 
ment of his own....It deals only with the inward man and Lis action?, which 
are all spiritual and to outward force not liable. Treatise of Civil Power 
in Ecclesiastical Causes, III. 331. 

this attracts the soul, 

Governs the inner man, the nobler part ; 

That other o er the body only reigns. Paradise Regained, H. 476. 

ii. 27 


not carnal . James iv. 12. there is one lawgiver 
who is able to save and to destroy ; who art thou. 
that judgest another ? Nay, we are expressly enjoined 
not to suffer ourselves to be governed by the com 
mandments of men in matters of religion. 1 Cor. vii. 
23. ye are bought with a price ; be not ye the ser 
vants of men. Thirdly, the civil power punishes 
even such as confess their faults ; the ecclesiastical, 
on the contrary, pardons all who are penitent. John 
viii. 7. * when they continued asking him, he lifted 
up himself, and said unto them, He that is without 
sin among you, let him first cast a stone at her. 

The power of the church against those who despise 
her discipline is exceedingly great and extensive. 
2 Cor. x. 4, &c. the weapons of our warfare are not 
carnal, but mighty through God to the pulling down 
of strong holds ; casting down imaginations, and 
every high thing that exalteth itself against the 
knowledge of God, and bringing into captivity every 
thought to the obedience of Christ ; and having in a 
readiness to revenge all disobedience. 

It is therefore highly derogatory to the power of 
the church, as well as an utter want of faith, to sup 
pose that her government cannot be properly admin 
istered without the intervention of the civil magis 



IN the twenty-fifth chapter I treated of that imperfect 
glorification to which believers attain in this life. I 
now proceed to consider, lastly, that perfect glorifica 
tion which is effected in eternity. 

Before the law this was typified by the translation 
of Enoch, Gen. v. 24. as it was under the law by 
that of Elijah, 2 Kings ii. 11. 

Its fulfilment and consummation will commence 
from the period of Christ s second coming to judg 
ment, and the resurrection of the dead. Luke xxi. 
28. when these things begin to come to pass, then 
look up, and lift up your heads, for your redemption 
draweth nigh. 2 Thess. i. 7. to you who are 
troubled rest with us, when the Lord Jesus shall be 
revealed from heaven. 

The coming of the Lord to judgment, when he 
shall judge the world with his holy angels, was pre 
dicted, first, by Enoch and the prophets ; afterwards 
by Christ himself and his apostles. Jude 1,4, 15. 


i Enoch also, the seventh from Adam, prophesied of 
these, saying, Behold, the Lord cometh with ten 
thousand of his saints, to execute judgment upon all, 
and to convince all that are ungodly among them of 
all their ungodly deeds which they have ungodly com 
mitted, and of all their hard speeches which ungodly 
sinners have spoken against him. Dan. vii. 22. 
4 until the Ancient of days came, and judgment was 
given to the saints of the Most High. Matt. xxv. 31. 
4 the Son of man shall come in his glory, and all the 
holy angels with him. Acts i. 11. this same Jesus.... 
shall so come in like manner as ye have seen him go 
into heaven. x. 42. it is he which was ordained of 
God to be the judge of quick and dead. xvii. 31. he 
hath appointed a day in the which he will judge the 
world in righteousness by that man whom he hath 

ordained in that he hath raised him from the dead. 5 

2 Thess. i. 7, 8. * the Lord Jesus shall be revealed 
from heaven with his mighty angels. 

The day and hour of Christ s coming are known to 
the Father only. Matt. xxiv. 36. Mark xiii. 32. l of 
that day and that hour knoweth no man. Acts i. 7. 
4 it is not for you to know the times or the seasons 
which the Father hath put in his own power. Dan. 
xii. 8, 9. then said I, O my lord, what shall be the 
end of these things? and he said, Go thy way, 
Daniel ; for the words are closed up and sealed till 
the time of the end. The treatise of Zanchius De 
fine sceculi) torn. vii. may be likewise advantageously 
consulted on this subject. 

Hence it will be sudden. Matt. xxv. 6. at mid 
night there was a cry made, Behold, the bridegroom 
vometh ; go ye out to meet him. Luke xvii. 26, &c. 


; as it was in the days of Noe likewise also as it 

was in the days of Lot. xxi. 34, 35, take heed to 

yourselves, lest at any time, &c and so that 

day come upon you unawares ; for as a snare shall it 
come upon all them that dwell on the face of the 
whole earth. 1 Thess. v. 2, 3. ; for yourselves 
know perfectly, that the day of the Lord so cometh 
as a thief in the night : for when they shall say, 
Peace and safety, then sudden destruction cometh 
upon them. 

Certain signs however are pointed out by Christ 
and his apostles as indicative of its approach ; Matt. 
xxiv. 3 27. Mark xiii. Luke xxi. These signs are 
either general or peculiar. 

The general signs are those which relate equally to 
the destruction of Jerusalem, the type of Christ s 
advent, and to the advent itself; such as false 
prophets, false Christs, wars, earthquakes, persecu 
tions, pestilence, famine, and the gradual decay of 
faith and charity, down to the very day itself. * Matt. 
xx i v . 327. 2 Tim. iii. 1, &c, > 

The peculiar signs are, first, an extreme reckless 
ness and impiety, and an almost universal apostasy. 
Luke xviii. 8. when the Son of man cometh, shall 
he find faith on the earth ? 2 Tliess. ii. 3. that day 
shall not come, except there come a falling away 
first. Compare also 1 Tim. iv. 1. 

* truth shall retire 

Bestuck with sland rous darts, and works of faith 

Rarely be found: so shall the world go on, 

To good malignant, to bad men benign, 

Under her own weight groaning; till the day 

Appear of respiration to the just, 

And vengeance to the wicked. Paradise Lost, XII, 53f>, 


Secondly, the revealing of antichrist, and his de 
struction by the spirit of the mouth of Christ. 2 Thess. 
ii. 3. that man of sin shall be revealed, the son of 
perdition . v. 8. and then shall that wicked be re 
vealed, whom the Lord shall consume with the spirit 
of his mouth, and shall destroy with the brightness of 
his coming. 

Some refer to the same event another sign, namely, 
the calling of the entire nation of the Jews, as well as 
of the ten dispersed tribes.* Isai. xi. 11, 12. it 
shall come to pass in that day, that Jehovah shall set 
his hand again the second time . xiv. 1. Jehovah 
will have mercy on Jacob, and will yet choose Israel, 
and set them in their own land. xxvii. 12. Jehovah 
shall beat off from the channel of the river unto the 
stream of Egypt. Jer. iii. 12. return, thou back 
sliding Israel. v. 18. in those days the house of 
Judah shall walk with the house of Israel. xxx. 3. 
I will bring again the captivity of my people Israel 
and Judah. xxxi. 5. thou shalt yet plant vines upon 
the mountains of Samaria. v. 36, &c. if those ordi 
nances depart from before me . xxxiii. 7. I will 
cause the captivity of Judah arid the captivity of 
Israel to return . Ezek. xx. 42. ye shall know 
that I am Jehovah, when I shall bring you into the 
land of Israel. xxxvii. 21, 22. I will make them 

* Compare Paradise Regained, III. 433. especially with reference to the 
passage quoted from Isaiah xxvii. 

Yet he at length (time to himself best known) 
Remembering Abraham, by some wond rous call 
May bring them back, repentant and sincere, 
And at their passing cleave the Assyrian flood, 
While to their native land with joy they haste, 
As the Red Sea and Jordan once he cleft, 
When to the promis d land their fathers pass d. 


one nation in the land . Hos. iii. 5. afterward 
shall the children of Israel return. Amos ix. 14, 15. 
< I will bring again the captivity of my people of 
Israel. Zech. viii. 23. l in those days it shall come 

to pass that ten men shall take hold of him that is 

a Jew, &c. xii. 4, &c. in that day, saith Jehovah, I 
will smite every horse with astonishment . Thus 
the Jews, on their return from the Babylonish captiv 
ity, Ezra vi. 1 7. offered for a sin-offering for all 
Israel, twelve he-goats, according to the number of 
the tribes of Israel, all which God still accounted as 
his own, though even to the present day they have 
not returned out of captivity. Luke xxi. 24. Jeru 
salem shall be trodden down of the Gentiles, until 
the times of the Gentiles be fulfilled. Rom. xi. 12, 
13. now if the fall of them be the riches of the 

world how much more their fulness ? v. 15. if the 

casting away of them be the reconciling of the world, 
what shall the receiving of them be ? v. 25. I would 
not, brethren, that ye should be ignorant of this mys 
tery that blindness in part is happened to Israel until 

the fulness of the Gentiles be come in : and so all 
Israel shall be saved. 

Christ will delay his coining. 2 Thess. ii. 1 3. 
4 now we beseech you, brethren, by the coming of 
6ur Lord Jesus Christ, and by our gathering together 
unto him, that ye be not soon shaken in mind, or be 
troubled, neither by spirit, nor by word, nor by letter 
as from us, as that the day of Christ is at hand : let 
no man seduce you by any means ; for that day shall 
not come, except there come a falling away first . 
2 Pet. iii. 3, 4. &c. there shall come in the last days 
scoffers,...saying, Where is the promise of his coming ? 


&c. to the end of the chapter ; where the reason of 
his delay is assigned. 

His advent will be glorious. Matt. xxiv. 27. as 
the lightning cometh out of the east, and shineth 
even unto the west, so shall also the coming of the 
Son of man be. v. 30. they shall see the Son of 
man coming in the clouds of heaven with power and 
great glory. See also Luke xxi. 27. Matt. xxv. 31. 
when the Son of man shall come in his glory, and all 
the holy angels with him, then shall he sit upon the 
throne of his glory. 1 Thess. iv. 16. the Lord 
himself shall descend from heaven with a shout, with 
the voice of the archangel, and with the trump of 
God. 2 Thess. i. 10. when he shall come to be 
glorified in his saints, and to be admired in all them 
that believe in that day. Tit. ii. 13. looking for 
that blessed hope, and the glorious appearing of the 
great God, and our Saviour Jesus Christ. Jude 14. 
behold, the Lord cometh, with ten thousand of his 


It will be terrible. Isai. Ixvi, 15, 16. behold, Je 
hovah will come with fire, and with his chariots like a 
whirlwind, to render his anger with fury, and his 
rebuke with flames of fire. xiii. 9, 10. compared 
with Matt. xxiv. 29,30. immediately after the 
tribulation of those days shall the sun be darkened, 
and the moon shall not give her light, and the stars 
shall fall from heaven, and the powers of the heavens 
shall be shaken. See also Mark xiii. 24, 25. Luke 
xxi. 25, 26. there shall be signs in the sun, and in 
the moon, and in the stars, and upon the earth 
distress of nations, with perplexity, the sea and 
the waves roaring, men s hearts failing them for 

, 217 

fear. 2 Thess. i. 7, 8. the Lord Jesus shall be 
revealed from heaven with his mighty angels, in 
/laming fire. Rev. vi. 12. to the end of the chap 
ter ; i lo, there was a great earthquake and the 

kings of the earth, and the great men, and the rich 

men, and the chief captains hid themselves in the 

dens and in the rocks of the mountains. 

The second advent of Christ will be followed by 
the resurrection of the dead and the last judgment. 

A belief in the resurrection of the dead existed 
even before the time of the gospel. Job xix. 25, 26, 
&c. I know that my Redeemer liveth, and that he 
shall stand at the latter day upon the earth ; and 
though after my skin worms destroy this body, yet 
in my flesh I shall see God. Psal. xvi. 10, &c. 
4 thou wilt not leave my soul in hell. xvii. 14, 15. 
c from men of the world which have their portion in 
this life. xlix. 14, 15. like sheep they are laid in 
the grave ; death shall feed on them, &c. Isai. li. 6, 

&;c. 4 the heavens shall vanish away like smoke 

but my salvation shall be for ever. xxvi. 19. thy 
dead men shall live, together with my dead body shall 
they arise ; awake and sing, ye that dwell in dust. 

Zech. iii. 7. thus saith Jehovah of hosts ; if, &c 

I will give thee places to walk among these that stand 
by. Dan. xii. 2. many of them that sleep in the 
dust of the earth shall awake ; some to everlasting 
life, and some to shame and everlasting contempt. 
Hos. xiii. 14. compared with 1 Cor. xv. 54. ( I will 
ransom thee from the power of the grave, I will re 
deem thce from death : O death, I will be thy 
plagues ; O grave I will be thy destruction. Acts 
-xxiv. 15. have hope toward God, which they them- 

VOL. IT. 28 

.selves also allow, that there shall be a resurrection of 
the dead, both of the just and unjust. xxvi. 6 8. 4 I 
stand and am judged for the hope of the promise made 

of God unto our fathers why should it be thought 

a thing incredible with you, that God should raise the 
dead? Heb. xi. 10. he looked for a city which 
hath foundations, whose builder and maker is God. 

This expectation was confirmed under the Gospel 
by the testimony of Christ. Matt. xii. 41. the men 
of Nineveh shall rise in judgment with this genera 
tion. John v. 28, 29. ; the hour is coming, in the 
which all that are in the graves shall hear his voice, 
and shall come forth, they that have done good, unto 
the resurrection of life, and they that have done evil 
unto the resurrection of damnation. See also vi. 39, 
40. and 1 Cor. vi. 14. xv. 52. < the trumpet shall 
sound, and the dead shall be raised incorruptible. 
2 Cor. iv. 14. knowing that he which raised up the 
Lord Jesus, shall raise up us also by Jesus, and shall 
present us with you. See also 1 Thess. iv. 14. 

To these testimonies from Scripture, may be added 
several arguments from reason in support of the doc 
trine. First, the covenant with God is not dissolved 
by death. Matt. xxii. 32. God is not the God of the 
dead, but of the living. Secondly, if there be no 
resurrection of the dead, then is Christ not risen. 
1 Cor. xv. 13 20. v. 23. every man in his own 
order ; Christ the first-fruits, afterward they that are 
Christ s at his coming. John xi. 25. Jesus said 
unto her, I am the resurrection and the life. Thirdly, 
were there no resurrection, the righteous would be of 
all men most miserable, and the wicked, who have 
a better portion in this life, most happy ; which 


would be altogether inconsistent with the providence 
and justice of God. 1 Cor. xv. 19. if in this life 
only we have hope in Christ . v. 30 32. why 
stand we in jeopardy every hour ? 

This resurrection will take place partly through 
the resuscitation of the dead, and partly through a 
sudden change operated upon the living. 

It appears indicated in Scripture that every man 
will rise numerically one and the same person. Job 
xix. 26, 27. chough after my skin worms destroy 
this body, yet in my flesh shall I see God : whom I 
shall see for myself, and mine eyes shall behold, and 
not another. 1 Cor. xv. 53. this corruptible must 
put on incorruption. 2 Cor. v. 4. not for that we 
would be unclothed, but clothed upon, that mortality 
might be swallowed up of life. v. 10. that every 
one may receive the things done in his body, accord 
ing to that he hath done, whether it be good or bad. 
Otherwise we should not be conformed to Christ, 
who entered into giory with that identical body of 
flesh and blood, wherewith he had died and risen 

The change to be undergone by the living is pre 
dicted 1 Cor. xv, 51. behold, I show you a mystery 

we shall all be changed. 1 Thess. iv. 15 18. 

i this we say unto you by the word of the Lord, that 
We which are alive and remain unto the coming of 


the Lord shall not prevent them which are asleep 

and the dead in Christ shall rise first : then we which 
are alive and remain shall be caught up together with 
them in the clouds, to meet the Lord in the air, and 
so shall we ever be with the Lord." 


The last judgment is that wherein Christ with the 
saints, arrayed in the glory and power of the Father, 
shall judge the evil angels, and the whole race of 

Arrayed in the glory and power of the Father. 
John v. 22. the Father judgeth no man, but hath 
committed all judgment unto the Son. v. 27. i he 
hath given him authority to execute judgment also, 
because he is the Son of man ; that is, because he 
is himself man.f So Acts xvii. 31. he will judge 
the world in righteousness by that man . Rom. 
ii. 16. in the day when God shall judge the secrets 
of men by Jesus Christ, according to my Gospel. 

With the saints. Matt. xix. 28. 4 ye which have 
followed me in the regeneration, when the Son of man 

* When thou, attended gloriously from heav n 
Shalt in the sky appear, and from thee send 
The summoning archangels to proclaim 
Thy dread tribunal ; forthwith from all winds 
The living, and forthwith the cited dead 
Of all past ages, to the general doom 
Shall hasten ; such a peal shall rouse their sleep. 
Then, all thy saints assembled, thou shalt judge 
Bad men and angels ; they, arraign d, shall sink 
Beneath thy sentence. Paradise Lost, II. 323. 

Thence shall come 

When this world s dissolution shall be ripe, 

With glory and power to judge both quick and dead. XII. 458, 

Last in the clouds from heav n to be reveal d 

In glory of the Father, to dissolve 

Satan with his perverted world. Ibid. 545. 

t Vicegerent Son, to thee I have transferred 

All judgment, whether in heaven, or earth, or hell. 

Easy it may be seen that I intend 

Mercy colleague with justice, sending thee. 

Man s friend, his mediator, his designed 

Both ransom and redeemer voluntary, 

And destin d maa himself to judge man fall n. Paradise Lost, X. 56, 


shall sit in the throne of his glory, ye also shall sit 
upon twelve thrones, judging the twelve tribes of 
Israel. See also Luke xxii. 30. 1 Cor. vi. 2, 3. do 
ye not know that the saints shall judge the world?.... 
know ye not that we shall judge angels ? 

Shall judge. Eccles. xii. 14. God shall bring 
every work into judgment, with every secret thing, 
whether it be good, or whether it be evil. Matt. xii. 
36, 37. every idle word that men shall speak, they 
shall give account thereof in the day of judgment ; for 
by thy words thou shalt be justified, and by thy words 
thou shalt be condemned ; that is to say where our 
actions do not correspond with our words.* Rom. 
xiv. 12. so then every one of us shall give account 
of himself to God. 1 Cor. iv. 5. l until the Lord 
come, who both will bring to light the hidden things 
of darkness, and will make manifest the counsels of 
the hearts ; and then shall every man have praise of 
God. -2 Cor. v. 10. that every one may receive the 
things done in his body, according to that he hath 
done, whether it be good or bad. 

The evil angels. 1 Cor. vi. 2, 3, as above. 

The whole race of mankind. Matt. xxiv. 31. c he 
shall send his angels with a great shout of a trumpet, 
and they shall gather together his elect from the four 
winds, from one end of heaven to the other. xxv. 32, 
&c. before him shall be gathered all nations ; and he 
shall separate them one from another, as a shepherd 

* only add 

Deeds to thy knowledge answerable. Paradise L*st, XII. 581. 
He who from such a kind of psalmistry, or any other verbal devotion, 
without the pledge and earnest of suitable deeds, can be persuaded of a 
real and tnn r ghteonsnets in the person, hatli yet much to learn. Answer 
to Eikon Basilike. Prose Works, II. 406. 


divideth his sheep from the goats. Rom. xiv. 10. we 
shall all stand before the judgment- seat of Christ. 
2 Cor. v. 10. we must all appear before the judg 
ment-seat of Christ. Rev. xx. 12, 13. I saw the 

dead, small and great, stand before God and the sea 

gave up the dead which were in it, and death and 
hell delivered up the dead which were in them. 

The rule of judgment will be the conscience of 
each individual, according to the measure of light 
which he has enjoyed. John xii. 48. he that reject- 
eth me, and receiveth not my words, hath one that 
judgeth him ; the word that I have spoken, the same 
shall judge him at the last day. Rom. ii. 12. as 
many as have sinned without law, shall also perish 
without law ; and as many as have sinned in the law 
shall be judged by the law. v. 14. when the Gen 
tiles, which have not the law, do by nature the things 
contained in the law, these having not the law, are a 
law unto themselves: which shew the work of the 
law written in their hearts, their consciences also 
bearing witness, and their thoughts the meanwhile 
accusing or else excusing one another ; in the day 
when God shall judge the secrets of men by Jesus 
Christ according to my gospel. James ii. 12. as 
they that shall be judged by the law of liberty. Rev. 
xx. 12. the books were opened; and another book 
was opened, which is the book of life ; and the dead 
were judged out of those things which were written 
in the books, according to their works. 

Coincident, as appears, with the time of this last 
judgment (I use the indefinite expression time, as the 
word day is often used to denote any given period, 
and as it is not easily imaginable that so many myriads 


of men and angels should be assembled and sentenc 
ed within a single day) beginning with its commence 
ment, and extending a little beyond its conclusion, 
will take place that glorious reign of Christ on earth 
with his saints, so often promised in Scripture, even 
until all his enemies shall be subdued. His kingdom 
of grace, indeed, which is also called the kingdom of 
heaven, began with his first advent, when its beginning- 
was proclaimed by John the Baptist, as appears from 
the testimony of Scripture ; but his kingdom of glory 
will not commence till his second advent. Dan. vii. 
13, 14. behold, one like the Son of man came with 
the clouds of heaven.... and there was given him do 
minion, and glory, and a kingdom ; given him, that 
is, from the time when he came with the clouds of 
heaven (in which manner his final advent is uniformly 
described) not to assume our nature as Junius inter 
prets it,* (for then he would have been like the Son 
of man before he became man, which w r ould be an 
incongruity) but to execute judgment ; from the period 
so indicated, to the time when he should lay down 
the kingdom, 1 Cor. xv. 24. then cometh the end, 
of which more shortly. That this reign will be on 
earth, is evident from many passages. Psal. ii. 8, 9. 
compared with Rev. ii. 25 27. I shall give thee 
the heathen for thine inheritance, and the uttermost 
parts of the eartli for thy possession ; thou shalt break 
them with a rod of iron ; thou shalt dash them in 
pieces like a potter s vessel. ex. 5, 6. Jehovah at 
thy right hand shall strike through kings in the day 
of his wrath: he shall judge among the heathen, he 

* * Venitbat ; perfecturus in terris mysteriuin redemption!? nostrae. 
Junius on Dan. vii. 13. 


shall fill the places with the dead bodies, he shall 
wound the heads over many countries. Isai. ix. 7. 
of the increase of his government and peace there 
shall be no end, upon the throne of David and upon 
his kingdom. Dan. vii. 22. until the Ancient of 
days came, and judgment was given to the saints of 
the most High, and the time came that the saints pos 
sessed the kingdom. v. 27. the kingdom, and domin 
ion, and the greatness of the kingdom under the 
whole heaven, shall be given to the people of the 
saints of the most High . Luke i. 32, 33. the 
Lord God shall give unto him the throne of his father 
David ; and he shall reign over the house of Jacob for 
ever, and of his kingdom there shall be no end. Matt. 
xix. 28. ye which have followed me, in the regener 
ation, when the Son of man shall sit in the throne of 
his glory, ye also shall sit upon twelve thrones, judg 
ing the twelve tribes of Israel. Luke xxii. 29, 30. 
6 1 appoint unto you a kingdom, as my father hath 
appointed unto me ; that ye may eat and drink at my 
table in my kingdom, and sit on thrones judging the 
twelve tribes of Israel. It appears that the judgment 
here spoken of will not be confined to a single day. 
but will extend through a great space of time ; and 
that the word is used to denote, not so much a judicial 
inquiry properly so called, as an exercise of dominion : 
in which sense Gideon, Jephthah, and the other judges 
are said to have judged Israel during many years. 
1 Cor. xv. 23 26. every man in his own order : 
Christ the first-fruits, afterward they that are Christ s 
at his coming : then cometh the end . Rev. v. 10. 
4 thou hast made us unto our God kings and priests, 
and we shall reign on the earth. xi. 15. the king- 


doms of this world are become the kingdoms of our 
Lord, and of his Christ ; and he shall reign for ever 
and ever. xx. 1 7. I saw thrones, and they sat 

upon them, and judgment was given unto them and 

they lived and reigned with Christ a thousand years : 
but the rest of the dead lived not again until the 
thousand years were finished : this is the first resur 
rection : blessed and holy is he that hath part in the 
first resurrection ; on such the second death hath no 
power, but they shall be priests of God and of Christ, 
and shall reign with him a thousand years. 

After the expiration of the thousand years Satan 
W 7 ill rage again, and assail the church at the head of 
an immense confederacy of its enemies ; but will be 
overthrown by fire from heaven, and condemned to 
everlasting punishment. Rev. xx. 7 9. when the 
thousand years are expired, Satan shall be loosed out 
of his prison, and shall go out to deceive the nations 
which are in the four quarters of the earth, Gog and 

Magog, to gather them together to battle 

and they compassed the camp of the saints about, 
and the beloved city ; and fire came down from God 
out of heaven, and devoured them. 2 Thes$. ii. 8. 
4 then shall that wicked be revealed, whom the Lord 
shall consume with the spirit of his mouth, and shall 
destroy with the brightness of his coming. 

After the evil angels and chief enemies of God 
have been sentenced, judgment will be passed upon 
the whole race of mankind. Rev. xx. 11 15. 
i I saw a great white throne, and him that sat on it, 

and I saw the dead, small and great, stand before 

God ; and the books were opened ; and another book 
was opened, which is the book of life : and the dead 

VOL. IT. 29 

were judged out of those things which were written 
in the books, according to their works : and the sea 
gave up the dead which was in it, and death and hell 
delivered up the dead which were in them ; and they 
were judged every man according to their works. 

Then, as appears, will be pronounced that sentence, 
Matt. xxv. 34. Come, ye blessed of my Father, inherit 
the kingdom prepared for you from the foundation of 
the world, v. 41. Depart from me, ye cursed, into 
everlasting Jire, prepared for the devil and his angels. 

The passing of the sentence will ba followed by 
its execution ; that is to say, by the punishment of 
the wicked, and the perfect glorification of the right 
eous. Matt. xxv. 46. these shall go away into 
everlasting punishment, but the righteous into life 
eternal. Rev. xx. 14, 15. death and hell were cast 
into the lake of fire : this is the second death : and 
whosoever was not found written in the book of life, 
was cast into the lake of fire. 

Then will be the end, spoken of, 1 Cor. xv. 24 28. 
then cometh the end, when he shall have delivered 
up the kingdom to God, even the Father, when he 
shall have put down all rule, and all authority, and 
power ; for he must reign till he hath put all enemies 
under his feet ; the last enemy that shall be destroyed 
is death ; for he hath put all things under his feet : 
but when he saith, all things are put under him, it is 
manifest that He is excepted, which did put all things 
under him : and when all things shall be subdued 
unto him, then shall the Son also himself be subject 
unto him that put all things under him, that God may 
be all in all. 


It may be asked, if Christ is to deliver up the king 
dom to God and the Father, what becomes of the 
declarations, Heb. i. 8. unto the Son lie saith, Thy 
throne, O God, is for ever and ever, (in sreculum 
saeculi, for ages of ages,) and Dan. vii. 14. his 
dominion is an everlasting dominion, which shall not 
pass away, and his kingdom that which shall not be 
destroyed ; Luke i. 33. 4 of his kingdom there shall 
be no end. I reply, there shall be no end of his 
kingdom for ages of ages , that is, so long as the ages 
of the world endure, until time itself, shall be no 
longer, Rev. x. 6. until every thing which his king 
dom was intended to effect shall have been accom 
plished ;* insomuch that his kingdom will not pass 
away as insufficient for its purpose ; it will not be 
destroyed, nor will its period be a period of dissolu 
tion, but rather of perfection and consummation, like 
the end of the law, Matt. v. 18. In the same man 
ner many other things are spoken of as never to pass 
away, but to remain eternally ; as circumcision, Gen. 
xvii. 13, the ceremonial law in general, Levit. iii. 17. 
xxiv. 8. the land of Canaan, Gen. xiii. 15. Jer. vii. 7. 
xxv. 5. the sabbath, Exod. xxxi. 16. the priest 
hood of Aaron, Numb, xviii. 8. the memorial of 
stones at the river Jordan, Josh. iv. 7. the signs of 
heaven, Psal. cxlviii. 6. the earth, Eccles. i. 4. 
although every one of these has either already come 
to an end, or will eventually be terminated. 

The second death is so termed with reference to 
the first, or death of the body. For the three other. 

* Then thou thy regal sceptre shalt lay by, 
For regal sceptre thou no more shalt need, 
God shall be all in all. Paradise Lost, III, 339. 


or preparatory degrees of death, see chap. xiii. on the 
punishment of sin. The fourth and last gradation is 
that of which we are now speaking, namely, eternal 
death, or the punishment of the damned. 

Under this death may be included, the destruction 
of the present unclean and polluted world itself, 
namely, its final conflagration.^ Whether by this is 
meant the destruction of the substance of the world 
itself, or only a change in the nature of its constituent 
parts, is uncertain, and of no importance to determine ; 
respecting the event itself, we are informed, so far as it 
concerns us to know, Job xiv. 12. till the heavens 
be no more. Psal. cii. 26. t they shall perish. Isai. 
xxx iv. 4. the heavens shall be rolled together as a 
scroll, and all their host shall fall down. li. 6. the 
heavens shall vanish away like smoke. Matt. xxiv. 
35. heaven and earth shall pass away. 1 Cor. vii. 
31. < the fashion of this world passeth away. 2 Pet. 

iii. 7. the heavens and the earth, which are now 

reserved unto fire against the day of judgment and 
perdition of ungodly men. v. 10. i in the which the 
heavens shall pass away with a great noise. v. 12. 
wherein the heavens being on fire . Rev. x. 6. 

6 he swav e by him that liveth for ever and ever 

that there should be time no longer. xxi. 1. the 
first heaven and the first earth were passed away, 
and there was no more sea. 

The second death, or the punishment of the damn 
ed, seems to consist partly in the loss of the chief 
good, namely, the favour and protection of God, and 
the beatific vision of his presence, which is commonly 

t meanwhile 

The world shall burn. HI. 333. 


called the punishment of loss ; and partly in eternal 
torment which is called the punishment of sense.* 
Matt. xxv. 41. * depart from me, ye cursed, into ever 
lasting fire, prepared for the devil and his angels/ 
Luke xiii. 27, 28. I know you not whence ye are ; 
depart from me, all ye workers of iniquity : there 
shall be weeping and gnashing of teeth, when ye shall 
see Abraham and Isaac and Jacob, and all the proph 
ets, in the kingdom of God, and you yourselves thrust 
out. xvi. 23. being in torments, he seeth Abraham 
afar off. 2 Thess. i. 9. who shall be punished with 
everlasting destruction from the presence of the Lord, 
and from the glory of his power. 

The intensity and duration of these punishments 
are variously intimated. Isai. xxx. 33. Tophet is 
ordained of old ; yea, for the king it is prepared : he 
hath made it deep and large ; the pile thereof is fire 
and much wood ; the breath of Jehovah, like a stream 
of brimstone, doth kindle it. Ixvi. 24. compared with 
Mark ix. 44. where their worm dieth not, and the 
fire is not quenched. Dan. xii. 2. i to shame and 
everlasting contempt. Matt. viii. 12. outer darkness, 
there shall be weeping and gnashing of teeth. See 
also xiii. 42, &c. Mark ix. 43. c fire that nev^r shall 
be quenched. Rom. ii. 8, 9. i indignation and Wrath, 
tribulation and anguish. 2 Thess. i. 9. < who shall be 
punished with everlasting destruction. Rev. xiv. 11. 

* l Quidam enim eorum consent peccatum originis puniri tanlum pcena 
damni ; alii vero insuper ei pcenam s ensus adjnngunt. Disserlatio Secunda 
de Peccalo Originis, Curcell. 61. To which two heads, all that is neces 
sary to be known concerning this everlasting punishment may be reduced ; 
and we shall accordingly consider it as it is both posna damni and pcena 
scnsus, the punishment of loss and the punishment of sense. Beveridge. 
Works, Vol. II. 449. See also Taylor, Works IX. 369. 


* the smoke of their torment ascendeth up for ever and 
ever, and they have no rest day nor night. See also 
xix. 3. xxi. 8. they shall have their part in the lake 
which burneth with fire and brimstone. 

Punishment, however, varies according to the de 
gree of guilt. Matt. xi. 22. 4 it shall be more tolera 
ble for Tyre and Sidon at the day of judgment, than 
for you. Luke xii. 47, 48. he shall be beaten with 
many stripes he shall be beaten with few stripes. 

The place of punishment is called Hell; Tophet* 
Isai. xxx. 33. hell fire, Matt. v. 22. and still more 
distinctly x. 28. outer darkness, viii. 12. xxii. 13. 
xxv. 30, a furnace of fire, xiii. 42. Hades, Luke xvi. 
23 ; and elsewhere ; a place of torment, v. 28. the 
bottomless pit, Rev. ix. 1. the lake of fire, xx. 15. 
4 the lake which burneth with fire and brimstone, xxi. 
8. Hell appears to be situated beyond the limits of 
this universe. Luke xvi. 26. between us and you 
there is a great gulf fixed, so that they which would 
pass from hence to you cannot. Matt. viii. 12. outer 
darkness. Rev. xxii. 14, 15. they may enter in 
through the gates into the city ; for without are dogs. 
Nor are reasons wanting for this locality ; for as the 
place of the damned is the same as that prepared for 
the devil and his angels, Matt. xxv. 41. in punish 
ment of their apostasy, which occurred before the fall 
of man, it does not seem probable that hell should 
have been prepared within the limits of this world, in 
the bowels of the earth, on which the curse had not 
as yet passed. f This is said to have been the opinion 

* Tophet thence 

And black Gehenna calPd, the type of hell. Paradise Lost, I. 404. 
t In the argument to the first book of Paradise Lost, hell is described as 
situated l not in the center (for heaven and earth may be supposed as yet no 


of Chrysostom, as likewise of Luther and some later 
divines.* Besides, if, as has been shown from vari 
ous passages of the New Testament, the whole world 
is to be finally consumed by fire, it follows that 
hell being situated in the centre of the earth, must 
share the fate of the surrounding universe, and perish 
likewise ; a consummation more to be desired than 
expected by the souls in perdition. 

Thus far of the punishment of the wicked ; it re 
mains to speak of the perfect glorification of the 

Perfect glorification consists in eternal life and per 
fect happiness, arising chiefly from the divine vision. t 
It is described Psal. xvi. 11. thou wilt show me the 

made, certainly not yet accursed] but in a place of utter (i e. outer) dark 
ness, fitliest called Chaos. 

K} TTGV, tyr}, x,*i iv Troita %apiip OLUTH e<rTx.t Jt yisvvct \ T/ a-oi TOVTOV 
yap ^"XTO^IVOV, filial drt e<rr/x, ow TTOV Wlttpi/IWMI, c*i tv Troiy %tofi<# 

TToiy TOJTto, <!T<V, fff-TAl \ l^Ui 5TOt/, f tyuyt OlfAOU, TQV )V>ffJI.QU TTOVTW TTAVTOf. 

yap T&V faa-iKtiuv TOE fto-fAUTHftta. x,xi rut fJitTAKKat. Trbfpoo fittrrmttv , MPT* ^>) **/ T>}C 
tl)tovju.iv>tt Tiwrnf |u TTOU sfrat yttvva.. Chrjsost. in Ep. ad Rom. Homil. 31, 
Milton elsewhere refers to the locality of hell : 

Such place eternal justice had prepared 

For those rebellious ; here their prison ordain d 

In utter darkness, and their portion set 

As far removed from God and light of heaven, 

As from the center thrice to th utmost pole. Paradise Lost, I. 70, 
Again : 4 to banish forever into a local hell, whether in the air or in the 
center, or in that uttermost and bottomless gulf of Chaos, deeper from holy 
bliss than the world s diameter multiplied, they thought not a punishment 
so proper and proportionate for God to inflict, as to punish sin with sin. 
Doctrine and Discipline of Divorce. Prose Works, II. 11. 

t The distinction which Milton makes between the beginnings of bliss 
which are attainable in this life, and that perfect glorification which will 
ensue hereafter, coincides with the expressions in the Hymn on the 
Nativity : 

And then at last our bliss 
Full and perfect is, 

But now begins, xviii. 165. 


path of life ; in thy presence is fulness of joy ; at thy 
right hand there are pleasures for evermore. xvii. 15. 
1 1 will behold thy face in righteousness ; I shall be 
satisfied, when I awake, with thy likeness. Dan. xii. 
3. they that be wise shall shine as the brightness of 
the firmament, and they that turn many to righteous 
ness as the stars for ever and ever. Matt. xiii. 43. 
then shall the righteous shine forth as the sun in the 
kingdom of their Father. xxii. 30. they are as the 
angels of God in heaven. v. 8. blessed are the pure 
in heart, for they shall see God. 1 Cor. ii. 9. as it 
is written, Eye hath not seen, nor ear heard, neither 
have entered into the heart of man, the things which 
God hath prepared for them that love him. xiii. 12. 
1 now we see through a glass, darkly, but then face to 
face ; now I know in part, but then shall I know even 
as also I am known. xv. 42, 43. so also is the re 
surrection of the dead : it is sown in corruption, it is 
raised in incorruption ; it is sown in dishonour, it is 
raised in glory ; it is sown in weakness, it is raised in 
power ; it is sown a natural body, it is raised a spirit 
ual body. 2 Cor. iv. 17. a far more exceeding and 
eternal weight of glory. v. 1. c we know that if our 
earthly house of this tabernacle were dissolved, we 
have a building of God, a house not made with hands, 
eternal in the heavens. Eph. ii. 6. hath raised us 
up together, and made us sit together in heavenly 
places in Christ Jesus. Philipp. iii. 21. who shall 
change our vile body, that it may be fashioned like 
unto his glorious body. 1 Thess. iv. 17. we shall 
be caught up together with them into the clouds, to 
meet the Lord in the air, and so shall w r e ever be with 
the Lord. 2 Tim. iv. 8. henceforth there is laid up 


for me a crown of righteousness, which the Lord, the 
righteous Judge, shall give me at that day, and not to 
me only, but to all them also that love his appearing. 
1 Pet. i. 4. an inheritance incorruptible, and unde- 
filed, and that fadeth not away, reserved in heaven for 
you. v. 4 * when the chief shepherd shall appear, ye 
shall receive a crown of glory that fadeth not away. 
v. 10. who hath called us unto his eternal glory by 
Christ Jesus. 1 John iii. 2. we know that when 
he shall appear we shall be like him, for we shall see 

him as he is. Rev. vii. 14 17. these are they 

therefore are they before the throne of God, and serve 
him day and night in his temple ; and he that sitteth 
on the throne shall dwell among them ; they shall 
hunger no more, neither thirst . xxi. 4. God shall 
wipe away all tears from their eyes, and there shall be 
no more death, neither sorrow, nor crying, neither 
shall there be any more pain. xxii. 1 5. he show 
ed me a pure river of water of life, clear as crystal, 
proceeding out of the throne of God and of the 

It appears that all the saints will not attain to an 
equal state of glory. Dan. xii. 3. they that be wise 
shall shine as the brightness of the firmament, and 
they that turn many to righteousness as the stars for 
ever and ever. Matt. xx. 23. to sit on my right 
hand and on my left is not mine to give, but it shall 
be given to them of whom it is prepared of my Father. 
1 Cor. xv. 41, 42. i there is one glory of the sun, and 
another glory of the moon, and another glory of the 
stars ; for one star differeth from another star in glory : 
so also is the resurrection of the dead. 

VOL. u. 30 


In heaven. Matt. v. 12. great is your reward in 

heaven. Luke xii. 33. provide yourselves a 

treasure in the heavens that faileth not. Philipp. iii. 
20. our conversation is in heaven. Heb. x. 34. 
6 knowing in yourselves that ye have a better and an 
enduring substance. 

Our glorification will be accompanied by the ren 
ovation of heaven and earth, and of all things therein 
adapted to our service or delight, to be possessed by 
us in perpetuity.* Isai. Ixv. 17. behold, I create 

* The following quotations will show that Milton took pleasure in fre 
quently recurring to this idea. 

The world shall burn, and from her ashes spring 

New heav n and earth, wherein the just shall dwell, 

And after all their tribulations long 

See golden days. Paradise Lost, III. 334. 

Then heav n and earth renew d shall be made pure 

To sanctity that shall receive no stain. X. 638. 

To second life 

Wak d in the renovation of the just 

Resigns him up with heav n and earth renew d. XI. 64. 

till fire purge all things new, 

Both heav n and earth, wherein the just shall dwell. Ibid. 900. 

to reward 

His faithful, and receive them into bliss, 
Whether in heav n or earth ; for then the earth 
Shall all be Paradise, far happier place 
Than this of Eden, and far happier days. XII. 461. 

then raise 

From the conflagrant mass, purg d and refin d, 
New heav ns, new earth, ages of endless date 
Founded in righteousness and peace and love, 
To bring forth fruits, joy and eternal bliss. Ibid 547. 

And again, in a splendid passage near the end of the treatise. On the 
.Reformation in England : l Thou, the eternal and shortly expected King, 
shalt open the clouds to judge the several kingdoms of the world, and 
distributing national honours ?.nd rewards to religious and just common 
wealths, shall put an end tc all earthly tyrannies, proclaiming thy uni 
versal and mild monarchy through heaven and earth ; where they undoubt 
edly, that by their labours, counsels, and prayers, have been earnest for 


new heavens and a new earth, and the former shall 
not be remembered, nor come into mind. Ixvi. 22. 
as the new heavens and the new earth, which I will 
make, shall remain before me, saith Jehovah, so shall 
your seed and your name remain. Acts in. 21. whom 
the heavens must receive until the times of restitution 
of all things, which God hath spoken by the mouth 
of all his holy prophets since the world began. Matt. 
xix. 29. 4 every one that hath forsaken houses, or 
brethren, or sisters, or father, or mother, or wife, or 
children, or lands, for my name s sake, shall receive 
an hundred-fold, and shall inherit everlasting life. 
xxvi. 29. I will not drink henceforth of this fruit of 
the vine, until that day when I drink it new with you 
in my Father s kingdom. Luke xiv. 15. one of 

them that sat at meat with him said unto him, 

Blessed is he that shall eat bread in the kingdom of 
God ; nor is he reproved by Christ for this saying. 
xxii. 30. that ye may eat and drink at my table in 
my kingdom. Rom. viii. 19 24. the earnest ex 
pectation of the creature waiteth for the manifestation 

of the sons of God in hope, because the creature 

itself also shall be delivered from the bondage of cor 
ruption, into the glorious liberty of the children of 
God. 2 Pet. iii. 13. we according to his promise 
look for new heavens and a new earth, wherein dwell 
ed! righteousness. Rev. v. 10. thou hast made us 
unto our God kings and priests, and we shall reign on 

the common good of religion and their country, shall receive above, the 
inferior orders of the blessed, the re^al addition of principalities, legions, 
and thrones into their glorious titles, and in supereminence of beatific 
vision, progressing the dateless and irrevoluhle circle of eternity, shall <:la?p 
inseparable hands with joy and bliss, in over-measure for ever.* Prose 
Works, I. 58. 


the earth. xx. 1, &;c. I saw a new heaven and a 
new earth ; for the first heaven and the first earth 
were passed away ; and there was no more sea : and 
I John saw r the holy city, new Jerusalem, coming 
down from God out of heaven, prepared as a bride 
adorned for her husband. 




THE subject of the first Book was Faith, or the 
Knowledge of God. The second treats of the Service 
or Love of God* 

The true service of God consists chiefly in the 
exercise of good works. Matt. xvi. 27. then he 
shall reward every man according to his works. Rom. 
ii. 13. not the hearers of the law are just before God, 
but the doers of the law shall be justified. Philipp. 
i. 11. being filled with the fruits of righteousness, 
which are by Jesus Christ. iv. 8. i whatsoever things 
are true, whatsoever things are honest, whatsoever 
things are just, whatsoever things are pure, whatso 
ever things are lovely, whatsoever things are of good 

* l What evangelic religion is, is told in two words, Faith and Charity, 
or Belief and Practice. Treatise of Civil Power in Ecclesiastical Causes. 
Prose Works, III. 332. 


report, if there be any virtue, and if there be any 
praise, think on these things : those things which ye 
have both learned, and received, and heard, and seen 
in me, do ; and the God of peace shall be with you. 
2 Tim. iii. 17. * that the man of God may be perfect, 
throughly furnished unto all good works. Tit. ii. 11, 
12. the grace of God that bringeth salvation hath 
appeared to all men, teaching us, that denying ungod 
liness and worldly lusts, we should live soberly, right 
eously, and godly in this present world. iii. 8. < this 
is a faithful saying, and these things I will that thou 
affirm constantly, that they which have believed in 
God may be careful to maintain good works. James 
i. 22. * be ye doers of the word, and not hearers 
only, deceiving your own selves. 2 Pet. i. 5, &c. 
4 besides this, giving all diligence, add to your faith 
virtue, and to virtue knowledge . ...&c. * for if these 
things be in you, and abound, they make you that ye 
shall neither be barren nor unfruitful in the knowledge 
of our Lord Jesus Christ. 

Good works are those which we perform by the 
Spirit of God working in us through true faith, to the 
glory of God, the assured hope of our oivn salvation, 
and the edification of our neighbour. 

By the Spirit of God working in us. John iii. 21. 
that his deeds may be made manifest that they are 
wrought in God. 1 Cor. xv. 10. by the grace of 
God I am what I am ; and his grace which was be 
stowed upon me was not in vain, but I laboured more 
abundantly than they all ; yet not I, but the grace of 
God which was with me. 2 Cor. iii. 5. not that 
we are sufficient of ourselves to think any thing as of 
ourselves, but our sufficiency is of God. Gal. v. 22. 


the fruit of the Spirit is love. ...gentleness, goodness, 
faith. Eph. ii. 10. we are his workmanship, created 
in Christ Jesus unto good works, which God hath be 
fore ordained that we should walk in them. v. 9. 
1 the fruit of the Spirit is in all goodness, and right 
eousness, and truth. Philipp. ii. 13. it is God that 
worketh in you both to will and to do of his good 

Through faith. John xv. 5. he that abideth in 
me, and I in him, the same bringeth forth much fruit ; 
for without me ye can do nothing. Heb. xi. 6. with 
out faith it is impossible to please him. James ii. 22. 
seest thou how faith wrought with his works, and 
by works was faith made perfect ? that is, how faith 
(to use a logical expression) constitutes the form of 
the works, and endows them with the quality of good 
ness ; and how it is itself consummated by the works, 
as by its end and natural product. 

As to the position of divines, that the essential form 
of good works is their accordance with the decalogue, 
so far as they are there prescribed, it is not easy to 
discover how this can be the case under the gospel. 
Paul certainly teaches a different doctrine, throughout 
the whole of Romans and elsewhere ; declaring ex 
plicitly, Rom. xiv. 23. that whatsoever is not of faith 
is sin. He does not say whatsoever is not of the 
decalogue, is sm, but whatsoever is not of faith ; it ij 
therefore an accordance with faith, not with the deca 
logue, that ought to be considered as the essential 
form of good works. Hence, if I observe the sabbath 
in compliance with the decalogue, but contrary to 
dictates of my own faith, conformity with the de 
logue, however exact, becomes in my case sin, and a^ 

*s V^ ~/L* 


violation of the law. For it is faith that justifies, not 
agreement with the decalogue ; and that which justi 
fies can alone render any work good ; none therefore 
of our works can be good, but by faith ; hence faith 
is the essential form of good works, the definition of 
form being, that by which a thing is what it is. "With 
regard to the passages in which mention is made of 
keeping God s commandments, 1 John ii. 4. Hi. 24. 
and elsewhere, it seems reasonable to understand this 
of the precepts of the gospel, in which faith is uni 
formly put before the works of the law. If then in 
the gospel faith be above the works of the law, it 
must be equally above its precepts ; for works are the 
end and fulfilling of precepts. Since therefore under 
the gospel, although a man should observe the whole 
Mosaic law with the utmost punctuality, it would 
profit him nothing without faith,* it is evident that 
good works must be defined to be of faith, not of the 
decalogue ; whence it follows that conformity, not 
with the written, but with the unwritten law, that is, 
with the law of the Spirit given by the Father to lead 
us into all truth, is to be accounted the true essential 
form of good works. For the works of believers are 
the works of the Spirit itself; and though such can 
never be in contradiction to the love of God and our 
neighbour, which is the sum of the law, they may 
occasionally deviate from the letter even of the gospel 
precepts, particularly of those which are merely spe 
cial, through a predominating regard to the law of 

* His obedience 

Imputed becomes theirs by faith, his merits 

To save them, not their own, though legal works. 

Paradise Lost, XII. 408. 


love ; as was shown by Christ himself in the aboli 
tion of sabbatical observances, as well as on several 
other occasions.* See Book I. chap, xxvii, on the 

To the glory of God. Matt. v. 16. let your light 
so shine before men, that they may see your good 
works, and glorify your Father which is in heaven. 
1 Cor. x. 31. do all to the glory of God. Philipp. 
i. 11. being filled with the fruits of righteousness, 
which are by Jesus Christ, unto the glory and praise 
of God. 

The assured hope of our own salvation. Gen. xv. 
1. thy exceeding great reward. Prov. x. 9. he 
that walketh uprightly, walketh surely. v. 25. the 
righteous is an everlasting foundation. v. 29. the 
way of Jehovah is straight to the upright. xi. 18, 19. 
to him that soweth righteousness shall be a sure 
reward. xii. 3. the root of the righteous shall not 
be moved. xiii. 21. to the righteous good shall be 
repaid. xv. 24. the way of life is above to the wise, 
that he may depart from hell beneath. xvi. 17. he 
that keepeth his way preserveth his soul. xx. 7. the 
just man walketh in his integrity ; his children are 
blessed after him. Psal. xv. 1, 2. Jehovah, who 
shall abide in thy tabernacle ? &c. Isai. xxxiii. 14, 
&c. who among us shall dwell with the devouring 

fire? he that walketh righteously. 2 Cor. vii. 1. 

having therefore these promises, let us cleanse our 
selves . Gal. vi. 8. he that soweth to his flesh, 
shall of his flesh reap corruption ; but he that soweth 
to the Spirit, shall of the Spirit reap life everlasting. 
Philipp. iii. 14. I press toward the mark for the pri/e 

* See page 51, note. 
VOL. II. 31 


of the high calling of God in Christ Jesus. Heb. xi. 
6. he that cometh to God must believe that he is, 
and that he is a revvarder of them that diligently seek 
him. v. 26. he had respect unto the recompense of 
the reward. xii. 2. who for the joy that was set 
before him endured the cross. 

The edification of our neighbour. Hence we are 
admonished so to act, that we may become examples 
toothers. 2 Sam. xxi. 11, 12. it was told David 
what Rizpah had done/ &c. 2 Cor. viii. 24. where 
fore show ye to them, and before the churches, the 
proof of your love, and of our boasting on your behalf. 
Rom. xii. 17. provide things honest in the sight of all 
men. 1 Tim. iv. 12. be thou an example of the 
believers, in word, in conversation, in charity, in 
spirit, in faith, in purity. Tit. ii. 4. that they may 
teach the young women to be sober, to love their 
husbands, to love their children. v. 7. in all things 
showing thyself a pattern of good works. 1 Pet. ii. 
12. that whereas they speak against you as evil 
doers, they may by your good works, which they 
shall behold, glorify God in the day of visitation/ For 
a virtuous example excites, in the virtuous, an emula 
tion of that virtue ; Rom. xi. 14. if by any means 
I may provoke to emulation them which are my flesh, 
and might save some of them : a vicious example, on 
the contrary, is productive of vicious emulation ; Prov. 
xxiii. 17. let not thine heart envy sinners ; xxiv. 7. 
be not thou envious against wicked men ; as well 
as of offences, by which the strong are scandalized, 
and the weaker brethren, if not absolutely led into 
sin, rendered more remiss in the performance of good 
works. 1 Cor. x. 32, 33. give none offence, neither 


to the Jews, nor to the Gentiles, nor to the church of 
God ; even as I please all men in all things, not seek 
ing mine own profit, but the profit of many, tiiat they 
may be saved. Matt, xviii. 6, 7. whoso shall offend 
one of these little ones which believe in me, it were 
better for him, &c. See also Mark ix. 42. Rom. xiv. 
21. it is good neither to eat flesh, nor to drink wine, 
nor any thing whereby thy brother stumbleth, or 
offendeth, or is made weak. In this sense a man is 
said to be a stumbling-block to himself, W 7 hen he in 
dulges himself in any vice to which his nature inclines 
him. Matt. v. 29, 30. if thy right eye offend thee, 
pluck it out, &c. See also xviii. 7, 8. 

Where however the offence does not proceed from 
any fault of ours, but from the frowardness or malig 
nity of the other party, the guilt rests not with him 
who gives, but with him who takes the offence. Matt. 
xv. 12, 13. knowestthou that the Pharisees were 
offended after they heard this saying ? but he answer 
ed and said, Every plant which my heavenly Father 
hath not planted, shall be rooted up : let them alone, 
they be blind leaders of the blind. Thus Christ did 
not break off his intercourse with the publicans 
through fear of scandalizing the Pharisees, but con 
tented himself with giving reasons for his conduct : 
Matt. ix. 10, &c. they that be whole need not a 
physician . Luke xix. 7. &c. the Son of man is 
come to seek and to save that which was lost. xx. 
18. whosoever shall fall upon that stone shall be 
broken, but on whomsoever it shall fall, it will grind 
him to powder. See Book I. chap, xxvii. on Chris 
tian liberty. 


As to what the Papists call works of supereroga 
tion, whereby more is done than the law prescribes, 
insomuch that some of the saints, through the super 
abundance of their works, have been enabled to pur 
chase eternal life not only for themselves, but for 
others, such works are clearly impossible. For since 
we are commanded, under the gospel as well as under 
the law, to love and serve God with all our strength 
and with all our mind, and our neighbour as our 
selves, and since, consequently, there can be no excess 
in piety and charity, it follows that no act which we 
are capable of performing can be of such excellence as 
to fulfil, still less to transcend the requisitions of duty. 
Luke xvii. 10. i when ye shall have done all those 
things which are commanded you, say, We are un 
profitable servants, we have done that which was our 
duty to do. Those counsels of the gospel, therefore, 
which the Papists affirm to be of a higher nature than 
its precepts, insomuch that if a man follow them, not 
being compelled so to do, he performs a work of su 
pererogation, are not in reality counsels, as distin 
guished from precepts, nor of a higher nature than the 
latter ; but are to be considered as particular precepts, 
given, not to all mankind, but to certain individuals, 
for special reasons and under special circumstances. 
Thus we are told, Matt. xix. 1 1 . that it is good for those 
who have the gift of continence, and can receive the 
saying, not to marry, whenever by remaining single, 
they can more effectually promote the glory of God, 
and the good of the church. Again, v. 21. whether 
the words of Christ are to be considered as precept 
or as simple counsel, it is certain that, had the young 
man to whom they were addressed fulfilled them in 


their utmost extent, he would have done nothing 
beyond what duty required, any more than Abraham 
when he led forth his son to sacrifice : for the com 
mands of God, whether addressed to mankind in 
general, or to a particular class, or to an individual, 
are equally obligatory on the kind, or class, or indi 
vidual to whom they are addressed. In the example 
just cited, obedience to the general precept of loving- 
God above all things was singled out as an instance 
of duty to be required from the self-sufficient young 
man, for the purpose of exposing his folly and un 
founded confidence, and of showing him how T far he 
was from the perfection to which he pretended. For 
it was not the selling all he had, which has been done 
without charity, but the leaving his possessions and 
following Christ, which was to be the test of his 
perfection. With regard to the other instance of 
celibacy, 1 Cor. vii. 4 this is neither made expressly 
a matter of precept nor of counsel, but is left free to 
the discretion of individuals, according to seasons and 
circumstances. To the above may be added, that, if 
there be any such works as are here described, those 
precepts must needs be imperfect, which require to 
be amended by supplementary admonitions. If, 
moreover, these latter are, as is alleged, of a higher 
order of excellence than the precepts themselves, who 
shall be sufficient to fulfil them ? seeing that no one 
is able to perform entirely even the requisitions of the 
law. Not to mention, that the name of counsels is 
sometimes applied to precepts of universal application, 
and of the most imperative necessity; as Rev. iii. 18. 
4 I counsel thee to buy of me gold tried in the fire." 
Lastly, that prayer for forgiveness, which by Christ s 


command we all daily offer, is utterly irreconcileable 
with the vain boasting of works implied in this doc 

It is true, that in matters of choice and Christian 
liberty, one work may be more perfect than another : 

1 Cor. vii. 38. ; he doeth well .... he doeth better. 5 

2 Cor. xi. 23. are they ministers of Christ ? I am 
more ; but it is not less the duty of every one to do 
whatever may most effectually promote the glory of 
God and the edification of his neighbour. Paul, had 
he so chosen, needed not have preached the gospel 
without charge, 1 Cor. ix. 7, &c. but believing, as 
he did, that a gratuitous service would be less open 
to suspicion, and tend more to the edification of the 
church, he did nothing more than his duty in preach 
ing gratuitously. No w T ork of supererogation was 
performed by Zaccheus, when he voluntarily gave 
half his goods to the poor, Luke xix. 8. nor by the 
poor \vidow, w r hen she cast into the treasury all that 
she had, Mark xii. 42. nor by the disciples, when 
they sold their lands, and divided the produce among 
the brethren, Acts iv. 34 ; those who did such actions 
only proved that they loved their neighbours, and 
especially the believing part of them, as themselves. 
They were not however under any absolute obliga 
tion to give such extraordinary proofs of their love, 
Acts v. 4. for although perfection is proposed to all 
men as the end of their endeavours, it is not required 
of all. 

Hence may be easily discerned the vanity of human 
merits ; seeing that, in the first place, our good ac 
tions are not our own, but of God working in us ; 
secondly, that, were they our own, they would still 


be equally due ; and, thirdly, that, in any point of 
view, there can be no proportion between our duty 
and the proposed reward. Rom. vi. 23. the gift of 
God is eternal life. viii. 18. I reckon that the suf 
ferings of this present time are not worthy to be 
compared with the glory which shall be revealed in 
us. Hence although Hezekiah asserts his upright 
ness in the sight of God, Isai. xxxviii. 3. remember 
now, O Jehovah, I beseech thee, how I have walked 
before thee in truth, and with a perfect heart, and 
have done that which was good in thy sight, he is so 
far from considering this as constituting any claim to 
reward, that he acknowledges himself indebted to the 
free mercy of God for the pardon of his sins: v. 17. 
4 thou hast in love to my soul delivered it from the 
pit of corruption, for thou hast cast all my sins behind 
my back. So likewise Nehemiah, xiii. 22. remem 
ber me, O my God, concerning this also, and spare 
me according to the greatness of thy mercy. The 
declarations of God himself, Exod. xx. 6, is to the 
same purpose. Lastly, that of which God stands in 
no need, can deserve nothing of him.* Job xxii. 2, 
&;c. can a man be profitable with God ? xxxv. 7. 
if thou be righteous, what givest thou him ? Luke 
xvii. 10. we are unprofitable servants. Rom. xi. 35. 
4 who hath first given him ? See Book I. ch. xxii. 
on Justification. 

Opposed to good works are evil works ; the vanity 
and bitterness of which are forcibly described by 
Isaiah, lix. 4, &c. they conceive mischief, and bring 
forth iniquity ; they hatch cocatrice eggs . Prov. 

* God doth not need 

Either rnan 1 s work or hi? own gifts. Sonnet XIX. 9. 


xi. 3. the perverseness of transgressors shall destroy 
them. v. 5. i the wicked shall fall by his own wick 
edness. xiii. 15. * the way of transgressors is hard. 
xxii. 5. thorns and snares are in the way of the fro- 

A good man is known by his works. Matt. xii. 35. 
4 a good man out of the good treasure of his heart 
bringeth forth good things. 1 John iii. 7. he that 
doeth righteousness is righteous, even as he is right 
eous. He is described Job xxix. 11 25. when the 
ear heard me, then it blessed me, &c. and elsewhere. 

Sometimes, however, certain temporary virtues, or 
semblances of virtues, are discernible even in the 
wicked ; as in Saul, 1 Sam. xix, and in the Jews, 
Jer. xxxiv. An outward show of liberality, gratitude, 
and equity, with a regard for the interest of his sub 
jects, are visible in the king of Sodom, Gen. xiv. 21. 
See also the instance of Eglon, Judges iii, and of 
Belshazzar, Dan. v. 29. 

The wicked man is described Psal. x. 3, &c. the 
wicked boasteth of his heart s desire, &c. xiv. 1, &c. 
the fool hath said in his heart . Prov. i. 11, &c. 
if they say, Come with us, let us lay wait for 
blood . iv. 14, &c. enter not into the path of the 
wicked . xxviii. 5, &c. c evil men understand not 



THE primary, efficient cause of good works, as has 
been stated above, is God. 

The proximate causes of good works are naturally, 
in ordinary cases at least, good habits, or, as they are 
called, virtues ; in which is comprised the whole of 
our duty towards God and man. Philipp. iv. 8. 
if there be any virtue, and if there be any praise. 5 
2 Pet. i. 5. add to your faith virtue. These are 
partly general, or such as pertain to the whole duty 
of man ; and partly special, or such as apply to the 
particular branches of that duty. 

The general virtues belong partly to the under 
standing, and partly to the will. 

Those which belong to the understanding are 
wisdom and prudence. 

Wisdom is that whereby we earnestly search after 
the will of God, learn it with all diligence, and 
govern all our actions according to its rule. 

The will of God. Deut. iv. 6. keep therefore and 
do them, for this is your wisdom . Psal. cxix. 66. 
teach me good judgment and knowledge, for I have 

VOL. u. 32 


believed thy commandments." v. 98 100. < thou 
through thy commandments, hast made me wiser 

than mine enemies than my teachers than the 

ancients. Prov. xxviii. 5. they that seek Jehovah 
understand all things. xxx. 5, 6. every work of 

God is pure., add thou not unto his words, lest he 

reprove thee, and thou be found a liar. Rom. xii. 2. 
be ye transformed by the renewing of your mind, 
that ye may prove what is that good and acceptable 
and perfect will of God. xvi. 19. I would have 
you wise unto that which is good, and simple 
concerning evil. Ephes. v. 15. see that ye 
walk circumspectly, not as fools, but as wise. 
James iii. 13. who is a wise man, and endued with 
knowledge among you ? let him show out of a good 
conversation his works with meekness of wisdom. 
v. 17. the wisdom that is from above is first pure, 
then peaceable, gentle, and easy to be entreated, full 
of mercy and good fruits, without partiality, and 
without hypocrisy. 1 John ii. 3. hereby we do 
know that we know him, if we keep his command 
ments. Hence the fear of the Lord is called wis 
dom, Job xxviii. 28. Psal. xxv. 14. the secret of 
Jehovah is with them that fear him. cxi. 10. the 
fear of Jehovah is the beginning of wisdom. See 
also Prov. i. 7. Eccles. xii. 15. let us hear the 
conclusion of the whole matter, &c. So also Christ, 
1 Cor. i. 30. is made unto us wisdom. Col. ii. 3. 
in whom are hid all the treasures of wisdom. 

Earnestly search. Prov. ii. 4, &LC. if thou seek- 
est her as silver . James i. 5. if any of you lack 
wisdom let him ask of God that giveth to all men 
liberally, and upbraideth not, and it shall be given 

him. Wisdom is readily found of such as seek her, 
and discloses herself to them of her own accord. 
Prov. i. 20, &c. wisdom crieth without, she uttereth 
her voice in the streets. See also viii. 1, &c. 

Wisdom is praised, Job xxviii. 15, &;c. * it cannot 
be gotten for gold . Prov. iii. 13, &;c. happy is, 
the man that findeth wisdom. iv. 5, &c. get wis 
dom . viii. 6, &c. hear, for I will speak of excel 
lent things, Eccles. ix. 18. wisdom is better than 
weapons of war. 

The treasures of wisdom are not to be rashly lav 
ished on such as are incapable of appreciating them. 
Prov. xxiii. 9. speak not in the ears of a fool, for 
he will despise the wisdom of thy words. Malt. vii. 
6. give not that which is holy unto the dogs. 
Mark iv. 34. without a parable spake he not unto 
them. 1 Cor. ii. 6. howbeit we speak wisdom 
among them that are perfect ; yet not the wisdom of 
this world. 

To wisdom is opposed folly ; which consists, first 
and chiefly, in an ignorance of the will of God. 
Isai. i. 3. the ox knoweth its owner. v. 13. there 
fore my people are gone into captivity, because they 
have no knowledge. Jer. v. 4. they are foolish, for 
they know not the way of Jehovah, nor the judgment 
of their God. viii. 7, &c. yea, the stork in the 
heaven knoweth her appointed times . John xvi. 
2, 3. the time cometh that whosoever killeth you will 
think that he doeth God service : and these things 
will they do unto you, because they have not known 
the Father, nor me. xii. 10. the chief priests con 
sulted that they might put. Lazarus also to death/ 


JEph. iv, 17, 18. being alienated from the life of 
God through the ignorance that is in them. v. 17* 
be ye not unwise, but understanding what the will 
of the Lord is. I Cor. ii. 8. had they known it, 
they would not have crucified the Lord of glory. 
1 Tim. i. 13. I did it ignorantly in unbelief. 

Secondly, in a false conceit of wisdom. Numb* 
xv. 39. that ye seek not after your own heart. 
1 Kings xviii. 17. art thou he that troubleth Israel ? 
Prov. iii. 7. be not wise in thine own eyes ; fear 
Jehovah. xiv 6. a scorner seeketh wisdom, and 
findeth it not. v. 12. there is a way that seemeth 
right unto a man, but the end thereof are the ways of 
death. xxi. 2. every way of a man is right in his 
own eyes ; but Jehovah pondereth the hearts. xxvi. 
12. seest thou a man wise in his own conceit? 
there is more hope of a fool than of him. xxviii. 
26. he that trusteth in his own way is a fool ; but 
whoso walketh wisely he shall be delivered. Isai. v. 
2L woe unto them that are wise in their own eyes. 
John ix. 39. that they which see not might see, and 
that they which see might be made blind. Rom. i. 
22. professing themselves to be wise, they became 
fools. 1 Cor. viii. 2. if any man think that he 
knoweth any thing, he knoweth nothing yet as he 
ought to know. Yet folly cries aloud, and invites 
mankind to her instructions, as if she were the sole 
depositary of wisdom. Prov. ix. 16. whoso is sim 
ple, let him turn in hither. 

Thirdly, in a prying into hidden things, after the 
example of our first parents, who sought after the 
knowledge of good and evil contrary to the command 


of God ;* and of Lot s wife, Gen. xix. 26. xxxii. 29, 
* wherefore is it that thou dost ask after my name ? 
Exod. xix. 23. set bounds about the mount . 
Deut. xxix. 29. the secret things belong unto Jeho 
vah our God. 1 Sam. vi. 19. he smote the men of 
Bethshemesh, because they had looked into the ark 
of Jehovah. Acts i. 7. it is not for you to know 
the times or the seasons. xix. 19. many of them 
also which used curious arts, brought their books 
together. Rom. xii. 3. not to think of himself more 
highly than he ought to think, but to think soberly, 
according as God hath dealt to every men the measure 
of faith. 

Fourthly, in human or carnal wisdom. Job v. 12. 
he disappointeth the devices of the crafty. xii. 24 
1 he taketh away the heart of the chief of the people 
of the earth. xxviii. 13, 14. man knoweth not the 
price thereof . . . the depth saith, It is not in me . 
Eccles. i. 17. I gave my heart to know wisdom, and 
to know madness and folly ; I perceived that this 
also is vexation of spirit. vii. 29. they have found 
out many inventions. xii. 12. of making many 
books there is no end ; and much study is a weari 
ness of the flesh. Isai. xix. 11, &c. the princes of 
Zoan are fools .... how say ye unto Pharaoh, I am 
the son of the wise, the son of ancient kings ? 
xxix. 14. the wisdom of their wise men shall perish. 
xxxiii. 11. ye shall bring forth stubble. lix. 15. he 
that departeth from evil maketh himself a prey. 

* Have ray fill 

Of knowledge, what this vessel can contain ; 
Beyond which was my folly to aspire. Paradise Lost, XII. 550. 
Se also VII. 120. VUL H2. 


Mark iii. 21. when his friends heard of it, they went 
out to lay hold on him ; for they said, He is beside 
himself. John x. 20. he hath a devil, and is mad. 
Acts xvii. 18. certain philosophers of the Epicureans 
.... encountered him ; and some said, What will 
this babbler say ? v. 32. when they heard of the 
resurrection from the dead, some mocked. xxvi. 24. 
Paul, thou art beside thyself. 1 Cor. i. 19, 20. it 
is written, I will destroy the wisdom of the wise. 
v. 23. we preach Christ crucified, unto the Jews a 
stumbling-block, and unto the Greeks foolishness ; 
but unto them which are called, &c. iii. 19. the 
wisdom of this world is foolishness with God. vi. 4. 
6 if then ye have judgments of things pertaining to this 
life, set them to judge who are least esteemed in the 
church. Col. ii. 8. beware lest any man spoil you 
through philosophy. Luke xii. 56, 57. ye can 
discern the face of the sky, and of the earth .... and 
why even of yourselves judge ye not what is right ? 
Hence we are frequently permitted to be deceived with 
false shows of human wisdom, in requital for our 
contempt of that which is true and divine. PsaL 
Ixxxi. 11 13. my people would not hearken to my 
voice .... so I gave them up unto their own heart s 
lusts, and they walked in their own counsels. 

Prudence is that virtue by which we discern what is 
proper to be done under the various circumstances of 
time and place. Prov. xxix. 11. a fool uttereth all 
his mind ; but a wise man keepeth it in till after 
wards. Eccles. iii. 1. to every thing there is a 
season, and a time to every purpose under the heaven. 
v. 11. he hath made every thing beautiful in his 
time. Matt. x. 16, 17. behold, 1 send you forth as 


sheep in the midst of wolves ; be ye therefore wise 
as serpents, and harmless as doves : but beware of 
men . Philipp. i. 9, 10. that jour love may 
abound yet more and more, in knowledge and in all 
judgment, that ye may approve things that are excel 
lent. Heb. v. 14. i strong meat belongeth to them 
that are of full age, even those who by reason of use 
have their senses exercised to discern both good and 
evil. This quality is an indispensable seasoning to 
every virtue, as salt was to the ancient sacrifices. 
Mark ix. 49. every one shall be salted with fire ; and 
every sacrifice shall be salted with salt. 

Hence the maxim, "of the evils of sin choose none, 
of those of punishment the least." If this be true 
with regard to the evils of sin, it is obvious how 
preposterously, they interpret the law, who hold that 
usury, divorce, polygamy, and the like, were conceded 
to the hard-heartedness of the Jews as venial infirmi 
ties, or as evils which were to be abated or regulated 
by law ; whereas the law can no more concede or 
tolerate the smallest degree of moral evil, than a good 
man can voluntarily choose it. 

Thus much of the general virtues which belong to 
the understanding ; those which belong to the will 
are sincerity, promptitude, and constancy. 

Sincerity, which is also called integrity, and a good 
conscience, consists in acting rightly on all occasions, 
with a sincere desire and a hearty mental determina 
tion. Gen. xv ii. 1. walk before me, and be thou 
perfect. Deut. xviii. 13. thou shalt be perfect with 
Jehovah thy God. Job xxvii. 5, 6. * till I die I will 
not remove mine integrity from me. Psal. xxvi. 1. 
* judge me, O Jehovah, for I have walked in mine 


integrity. Prov. iv. 23. l keep thy heart with all dili 
gence, for out of it are the issues of life. Matt. xii. 
35. a good man out of the good treasure of his heart 
bringeth forth good things . Acts xxiii. 1. I have 
lived in all good conscience before God until this day. 
xxiv. 16. to have always a conscience void of offence 
toward God and toward men. 2 Tim. i. 3. I thank 
God, whom I serve from my forefathers with pure 
conscience. 1 Cor. iv. 4. I know nothing of my 
self; yet am I not hereby justified : but he that 
judgeth me is the Lord. Philipp. ii. 15. that ye 
may be blameless and harmless, the sons of God, 
without rebuke, in the midst of a crooked and per 
verse nation. Col. iii. 23. whatsoever ye do, do it 
heartily, as to the Lord, and not unto men. 1 Tim. 
i. 19. holding faith, and a good conscience, which 
some having put away concerning faith have made 
shipwreck. 2 Tim. iv. 7,8. I have fought a good fight, 
I have finished my course. Heb. xiii. 18. we trust 
we have a good conscience, in all things willing to 
live honestly. 1 John iii. 19. hereby we know that 
we are of the truth, and shall assure our hearts before 
him. v. 21. if our heart condemn us not, then have 
we confidence toward God. Properly speaking, how 
ever, a good conscience is not in itself sincerity, but 
rather an approving judgment of the mind respecting 
its own actions, formed according to the light which 
we have received either from nature or from grace, 
whereby we are satisfied of our inward sincerity. 
Rom. ii. 15. which show the work of the law writ 
ten in their hearts, &c. This feeling is described 
Job xiii. 15, &c. I will maintain mine own ways 
before him, xxiii. 3, &c. O that I knew where I 


might find him ! xxxi. 6. let me be weighed in 
an even balance, that God may know mine integrity. 
v. 35. O that one would hear me! 2 Cor. i. 12. 
our rejoicing is this, the testimony of our conscience, 
that in simplicity and godly sincerity, not with fleshly 
wisdom, but by the grace of God, we have had our 
conversation in the world. 

The opposite to this is an evil conscience ;* that is 
to say (allowing some latitude of signification to the 
word) the judgment of each individual mind concern 
ing its own bad actions, and its consequent disapproval 
of them, according to the light enjoyed from nature or 
grace ; which may be more properly called a con 
sciousness of evil. Gen. xlii. 21. we are verily 

guilty concerning our brother therefore is this 

distress come upon us. Hos. x. 8. they shall say 
to the mountains, Cover us, and to the hills, Fall on 
us, compared with Rev. vi. 16. they said to the 
mountains and rocks, Fall on us, and hide us from 
the face of him that sitteth upon the throne, and from 
the wrath of the Lamb. Luke xx. 5, 6. they reason 
ed with themselves, saying, If we shall say, From 
heaven, he will say, Why then believed ye him not ? 

Acts xxiv. 25. as he reasoned of righteousness 

Felix trembled. Rom. ii. 15. their conscience also 
bearing witness, and their thoughts the meanwhile 
accusing or else excusing one another. Heb. x. 22. 
having our hearts sprinkled from an evil conscience. 
John viii. 9. being convicted by their own conscience. 

* I will begin somewhat higher, and speak of punishment ; which as 
it is an evil, I esteem to be of two sorts, or rather two degrees only ; a 
reprobate conscience in this life, and hell in the other world. Reason of 
Church Government urged against Prclaly. Prose Works, 1. 132. 
VOL. TT. 33 


strictly speaking, however, an evil conscience is one 
which judges erroneously or with a wrong bias, and 
not according to the light derived from nature or grace. 
1 Cor. viii. 7. their conscience being weak, is defiled. 
1 Tim. iv. 2. l having their conscience seared with a 
hot iron. Tit. i. 15. even their mind and conscience 
is defiled. 

Contrary to sincerity are, first, evil thoughts. Matt, 
v. 28. ; he hath committed adultery with her already 
in his heart. xv. 18, 19. * those things which proceed 
out of the mouth come forth from the heart, and they 
defile the man ; for out of the heart proceed evil 

thoughts, murders . Secondly, hypocrisy ; the 

deeds of which, though plausible, are not good, or if 
good, are not done with a good design. Matt. vi. 1, 
&c. take heed that ye do not your alms before men, 
to be seen of them, otherwise ye have no reward of 
your Father which is in heaven. xxiii. 25, 26. woe 
unto you, scribes and Pharisees, hypocrites ! for ye 
make clean the outside of the cup and the platter, but 
within they are full of extortion and excess. 

Promptitude or alacrity is that which excites us to 
act with a ready and willing spirit. Psal. i. 2. whose 
delight is in the law of Jehovah. xl. 8. I delight to 
do thy will, O my God ; yea, thy law is within my 
heart. ex. 3. thy people shall be willing. Prov. 
xxi. 15. it is joy to the just to do judgment. 2 
Cor. viii. 12. if there be first a willing mind, it is 
accepted according to that a man hath . ix. 7. God 
loveth a cheerful giver. 

Its opposites are, first, precipitancy. Matt. viii. 19. 
4 I will follow thee whithersoever thou goest. 


Secondly, a forced and not spontaneous discharge 
of duty. Deut. xxviii. 47. because thou servedst 
not Jehovah thy God with joyfulness, and with glad 
ness of heart. 2 Cor. ix. 7. not grudgingly, or of 
necessity. Gal. vi. 9. let us not be weary in well 
doing, for in due season we shall reap, if we faint not. 
2 Thess. iii. 13. be not weary in well doing. Hcb. 
v. 11. ye are dull of hearing. xii. 3. consider him 
that endured such contradiction of sinners against 
himself, lest ye be wearied and faint in your minds. 
v. 12. lift up the hands which hang down, and the 
feeble knees. 1 Pet. v. 2. not by constraint, but 

Constancy is that virtue whereby we persevere in a 
determination to do right, from which nothing can 
divert us. Psal. cxix. 44, 45. * I shall keep thy law 
continually for ever and ever ; and I will walk at 
liberty. v. 51. the proud have had me greatly in 
derision, yet have I not declined from thy law. v. 
61. the bands of the wicked have robbed me, 
but I have not forgotten thy law. v. 95. the 
wicked have waited for me to destroy me, but I 
will consider thy testimonies. v. 110. the wicked 
have laid a snare for me, yet I erred not from thy 
precepts. v. 112. I have inclined mine heart to per 
form thy statutes alway, even unto the end. v. 157. 
many are my persecutors and mine enemies ; yet do 
I not decline from thy testimonies. Eccles. vii. 14. 
in the day of prosperity be joyful ; but in the day 
of adversity consider. Matt. xxiv. 13. he that 
shall endure to the end, the same shall be saved. 2 
Cor. vi. 4, &c. in all things approving ourselves as 
the ministers of God, in much patience, in afflictions, 


in necessities, in distresses. viii. 11. c now there 
fore perform the doing of it, that as there was a readi 
ness to will, so there may be a performance also out 
of that which ye have. 

The opposites of this are, first, inconstancy. Jer. 
xxxiv. 8, &c. after that the king Zedekiah had made 

a covenant with all the people to proclaim liberty 

unto them afterward they turned and caused the 

servants and the handmaids whom they had let go free 
to return. v. 15, 16. ye were now turned and had 

done right in my sight but ye turned and polluted 

my name. Luke ix. 62. no man having put his 
hand to the plough, and looking back, is fit for the 
kingdom of God. Matt. xiii. 2022. < he heareth 

the word yet hath he not root in himself, but 

dureth for a while ; for when tribulation or persecu 
tion ariseth because of the word, by and by he is 

offended he heareth the word, and the care of this 

world and the deceitfulness of riches choke the 

Secondly, obstinacy in error, or in a wrong pur 
pose. Psal. xix. 13. keep back thy servant also from 
presumptuous sins ; let them not have dominion over 
me ; then shall I be upright, and 1 shall be innocent 
from the great transgression. Jer. ii. 35. i behold, I 
will plead with thee, because thou sayest, I have not 
sinned. Acts vii. 51. ye stiff-necked, and uncir- 
cumcised in heart and ears, ye do always resist the 
Holy Ghost. 



SPECIAL virtues are those which pertain only to a 
particular branch of our duty ; namely, to our duty 
towards God, or towards man. 

Our duty towards God relates to his immediate 
worship or service ; which is either internal or ex 

Internal worship consists mainly in the acknowl 
edgment of the one true God, and in the cultivation 
of devout affections towards him. Dent. vi. 4. ( hear, 
O Israel ; Jehovah our God is one Jehovah ; as in 
the first book, on God. 

Opposed to this is, first, atheism. Psal. xiv. 1 . 
4 the fool hath said in his heart, There is no God. 
also liii. 1. See more on this subject in the first book, 
as above. 

Secondly, polytheism, or the ackowledgment of 
more Gods than one, except in the sense authorized 
by Scripture itself. Gal. iv. 8. when ye knew not 
God, ye did service unto them which by nature are 
no Gods. 


Devout affections towards God are love, trust, hope, 
gratitude, fear, humility, patience, obedience. Deut. 
x. 12, 13. what doth Jehovah thy God require of 
thee, but to fear Jehovah thy God, to walk in all his 
ways, and to love him, and to serve Jehovah thy God 
with all thy heart and with all thy soul : to keep the 
commandments of Jehovah and his statutes. 

The love of God is that by which we prefer him 
above all other objects of affection, and desire his 
glory. Deut. vi. 5. < thou shalt love Jehovah thy God 
with all thine heart . See also Matt. xxii. 37. 

Desire his glory. Numb. xiv. 15, 16. * then the 
nations will speak, saying, Because Jehovah was not 
able to bring this people into the land . Josh. vii. 
*\ 6 what wilt thou do unto thy great name ? 

Opposed to this is a hatred of God : John xv. 24. 

icy have hated both me and my Father ; and a love 
of the world or of created things. Luke xiv. 33. 
4 whosoever he be of you that forsaketh not all that 
he hath, he cannot be my disciple. 1 Cor. vii. 31. 
they that use this world, as not abusing it. Philipp. 
ui. 1, 8. what things were gain to me, those I count 
ed loss for Christ ; yea doubtless, and I count all 
things but loss for the excellency of the knowledge of 
Christ Jesus my Lord, for whom I have suffered the 
loss of all things, and do count them but dung that I 
may win Christ. James iv. 4. know ye not that 
the friendship of the world is enmity with God ? 
whosoever therefore will be a friend of the world is 
the enemy of God. 1 John ii. 15. c love not the 

Of faith, in its primary sense, and as the instru 
mental cause of justification, I have spoken above ; I 


now speak of trust in God, considered as an effect of 
love, and as a part of internal worship, whereby we 
wholly repose on him. 2 Chron. xx. 20. believe in 
Jehovah your God, so shall ye be established. Psal. 

xviii. 2, 3, &c. i Jehovah is my rock and my fortress 

in whom I will trust, my buckler, and the horn of my 
salvation, and my high tower. So also Psal. xxvii. 
xxviii. 7. xxxii. 10. xxxvii, 5. i commit thy way unto 
Jehovah, trust also in him, and he shall bring it to 
pass. So also Ixi. Ixii. Ixxiii. 26. Ixxxiv. 12. cxii. 7. 
cxv. 9, &c. cxxiii. cxxx. 6. Prov. xiv. 26. * in the fear 
of Jehovah is strong confidence, and his children shall 
have a place of refuge. xvi. 3. commit thy works 
unto Jehovah, and thy thoughts shall be established. 
See also xviii. 10. xxx. 5. Isai. lix. 1. 6 behold, Jeho 
vah s hand is not shortened, that it cannot save. Jer. 
xvii. 7. blessed is the man that trusteth in Jehovah, 
and whose hope Jehovah is. Mai. iii. 16 18. then 
shall ye return, and discern between the righteous and 
the wicked, &c. 

Opposed to this is, first, distrust of God. Gen. 
xii. 13. say, I pray thee, thou art my sister . 
xxxii. 7. c then Jacob was greatly afraid and distress 
ed. Numb. xiv. 1, &c. all the congregation lifted 
up their voice and cried . xx. 10, 11. must we 

fetch you water out of this rock ? with his rod he 

smote the rock twice. 2 Kings vii. 2. < if Jehovah 
would make windows in heaven, might this thing be ? 
Isai. vii. 12. I will not ask, neither will I tempt 

Secondly, an overweening presumption. Numb. 
xiv. 44. they presumed to go up unto the hill top. 
\v. 30. the soul that doeth ought presumptuously . 


Prov. xxvii. 1. boast not thyself of to-morrow . 
Amos v. 1 8. woe unto you that desire the day of 
Jehovah. Mic. iii. 11. the heads thereof judge for 
reward, and the priests thereof teach for hire, and the 
prophets thereof divine for money : yet will they lean 
upon Jehovah, and say, Is not Jehovah among us ? 
Matt. iii. 7. * O generation of vipers, who hath warned 
you to flee from the wrath to come ? iv. 6, 7. * thon 
shalt not tempt the Lord thy God. Rom. ii. 4. < de- 
spisest thou the riches of his goodness ? 

Thirdly, carnal reliance. 2 Chron. xvi. 7. because 
thou hast relied on the king of Syria . v. 12. in 
his disease he sought not to Jehovah, but to the phy 
sicians. Psal. xiv. 6. ye have shamed the counsel 
of the poor, because Jehovah is his refuge. See also 
cxviii. 8, 9. cxlvi. 3. put not your trust in princes. 
cxlvii. 10. he delighteth not in the strength of the 
horse. Prov. xxix. 26. c many seek the ruler s fa 
vour. Isai. xxx. 2. to strengthen themselves in the 
strength of Pharaoh, &c. iii. 1. the Lord doth take 

away the stay and the staff. xxii. 8. 4 thou didst 

look in that day to the armour of the house of the 
forest. xxxi. 1. woe to them that go down to Egypt 
for help . Jer. xvii. 5. cursed be the man that 
trusteth in man, and maketh flesh his arm, and whose 
heart departeth from Jehovah. Amos vi. 13. ye 
which rejoice in a thing of nought. 

Fourthly, a trust in idols. 2 Kings i. 2. go, in 
quire of Baalzebub . More will be said on this 
subject hereafter, under the head of idolatry. 

Hope is that by which we expect with certainty the 
fulfilment of God s promises. Job xiii. 15. though 
he slay me, yet will I trust in him. Psal. xxxi. 24. 


* be of good courage, and he shall strengthen your 
heart, all ye that hope in Jehovah. xxvii. 14. wait 
on Jehovah . cxix. 116. 4 let me not be ashamed 
of my hope. Prov. x. 28. the hope of the right 
eous shall be gladness. Isai. xl. 31. they that wait 
upon Jehovah shall renew their strength, they shall 
mount up with wings as eagles. Rom. v. 4, 5. c ex 
perience worketh hope ; and hope maketh not asham 
ed ; because the love of God is shed abroad in our 

Opposed to this virtue, as well as to faith, is doubt ; 
to which even the pious are sometimes liable, at least 
for a time. 1 Sam. xxvii. 1 . i David said in his heart, 
I shall now perish one day by the hand of Saul. 
Matt. xiv. 31. O thou of little faith, wherefore didst 
thou doubt? xxi. 21. if ye have faith and doubt 
not . Mark xi. 23. whosoever shall not doubt in 
his heart, but shall believe . 

Secondly, despair ; which takes place only in the 
reprobate. Gen. iv. 13. Cain said unto Jehovah, 
My punishment is greater than I can bear. Malt. 
xxvii. 5. he cast down the pieces of silver in the tem 
ple, and departed, and went and hanged himself. Acts 
i. 18. falling headlong, he burst asunder in the 

Gratitude towards God is that whereby we ac 
knowledge his goodness in conferring benefits upon 
creatures so unworthy as ourselves. Psal. ciii. 2. 

* forget not all his benefits. cxvi. 12. what shall I 
render unto Jehovah ? 1 Cor. vl 20. ye are bought 
with a price; therefore glorify God in your body, and 
in your spirit, which are God s. Heb. xii. 28. let 
us have grace whereby we may serve God acceptably 

VOL. IT. 34 


with reverence and godly fear. 1 Pet. ii. 9. that ye 
should shew forth the praises of him who hath called 
you out of darkness . 1 John iv. 19. we love him, 
because he first loved us. 

Opposed to this is, first, ingratitude towards God. 
hai. i. 2. I have nourished and brought up children, 
and they have rebelled against me. Hos. xiii. 6. ac 
cording to their pasture, so were they filled ; they 
were filled, and their heart was exalted : therefore 
have they forgotten me. Rom. i. 21. when they knew 
God, they glorified him not as God, neither were 

Secondly, the bestowing on idols, or on created 
things, that gratitude which we owe to God. Jer. 
xliv. 17. to burn incense unto the queen of heaven, 

and to pour out drink-ofTerings unto her then had 

we plenty of victuals, and were well, and saw no 
evil. Habak. i. 16. they sacrifice unto their net, 
and burn incense unto their drag. 

The fear of God is that whereby we reverence God 
as the supreme Father and Judge of all men, and 
dread offending him above all things. Deut. xxviii. 
58. that thou mayest fear this glorious and fearful 
name, Jehovah thy God. Psal. ii. 11. serve Jeho 
vah with fear, and rejoice with trembling. xxxiv. 1 1. 
I will teach you the fear of Jehovah. cxxx.4. c there 
is forgiveness with him, that thou mayest be feared. 
Prov. xix. 23. < the fear of Jehovah tendeth to life. 
Mai. i. 6. if I be a father, where is mine honour ? if 
I be a master, where is my fear? 1 Pet. i. 17. 
if ye call on the Father, who without respect of per 
sons judgeth according to every man s work, pass the 
time of your sojourning here in fear. Matt. x. 28. 


4 rather fear him which is able to destroy both body 
and soul in hell. Philipp. ii. 12. work out your own 
salvation with fear and trembling. 

Opposed to this is, first, carnal security. Job v. 3, 
&c. 4 1 have seen the foolish taking root. xxiv. 23, 
&c. though it be given him to be in safety, whereon 
he resteth . xxxiv. 22. there is no darkness, nor 
shadow of death, where the workers of iniquity may 
hide themselves. Psal. x. 5, 6. < thy judgments are 
far above out of his sight. xxx. 6. in my prosperity 
I said, I shall never be moved. Ixxiii. 6. * therefore 
pride compasseth them about as a chain. xciv. 7. 
yet they say, Jah shall not see. Eccles. viii. 11. * be 
cause sentence against an evil work is not executed 
speedily, therefore the heart of the sons of men is fully 
set in them to do evil. Isai. v. 19. that say, Let 
him make speed and hasten his work. xxviii. 15. 
because ye have said, We have made a covenant 
with death. xxix. 15. woe unto them that seek deep 
to hide their counsel from Jehovah. Ezek. viii. 12. 
6 Jehovah seeth us not, Jehovah hath forsaken the 
earth. Amos vi. 1. woe to them that are at ease. 
Zeph. i. 12. that say in their hearts, Jehovah will not 
do good, neither will he do evil. Malt. xxv. the 
foolish virgins. Luke xii. 2, 3. < there is nothing 
covered that shall not be revealed . v. 19. I will 
say to my soul, &c. v. 45. if that servant say in 
his heart, &c. 1 Cor. xi. 31. if we would judge 
ourselves, we should not be judged. 

Secondly, a slavish fear. 1 John iv. 18. there 
is no fear in love ; but perfect love casteth out fear, 
because fear hath torment : he that feareth is not made 
perfect in love. 


Thirdly, a fear of idols. 2 Kings xvii. 33. 6 they 
feared Jehovah, and served their own gods, after the 
manner of the nations whom they carried away from 

And lastly, a fear of any thing whatever except 
God. Matt. x. 28. fear not them which kill the 
body. 5 

Humility is that whereby we acknowledge our un- 
worthiness in the sight of God. Gen. xxxii. 10. I 
am not worthy of the least of all the mercies, &c. 
1 Chron. xxix. 14. who am I, and what is my peo 
ple, that we should be able to offer so willingly after 
this sort? for all things come of thee, and of thine 
own have we given thee. Psal. li. 17. the sacrifices 
of God are a broken spirit. cxv. 1. not unto us, O Je 
hovah, not unto us, but unto thy name give the praise. 
Isai. Ixvi. 2. to this man will I look, even to him 
that is poor and of a contrite spirit, and trembleth at 
my word. Matt. v. 3. i blessed are the poor in spirit. 7 
Luke ix. 48. 4 he that is least among you all, the 
same shall be great. 1 Pet. v. 5, 6. submit your 
selves, &:c. 1 Tim. i. 15. Christ Jesus came into 
the world to save sinners, of whom I am chief. 

To this is opposed, first, pride towards God. Job 
xv. 25. he stretcheth out his hand against God. 
Prov. in. 34. he scorneth the scorners ; but he giveth 
grace unto the lowly. See also James iv. 6. 1 Pet. 
v. 5. Prov. xvi. 5. every one that is proud of heart is 
an abomination to Jehovah. Acts xii. 23. < the angel 
of the Lord smote him, because he gave not God the 
glory. Rev. iii. 17. 4 thou sayest, I am rich, and in 
creased with goods, and have need of nothing ; and 


knowest not that them art wretched, and miserable, 
and poor, and blind, and naked. 

Secondly, a false or superstitious humility. Col. ii. 
23. i which things have indeed a show of wisdom in 
will worship, and humility, and neglecting of the 
body ; not in any honour to the satisfying of the 

Patience is that whereby we acquiesce in the prom 
ises of God, through a confident reliance on his divine 
providence, power, and goodness, and bear inevitable 
evils with equanimity, as the dispensation of the su 
preme Father, and sent for our good. Job i. 22. in 
all this Job sinned not, nor charged God foolishly. 
ii. 10. shall we receive good at the hand of God, and 
shall we not receive evil ? 2 Sam. xvi. 10. * because 
Jehovah hath said unto him, Curse David, who shall 
then say, Wherefore hast thou done so ? Isai. xxviii. 
16. he that believeth shall not mistake. Lam. iii. 
29, &c. he putteth his mouth in the dust, if so be 
there may be hope ; he giveth his cheek to him that 
smiteth him. Matt. xvi. 24. let him take up his 
cross, and follow me. Luke xxi. 19.^ in your patience 
possess ye your souls. Rom. viii. 25. if we hope 
for that we see not, then do we with patience wait for 
it. xv. 4. that we through patience and comfort 
of the scriptures might have hope. 2 Cor. xii. 10. 
therefore I take pleasure in infirmities, in reproaches, 
in necessities, in persecutions, in distresses for Christ s 
sake. Coloss. i. 11. unto all long-suffering. 2 
Thess. iii. 5. the Lord direct your hearts into the 
love of God, and into the patient waiting for Christ. 
Heb. x. 36. ye have need of patience, that after ye 
have done the will of God, ye might receive 


promise. James v. 7, 8. 4 be patient unto the coming 
of the Lord ; behold, the husbandman waiteth 
ye also patient, stablish jour hearts, for the coming of 
the Lord draweth nigh. 1 Pet. ii. 19, &c. this is 
thank-worthy, if a man for conscience toward God 

endure grief, suffering wrongfully if when ye do 

well and suffer for it ? ye take it patiently, this is ac 
ceptable with God : for even hereunto were ye called ; 
because Christ also suffered for us, leaving us an ex 
ample that ye should follow his steps.... who when he 
was reviled, reviled not again ; when he suffered, he 
threatened not ; but committed himself to him that 
judgeth righteously. 

Opposed to this is impatience under the divine 
decrees ; a temptation to which the saints themselves 
are at times liable. 1 Kings xix. 4. he requested 
for himself that he might die. Job iii. 2, &c. 4 let 
the day perish wherein I was born. vii. 11. 4 there 
fore I will not refrain my mouth. xix. 7. 4 behold, 
I cry out of wrong, but I am not heard ; I cry aloud, 
but there is no judgment. Eccles. vii. 7. 4 surely 
oppression make^h a wise man mad. Jer. xx. 15. 
4 cursed be the man who brought tidings to my father, 
saying. xlv. 5. 4 thou didst say, Woe is me now, 
for Jehovah hath added grief to my sorrow. Jonah 
iv. 3. 4 it is better for me to die than to live. 

Obedience is that virtue whereby we propose to 
ourselves the will of God above all things as the rule 
of our conduct, and serve him alone. Thus Abraham, 
Gen. xii. 4. ; departed from Canaan, as Jehovah had 
spoken unto him. xxii. 3. 4 Abraham rose up early 
in the morning, and saddled his ass . 1 Sam. xv. 
22. 4 hath Jehovah as great delight in burnt-offerings 


and sacrifices, as in obeying the voice of Jehovah ? 
behold, to obey is better than sacrifice. Psal. lxxxi 
13, 14. O that my people had hearkened unto me, 5 
&c. Eccles. v. 1. 4 be more ready to hear than to 
give the sacrifice of fools. Jer. vi. 19, 20. because 

they have riot hearkened unto my words your 

burnt-offerings are not acceptable. vii. 22, 23. I 
spake not unto your fathers, nor commanded them in 
the day that 1 brought them out of the land of Egypt, 
concerning burnt-offerings or sacrifices ; but this thing 
commanded I them, saying, Obey my voice. xxxv. 
2. < go unto the house of the Rechabites . Matt. vi. 
10. thy will be done in earth, as it is in heaven. 
xxvi. 39. not as I will, but as thou wilt. v. 42. 

* thy will be done. John xiv. 15. if ye love me, 
keep my commandments. See also v. 21, 23. Acts 
iv. 19. i whether it be right in the sight of God to 
hearken unto you more than unto God, judge ye. v. 
29. we ought to obey God rather than men. Eph. 
vi. 6, 7. as the servants of Christ, doing the will 
of God from the heart, with good will doing service. 
1 John ii. 5. whoso keepeth his word, in him verily 
is the love of God perfected. v. 17. he thatdoeth 
the will of God abideth forever. v. 3. this is the 
love of God, that we keep his commandments ; find 
his commandments are not grievous. 

Opposed to this is disobedience. 1 Sam. xv. 23. 

* rebellion is as the sin of witchcraft, and stubbornness 
is as iniquity and idolatry. This was the error of 
the prophet of Judah, 1 Kings xiii. 22. Prov. 
xiii. 13. whoso despiseth the word shall be destroy 
ed. xxviii. 9. he that turneth away his ear.... even 
his prayer shall be abomination. Jer. vi. 16. thus 


saith Jehovah, Stand ye in the ways... and walk there 
in. ..but they said, We will not walk therein. v. 17. 
they said, We will not hearken. vii. 26. they 
hearkened not unto me . xxii. 21. this hath been 
thy manner from thy youth, that thou obeyedst not 
my voice. xxxvi. 23, &c. it came to pass that 
when Jehudi had read three or four leaves, &c. xliv. 
16. as for the word that thou hast spoken unto us in 
the name of Jehovah, we will not hearken unto thee. 
Even where it wears the disguise of humility : John 
xiii. 8. thou shalt never wash my feet ; or of a 
righteousness beyond what is commanded : Deut. v. 
32. ye shall not turn aside to the right hand or to 
the left. See also xxviii. 14. Josh. i. 7. Deut. xii. 
32. thou shalt not add thereto, nor diminish from it. 
1 Kings xx. 35. the man refused to smite him. 
Prov. xxx. 6. add thou not unto his words, lest he 
reprove thee, and thou be found a liar. 1 Cor. iv. 
6. that ye might learn in us not to think of man 
above that which is written. Rev. xxii. 18, 19. if 
any man shall add unto these things, God shall add 
unto him the plagues . 



THUS much of the internal service of God. We are 
now to speak of his external service, which is com 
monly denominated religion ; not that internal wor 
ship is not also religion, but that it is not usually 
called so, except as it manifests itself in outward 
actions. Although external worship is, for the con 
venience of delinition, distinguished from internal, it 
is our duty to unite them in practice, nor are they 
ever separated, except by the fault of the wicked. 

True religion is that by which God is worshipped 
with sincerity after the form and manner which him 
self has prescribed. Mic. vi. 6. wherewith shall I 
come before Jehovah ? Worship is expressed in 
Scripture by the verb hctrpsveiv, Matt. iv. 10, and 
Sovteveiv, vi. 24. Gal. iv. 8. The Papists therefore 
err in explaining AarpE/a of the worship paid to God, 
tiovtefa of that paid to holy men arid angels.* 

Opposed to this is, first, superstition or will wor 
ship (fOtAoOp^xf/i*,) the offspring of man s invention. 

Thus Nadab and Abihu offered strange fire before 

* See Grotius and Wetstuin on Matt. iv. 10. and Leigh s Crilica Sacra 
on the words JW.e-./* and JctMs/*. 

VOL. n. 35 


Jehovah, for which they were forthwith punished 
with death, Lev. x. 1, 2. 1 Sam. xiii. 12. I forced 
myself therefore, and offered a burnt-offering . . . thou 
hast done foolishly. xv. 15, 16. they have brought 
them ... to sacrifice unto Jehovah thy God . . . stay 
and I \vill tell tliee what Jehovah hath said to me. 
1 Kings xii. 31, 32. he made an house of high 
places. 2 Kings xvi. 10. he saw an altar that was 
at Damascus, &c. 1 Chron. xv. 13, 15. Jehovah 
our God made a breach upon us, for that we sought 
him not after the due order .... so the children of the bare the ark of God . . . according to the 
word of Jehovah. Isai. xxix. 13. their fear toward 
me is taught- by the precept of men. Mark vii. 7, 8. 
in vain do they worship me, teaching for doctrines 
the commandments of men. Matt. xv. 3, &;c. why 
do ye also transgress the commandment of God ? 
Gal. vi. 12. as many as desire to make a fair show 
in the flesh, they constrain you to be circumcised. 
Some of the early teachers of the church are charge 
able with this grievous error, in that they, to facilitate 
the conversion of the heathen to Christianity,* retained 

* He (Constantine) gave and administered occasion to bring in a deluge 
of ceremonies, thereby either to draw in the heathen by a resemblance of 
their rit^s, or to set a gloss upon the simplicity and plainness of Christian 
ity, which, to the gorgeous solemnities of paganism, and the sense of the 
world s children, seemed but a homely and yeomanly religion. Of Refor 
mation in England. Prose Works, I. 18. 4 This was that which made the 
old Christians paganize, while by their scandalous and base conforming to 
heathenism they did no more, when they hud done their utmost, but bring 
some pagans to Christianize ; for true Christians they neither were them-r 
selves, nor could make others in this fashion. Animadversions upon the. 
RtmonslranPs Defenct, Ibid. 171. For numerous instances of these cor 
ruptions, see the ecclesiastical historians and other authorities. The policy 
which led to what one of the most eloquent of living writers happily calls 
paganizing Christianity in order to christen paganism, 5 has found its 


the pagan rites with a slight alteration of names or 
things, to the infinite detriment of religion, and hi 
direct violation of the precept, Deut. xii. 30, 31. take 

porters in Mosheim and Gibbon. The former says ; in those early times it 
was both wise and necessary to show, in the establishment of outward forms 
of worship, some indulgence to the ancient opinions, manner? and laws of 

the respective nations to whom the gospel was preached In a word, 

the external forms of worship used in the times of old must necessarily have 
been regulated and modified according to the character, genius, and man 
ners of the different nations, on which the light of the gospel arose. 
Ecclesiastical History, I. p. 100. The bishops augmented the number of 
religious rites in the Christian worship by way of accommodation to the 
infirmities and prejudices both of Jews and heathens, in order to facilitate 
thus their conversion to Christianity, &c. Ibid. p. 162. After the con 
version of the Imperial city, the Christians still continued, in the month 
of February, the annual celebration of the Lupeicalia; to which they 
ascribed a secret and mysterious influence on the genial powers of the ani 
mal and vegetable world. Gibbon s Decline and Fail of Ike Roman, 
Empire, chap, xxxvi. B<irbeyrac {Trails de la Morale des Peres, ch. v. 
sect. 59, &c.) accuses Clemens Alexandrinus of having permitted the hea 
then converts to worship the sun, moon, and other henvenly bodies ; but 
the passage alluded to, when candidly considered, seems to admit of a 
different construction. See Strom. Lib. VI. Cap. xiv. p. 795, 796. Edit. 
Oxon. The author of the Life of Gregory Thaumaturgus mentions the 
following instance of a concession granted to the Christians of the second 
century. k Cum animadvrrtisset (Gregorius) quod ob corporeas delectn- 
tiones et voluptates simplex et imperitum vulgus in simulacrorum cultus 
errore permarieret .... permi-iit eif, ut in memoriam et recordutionern 
sanctorum ruartyrum sese oblectarent, et in laetitiam effunderentur, quod 
successu temporis aliquando futurum esset ut sua sponte ad honestioreui 
et accuratioreui vitae rationeru transirent. In the sixth century, Gregory 
the First, bishop of Rome, even went so far as to rebuke Serenus, 
Bishop of Marseilles, for breaking the images placed in churches, stating 
that he was desirous of conciliating the affections of the people by permit 
ting the use of them, as pieces of history to instruct their minds in the 
leading facts of Christianity. See Milner s Church History, III. 55. 
Acting on the same principle, he also wrote to Mellitus, a missionary pro 
ceeding to Britain, recommending certain concessions to the early converts 
among our own countrymen, who had been accustomed to propitiate 
demons, and to indulge in sacrificial feasts. Ibid. p. 79. Tertullian seems 
to have formed a better judgment respecting the spirit of Christianity. 
See the treatise De Crealiont, where he complains of the unnecessary intro 
duction of additional rites into the c huroh, borrowed from the enemies of 
the true religion. 


heed to thyself that thou be not snared by following 
them .... and that thou inquire not after their gods 
saying, How did these nations serve their gods ? even 
so will I do likewise : thou shalt not do so unto Jeho 
vah thy God. 7 

Secondly, an hypocritical worship, in which the 
external forms are duly observed, but without any 
accompanying affection of the mind ; which is a 
high offence against God. Lev. xxvi. 31. I will 
make your cities waste, &c. 1 Sam. iv. 3. let us 
fetch the ark of the covenant of Jehovah out of 
Shiloh unto us. 2 Chron. xii. 9. so Shishak came 
up against Jerusalem, and took away the treasures of 
the house of Jehovah. Thus Joash repaired the 
temple, xxiv. 4 6. ; as did also Herod, although the 
enemy of Christ, xxxvi. 7. Nebuchadnezzar car 
ried of the vessels of the house of Jehovah, and put 
them in his temple at Babylon. See also Ezra i. 7. 
Prov. xv. 8. the sacrifice of the wicked is an abom 
ination to Jehovah. See also xxi. 27. Isai. i. 11. 
to what purpose is the multitude of your sacrifices 
unto me ? Jcr. vii. 4. trust ye not in lying words, 
saying, The temple of Jehovah . . . are these. v. 12. 
* go ye now unto my place which was in Shiloh. See 
also v. 14. Isai. xxix. 13. forasmuch as this people 
draw near me with their mouth, and with their lips 
do honour me, but have removed their heart far from 
me. See also Matt. xv. 8, 9. Isai. xlviii. 1 . hear 
ye this, O house of Jacob, which are called by the 
name of Israel. Ixvi. 3. he that killeth an ox, &c. 
Jer. xviii. 18. come and let us devise devices against 
Jeremiah, for the law shall not perish from the priest. 
Ezek. xxxiii. 30 32. they sit before thee as my 


people .... but their heart goeth after covetousness. ? 
Amos v. 21. I hate, I despise your feast days. 
vi. 5. that chant to the sound of the viol, and invent 
to themselves instruments of music, like David. 
Mic. vi. 7, &c. will Jehovah be pleased with thou 
sands of rams, or w ith ten thousands of rivers of oil ? 
shall I give my first-born for my transgression, the fruit 
of my body for the sin of my soul ? he hath showed 
thee, O man, what is good ; and \vhat doth Jehovah 
require of thee but to do justly, and to love mercy, 
and to walk humbly with thy God ? Matt. xii. 44. 
he findeth it empty, swept, and garnished. 7 xxi. 30, 
&,c. he answered and said, I go, sir ; and went 
not. xxiii. 3. they say and do not. v. 15. woe 
unto you, scribes and Pharisees, hypocrites . Luke 
xi. 40, 42. ye fools, did not he that made that which 
is without make that w hich is within also ? Philipp. 
i. 15, 16. some indeed preach Christ even of envy 
and strife. 

The Shechemites, (Gen. xxxiv.) were punished 
with slaughter and destruction for having adopted a 
new religion inconsiderately, and from secular motives. 

On the contrary, internal worship, or the worship 
of the heart, is accepted of God, even-where external 
forms are not in all respects duly observed.* 1 Kings 
iii. 3. Solomon loved Jehovah . . . only he sacri 
ficed and burnt incense in high places. 2 Chron. 
xxx. 18 20. a multitude of the people . . . had not 
cleansed themselves, yet did they eat the passover . . . 
but Hezekiah prayed for them, saying, The good 

* This said unanimous, and oilier rites 
Observing none, but adoration pure, 
Which God likes best. Paradise Lost, IV. 736. 


Jehovah pardon every one that prepareth his heart to 
seek God, Jehovah God of his fathers, though he be 
not cleansed according to the purification of the sanc 
tuary : and Jehovah hearkened to Hezekiah, and 
healed the people. John vii. 14. now about the 
midst of the feast, Jesus went up into the temple and 

The parts and circumstances of true religion, or of 
the worship of God, are next to be considered. 

The parts into which religion is divided, are the 
invocation or adoration of God, and the sanctijication 
of his name in all the circumstances of life. 

Under invocation are included, first, supplication 
and thanksgiving ; secondly, oaths and the casting of 

Supplication is that act whereby under the guidance 
of the Holy Spirit we reverently ask of God things, 
lawful, either for ourselves or others, through faith in 
Christ. Psal. 1. 15. call upon me in the day of 
trouble ; I will deliver thee, and thou shalt glorify 
me. Ixxxvi. 4, 5. unto thee, O Jehovah, do I lift 
up my soul ; for thou, Jehovah, art good and ready to 
forgive, and plenteous in mercy unto all them that call 
upon thee. Matt. vii. 7 10. ask, and it shall be 
given you ; seek, and ye shall find ; knock, and it 
shall be opened unto you. Philipp. iv. 6. be careful 
for nothing, but in every thing by prayer and suppli 
cation with thanksgiving let your request be made 
known unto God. 

Through faith. Mark xi. 24. what things soever 
ye desire, when ye pray, believe that ye receive them, 
and ye shall have them. Rom. x. 14. how then 
shall they call on him in whom they have not believ- 


ed ? 1 Tim. ii. 8. without doubting. James i. 6, 
7. let him ask in faith, nothing wavering ; for he 
that wavereth, &c. 

In Christ. John xiv. 13, 14 i whatsoever ye shall 
ask in my name, that will I do, that the Father may 
be glorified in the Son. 5 xvi. 23. l whatsoverye shall 
ask the Father in my name, he will give it you. Rev. 
v. 8. c having every one of them harps, and golden 
vials full of odours, which are the prayers of saints. 
viii. 3, 4. there was given unto him much incense, 
that he should offer it with the prayers of all saints 
upon the golden altar which was before the throne ; 
and the smoke of the incense, which came with the 
prayers of the saints, ascended up before God. 

Things lawful ; and above all, the best things. 1 
Kings iii. 11, 12. because thou hast asked this thing, 
and hast not asked for thyself long life, neither hast 
asked riches for thyself, nor hast asked the life of 
thine enemies, but hast asked for thyself understand 
ing to discern judgment ; behold, I have done accord 
ing to thy words. Matt. vi. 33. seek ye first the 
kingdom of God and his righteousness, and all these 
things shall be added unto you. 

Under the guidance of the Holy Spirit. Zcch. xii. 
10. 1 will pour upon the house of David and upon 
the inhabitants of Jerusalem the spirit of grace and of 
supplications. Rom. viii. 26, 27. likewise the Spirit 
also helpeth our infirmities, for we know not what 
we should pray for as we ought. Ephes. vi. 18. 
praying always in the Spirit. Judc 20. pray 
ing in the Holy Ghost; that is, quickening and call 
ing into action, as much as possible, the gift of the 
Holy Ghost within us. 


The Lord s Prayer was intended rather as a model 
of supplication, than as a form to be repeated verbatim 
by the apostles, or by Christian churches at the pres 
ent day,* Hence the superfluousness of set forms of 
worship ; seeing that, with Christ for our master, and 
the Holy Spirit for our assistant in prayer, we can 
have no need of any human aid in either respect.! 

Reverently. Reverence comprehends, first, the in 
ternal affection of the mind, and secondly, the voice 
and outward deportment of the body. 

Under the former is included, first, that we ask 
every thing aright, that is to say, to a right end. 
James iv. 3. ye ask, and receive not, because ye ask 
amiss, that ye may consume it upon your lusts. Sec 
ondly, that our supplications proceed from a pure and 
penitent heart. Hence 2 Sam. xxii. 42. they look- 

* If the Lord s Prayer had been " the warrant or pattern of set litur 
gies," as is here affirmed, why was neither that prayer, nor any other set 
form ever after used, or so much as mentioned by the apostles, much less 
commended to our use ? Answer to Eikon Basilike. Prose Works, III. 37. 
t Conformably with his opinions on this subject, Milion ascribes extem 
poraneous effusions to our first parents : 

Lowly they bow d adoring, and began 

Their orisons, each morning duly paid 

In various style ; for neither various style 

Nor holy rapture wanted they to praise 

Their Maker, in fit strains pronounc d, or sung 

Unmeditated. Paradise Lost, V. 144. 

1 It is not the goodness of matter, therefore, which is not, nor can be, 
owed to the liturgy, that will bear it out, if the form, which is the essence 
of it, l>e fantastic and superstitious, the end sinister, and the imposition 
violent. Animadversions on the Remonstrants Defence. Prose Works, 
I. 173. Neither can any true Christian find a reason why liturgy should 
be at all admitted, a prescription not imposed or practised by those first 
founders of the church, who alone had that authoritj , 1 &c. Answer to 
Eikon Basilike, III. 36. Compare also the whole of the chapter entitled 
1 On the Ordinance against the Common Prayer Book, from which the 
hist quotation is taken. 


ed, but there was none to save ; even unto Jehovah, 
but he answered them not. Psal. Ixvi. 18. i if I re 
gard iniquity in my heart, Jehovah will not hear 
me. Isai. i. 16 18. wash you, make you clean.... 
come now, and let us reason together . Ezek. viii. 
18. though they cry in mine ears with a loud voice, 
yet will I not hear them. xx. 30, 31. are ye pol 
luted, after the manner of your fathers ?....and shall I 
be inquired of by you ? John ix. 31. God heareth 
not sinners. Thirdly, that \ve pray in a spirit of 
kindness and forgiveness towards our brethren. Matt* 
v. 24. leave there thy gift before the altar, and go 
thy way ; first be reconciled to thy brother . vi. 
12. forgive us our debts, as we forgive our debtors. 
See also xviii. 23. the parable of the tw 7 o debtors. 1 
Tim. ii. 8. ; I will therefore that men pray every 
where, lifting up holy hands, without wrath and doubt 
ing. Fourthly, that we seek the Lord early. Prov. 

1. 24 28. because I have called, and ye refused.... 
they shall call upon me, but I will not answer. Psal. 
xxxii. 6. for this shall every one that is godly pray 
unto thee in a time when thou mayest be found. Isai. 
Iv. 6. l seek ye Jehovah, while he may be found. 
Fifthly, that we pray with all humility. Luke x\ iiL 

9, &c. standing afar off saying, God be merciful 

to me a sinner. Sixthly, that we pray earnestly ; see 
the parable of the man who came to borrow bread of 
his friend, Luke xi. 5. and of the unjust judge, xviii. 

2, &c. Lastly, that we persevere in prayer. Coloss. 
iv. 2. continue in prayer. 

It is not necessary that our prayers should be always 
audible ; the silent supplication of the mind, whis 
pers, even groans and inarticulate exclamations in 

VOL. i*% 36 

private prayer, are available.* Exod. xiv. 15. Je 
hovah said unto Moses, Wherefore criest thou unto 
me ? though he was saying nothing with his lips, and 
only praying inwardly. 1 Sam. i. 13. * now Hannah, 
she spake in her heart ; only her lips moved, but her 
voice was not heard. Thus, too, our devotions will 
be less conspicuous ; according to the command, Matt, 
vi. 6. 

Prayer may be offered either alone, or in company. 
Christ appears seldom to have prayed in conjunction 
with his disciples, or even in their presence, but either 
wholly alone, or at some distance from them. It is 
moreover evident that the precepts, Matt. vi. have ref 
erence to private prayer alone. When however he 
inculcated on his disciples the duty of prayer in gen 
eral, he gave no specific direction whether they should 
pray alone, or with others. It is certain that they 
were in the frequent practice of praying in assemblies ; 
and that either individually, each framing within him 
self his own particular petition relative to some sub 
ject on which they had agreed in common, Matt, xviii, 

* Sighs now breath d 

Unutterable, which the spirit of prayer 

Inspired, and wingM for heav n with speedier flight 

Than loudest oratory. Paradise Lost, XI. 5. 

Now therefore bend thine ear 

To supplication, hear his sighs though mute, 
Unskilful with what words to pray. Ibid. 30. 

This will prayer, 

Or one short sigh of human breath, upborne 
Ev n to the seat of God. Ibid. 146. 

1 Though we know not what to pray as we ought, yet he with sighs un 
utterable by any words, much less by a stinted liturgy, dwelling in us 
makes intercession for us." 1 Answer to Eikon Basilike. Prose Works, 


19. or by the mouth of one chosen from their num 
ber, who spoke in the name of the rest ; both which 
modes of prayer appear to have been used indiscrim 
inately by the primitive Christians. Acts ii. 42. in 
breaking of bread and in prayers. iv. 24. they lifted 
up their voice to God with one accord, and said . 
xii. 12. where many were gathered together pray 
ing. xvi. 13. by a river side, where prayer was wont 
to be made. xx. 36. he kneeled down and prayed 
with them all. xxi. 5. l we kneeled down on the shore 
and prayed. 1 Cor. xiv. 15, 16. I will pray with 

the understanding how shall he say Amen at 

thy giving of thanks ? 

Hence the impropriety of offering up public prayer 
in an unknown tongue, 1 Cor. xiv. 15, 16, as above; 
inasmuch as in public prayer consent is necessary.* 
Matt, xviii. 19. if two of you shall agree on earth as 
touching any thing that they shall ask, it shall be done 
for them. 

Both in private and in public prayer, vain repeti 
tions and empty words are to be avoided. Matt. vi. 
7. Eccles. v. 2. be not rash with thy mouth, and let 
not thine heart be hasty to utter any thing before God, 
for God is in heaven, and thou upon earth, therefore 
-let thy words be few. Such repetitions, however, as 
proceed from vehement emotion of mind, are not to 
be accounted vain.f Mark xiv. 39. again he went 
away and prayed, and spake the same words. 

* * It is his promise also that where two or three gathered together in his 
name shall agree to ask him any thing, it shall he granted, for he is there in 
the midst of them. Answer lo Eikon Basilike. Prose Works, III. 39. 

t l There is a large difference in the repetition of some pathetical ejacu 
lation raised out of the sudden earnestness and vigour of the inflamed soul, 
(such as was that of Chri-rt in the garden) from the continual rehearsal of 


No particular posture of the body in prayer was 
enjoined, even under the law.* 2 Sam. vii. 18. then 
went king David in, and sat before Jehovah, and he 
said . xii. 16. he lay all night upon the earth. 
PsaL xcv. 6. O come, let us worship and bow down, 
let us kneel before Jehovah our maker. cxlix. 5. let 
them sing aloud upon their beds. 1 Kings viii. 22. 
1 Solomon stood before the altar of Jehovah. v. 54. 
he arose from kneeling on his knees. See also 2 
Citron, vi. 12, 13. xx. 5. Jchoshaphat stood in the 
congregation of Judah . v. 13. all Judah stood 
before Jehovah. Dan. vi. 10. he kneeled upon his 
knees and prayed. Luke xviii. 13. the publican 
standing afar off. 

Connected with the posture of the body, is the 
deportment to be observed in prayer. On this subject 
Paul says, 1 Cor. xi. 4. every man praying or 
prophesying having his head covered, dishonoured! 

our daily orisons ; which if a man shall kneel down in a morning, and say 
over, and presently in another part of the room kneel down again, and in 
other words ask but still for the same things as it were out of one invento 
ry, I cannot see how he will escape that heathenish tautology of multiplying 
words, which Christ himself, thai has the putting up of our prayers, told us 
would not be acceptable in heaven. 1 Animadversions upon the Remon- 
ttranfs Defence. I. 166. 

* Adam and Eve are represented in Paradise Lost as praying, some 
times in a standing posture, sometimes kneeling, sometimes prostrate: 

Thus they, in lowliest plight repentant stood, 

Praying. XI. I. 
where all the commentators have mistaken the true import of the phrase. 

Since I sought 

By prayer the offended Deity to appease, 

KneePd, and before him humbled all my heart . Ibid. 14& 

They forthwith to the place 

Repairing where he judgM them, prostrate fell 

Before him reverent, and both confessed 

Humbly their faults, and pardon begg d. X. 1098. 


his head ; but every woman that prayeth or prophesi- 
eth with her head uncovered dishonoured! her head. 
Why was this ? Because at that time covering the 
head was, with both sexes alike,* a token of subjec 
tion ; on which account it was usual for men to pray 
or prophesy with their heads uncovered. Now, on 
the contrary, since the covering the head has become 
a token of authority, and the uncovering it of sub 
mission, it is the custom with most churches, espe 
cially those of Europe, in compliance not so much 
with the letter as with the spirit of the law (which is 
always to be preferred) to worship God uncovered, 
as being the mark of reverence prescribed by modern 
custom ; but to prophesy covered, in token of the 
authority with which the speaker is invested ; and 
likewise to listen to his instructions covered, as the 
deportment most emblematic, according to modern 
ideas, of our freedom and maturity as sons of God.f 
On the other hand, it will be easily inferred from 
hence, that in countries where the cold is intense, as 
Livonia or Russia, or where custom will not allow 
the head to be uncovered without great impropriety, 
as in Asia or Africa, it is allowable to pray covered ; 
as has been shown by Cappellus in a learned note on 
this passage,! and by other commentators. 

* She as a -veil down to the slender waist 
Her unadorned golden tresses wore 

which implied 

Subjection. IV. 304. 

See 1 Cor. xi. 15. l her hair is given her for a covering, where the marginal 
reading is/07* a veil. 

t Sanctitude severe and pure, 

Severe, but in true filial freedom plac d. Paradise Loft, IV. 293. 
t * Si forte in Livonia, Norvegia, Suedia, Moscovia, &c. hybcrno tem- 
pore, capite adeoqne et manibus tectis orant, ratio e?t manifests ; natura 


With regard to the place of prayer, all are equally 
suitable.* 1 Tim. ii. 8. I will therefore that men pray 
every where. For private prayer, a retired place- 
is most proper. Matt. vi. 6. enter into thy closet. 
xiv. 23. he went up into a mountain apart to pray. 
To offer private prayer in public is hypocritical. 
Matt. vi. 5. they love to pray standing in the syna 
gogues, and in the corners of the streets, that they 
may be seen of men. It was lawful however to offer 
private prayer in the sanctuary, and afterwards in 
the temple at Jerusalem, as in the instances of 
Hannah, David, and others, quoted above. Neither 
is there any time at which prayer may not be 
properly offered. Psal. cxix. 55. 1 have remember 
ed thy name, O Jehovah, in the night. v. 62. at 
midnight I will rise to give thanks unto thee. v. 
164. seven times a day do I praise thee, because 
of thy righteous judgments. Lake xviii. 1. men 
ought always to pray, and not to faint. Eph. vi. 18. 
4 praying always with all prayer and supplication in 
the Spirit, and watching thereunto . Col. iv. 12. 
6 always labouring fervently for you in prayers. 1 
Thess. v. 17. pray without ceasing. The seasons 
most appropriate for prayer, however, are evening, 
morning, and noon-day. Psal. Iv. 17. evening and 

nempe coeli, ob aeris inclementiam, non patitur ut sint turn aperto capite : 
itaqne etsi turn adversus TO jwrov hujus canonis forte faciunt non faciunt 
tamen adversus ejus menteni, et rationem qua nititur, consuetudinem nim- 
irum civilem : nam tuna apud eos ne supplices quidem caput forte aperire 
solent, aut inferiores coram superioribus, ob creli, uti dixi, inclementiam 
stared Lud Capelli Spicilegium in 1 Cor. xi. 4. Compare however the 
whole passage, Sect- 1 15. 

* To teach thee that God attributes to place 
No sanctity, if none be thither brought 
By men who there frequent, or therein dwell. Paradise Lost, XI. 836. 


morning and at noon will I pray, and cry aloud, and 
he shall hear my voice. v. 3. my voice shalt thou 
hear in the morning, O Jehovah ; in the morning will 
I direct my prayer unto thee. Ixxxviii. 13. in the 
morning shall my prayer prevent thee. xcii. 1, 2. 
it is a good thing to give thanks unto Jehovah.. 
show forth thy loving-kindness in the morning, and 
thy faithfulness every night. cxix. 147. I prevent 
ed the dawning of the morning, and cried. v. 148. 
mine eyes prevent the night watches, that I might 
meditate in thy word. Dan. vi. 10. he kneeled 
upon his knees three times a day. Mark i. 35. in 
the morning, rising up a great while before day, he 
went out and departed into a solitary place, and there 
prayed. Acts x. 9. Peter went up on the house-top 
to pray about the sixth hour. 

For ourselves or others ; inasmuch as we are com 
manded not to pray for ourselves only, but for all 
mankind. 1 Tim. ii. 1 3. I exhort therefore that 
first of all, supplications, prayers, intercessions, and 
giving of thanks be made for all men. Particularly 
for the universal church and its ministers. Psal. 
xxviii. 9. save thy people, and bless thine inherit 
ance. See also iii. 8.* li. 18. do good in thy 
good pleasure unto Zion. Ixxiv. 2, &c. remem 
ber thy congregation. cii. 13. thou shalt arise, 
and have mercy upon Zion ; for the time to favour 
her, yea, the set time is come. cxxii. 6. pray for 
the peace of Jerusalem. Matt. ix. 38. pray ye 
therefore the Lord of the harvest, that he would send 

* Super populum tuum sit benedictio tua maxime. Tremell. The pre 
catory form is not preserved in our authorized translation ; thy blctfting if 
upon thy people. 


forth labourers into his harvest. Eph. vi. 18, 19. 

* with all prayer and supplication in the Spirit....for all 
saints, and for me, that, &c. . Col. iv. 3. withal 
praying also for us, that God would open unto us a 
door of utterance, to speak the mystery of Christ. 
For all magistrates : especially with a view to the 
peace of the church. Psal. Ixxii. 1. give the king 
thy judgments . Jer. xxix. 7. seek the peace of 
the city whither I have caused you to be carried away 
captives, and pray unto Jehovah for it ; for in the 
peace thereof ye shall have peace. 1 Tim. ii. 1, 2. 

* for kings, and for all that are in authority, that we 
may lead a quiet and peaceable life in all godliness 
and honesty. Even for our enemies. Matt. v. 44. 
4 pray for them that despitefully use you and persecute 
you. Luke xxiii. 34. Father, forgive them, for they 
know not what they do. Acts vii, 60. Lord, lay 
not this sin to their charge. Much more for the 
brethren. Rom. i. 8 10. without ceasing I make 
mention of you always in my prayers . If however 
there be any whom we know certainly to be past 
remedy, we are not to pray for them. Jer. vii. 16. 
4 pray not thou for this people . See also xiv. 11, 
12. John xvii. 9. I pray not for the world. 1 
John v. 16. 4 there is a sin unto death ; I do not say 
that he shall pray for it. 

We are even commanded to call down curses pub 
licly on the enemies of God and the church ; as also 
on false brethren, and on such as are guilty of any 
grievous offence against God, or even against our 
selves. The same may be lawfully done in private 
prayer, after the example of some of the holiest of 
men. Gen. ix. 25. cursed be Canaan, Deut. xxvii. 


13 26. these shall stand upon mount Ebal to 
curse. Judges v. 23. curse ye Meroz, said the 
angel of Jehovah. Psal. v. 10. * destroy thou 
them, O God. cix. 6, &c. set thou a wicked man 
over him, and let Satan stand at his right hand. 
cxl. 10. let burning coals fall upon them. Similar 
imprecations occur in many other Psalms. 2 Kings 
ii. 24. he cursed them in the name of Jehovah. 

Jer. xviii. 19, &c deliver up their children to the 

famine for they have digged a pit to take me . 

Neh. iv. 4, &c. give them for a prey in the land of 
captivity. vi. 14. think thou upon Tobiah and 
Sanballat according to these their works. xiii. 25. I 
contended with them, and cursed them. Acts viii. 
20. thy money perish with thee. Gal v. 12. I 
would they were even cut off that trouble you. 
2 Tim. iv. 14. the Lord reward him according to 
his works. 

It is expressly promised that supplications offered 
in a spirit of faith and obedience shall be heard. Psal. 
cxlv. 18. Jehovah is nigh unto all them that call 
upon him, to all that call upon him in truth. Jsai. 
lix. 1, 2. neither his ear heavy, that it cannot hear; 
but . . . your sins have hid his face from you, that 
he will not hear. Ixv. 24. it shall come to pass, 
that before they call, I will answer, and while they 
are yet speaking, I will hear. Dan. ix. 20, &;c. 
whiles I was speaking and praying . . . even the 
man Gabriel .... touched me, &c. . x. 12. from 
the first day that thou didst set thine heart to under 
stand ... thy words were heard. John ix. 31. if 
any man be a worshipper of God, and doeth his 
will, him he heareth. 

VOL. n. 37 


Hence our knowledge of God s will, or of his prov 
idence in the government of the world, ought not to 
render us less earnest in deprecating evil and desiring 
good, but the contrary. Exod. xxxii. 10. now there 
fore let me alone, that mj wrath may wax hot against 
them, and that I may consume them, and I will make 
of thee a great nation : and Moses besought Jehovah 
his God, and said . 1 Chron. xvii. 25, 26. thou, 
O my God, hast told thy servant that thou wilt build 
him an house ; therefore thy servant hath found in 
his heart to pray before thee. 5 John xvii. 1. Father, 
the hour is come ; glorify thy Son. v. 5. O Father, 
glorify thou me. 

It frequently happens, however, that believers are 
not heard in all that they ask for themselves or 
others ; namely, when they seek what is contrary to 
their own good, or to the glory of God. Deut. iii. 
25, 26. I pray thee, let me go over and see . . . but 
Jehovah said unto me, Let it suffice thee, speak no 
more unto me of this matter. 1 Sam. xv. 11. < it 
grieved Samuel, and he cried unto Jehovah all night. 
2 Sam. xii. 16 18. David besought God for the 
child . 1 Kings xix. 4. he requested for himself 
that he might die. Ezek. xiv. 14. though these 
three men, Noah, Daniel, and Job, were in it, &c. . 
Matt. xs. 22. ye know not what ye ask. 2 Cor. 
xii. 8, 9. for this thing I besought the Lord thrice, 
that it might depart from me ; and he said unto me, 
My grace is sufficient for thee. 

The prayers even of unbelievers sometimes prevail 
with God, to the obtaining of bodily comforts or 
worldly advantages ; for he is kind to all, and * mak- 
eth his sun to rise on the evil and on the good. Matt. 


T. 45. Hence he occasionally grants the requests even 
of devils. Job i. 1 1, 12. 4 put forth thy hand now. . . 
and Jehovah said unto Satan, Behold, all that he hath 
is in thy power. See also ii. 5, 6. Matt. viii. 31, 32. 
i the devils besought him, saying, If thou cast us out, 
suffer us to go away into the herd of swine ; and he 
said unto them, Go. See also Mark v. 10 13. 

Sometimes he complies with our prayers in anger ; 
as when the Israelites asked flesh, Num. xi. 18, &c. 
* ye shall eat flesh, for ye have wept in the ears of 
Jehovah, saying, &c. ... ye shall eat . . . until it come 
out at your nostrils. See also Psal. Lxxviii. 30. So 
likewise when they asked a king, Hos. xiii. 11.* 

Among errors under the head of prayer may be 
classed rash imprecations, whereby we invoke God or 
the devil to destroy any particular person or thing : 
Rom. xii. 14. bless and curse not ; an intemperance 
to which even the pious are occasionally liable ; Job 
i\i. 2, 3. let the day perish wherein I was born . 
Jer. xx. 14. cursed be the day wherein I was born. 
Undeserved curses, however, are of no force, and 
therefore not to be dreaded. Gen. xii. 3. I will curse 
him that curseth thee. Numb, xxiii. 8. i how shall I 
curse whom God hath not cursed ? Prov. xxvi. 2. as 
the bird by wandering, as the swallow by flying, so 
the curse causeless shall not come. Psal. cix. 28. 
let them curse, but bless thou. 

Prayer is assisted by fasting and vows. Matt. ix. 
15. the days will come when the bridegroom shall 
be taken from them, and then shall they fast. 

* If God afffrward gave or permitted this insurrection of episcopacy, 
it is to be fe<>red he did it in his wrath, n? he srnve the Israelites a kinu. 1 
Reason of Church Government urged against Prelaly. Prose Works, I. 101. 

A religious fast is that whereby a man abstains, not 
so much from eating and drinking, as from sin, that 
he may be enabled to devote himself more closely to 
prayer, for the obtaining some good, or deprecating 
some evil. Isai. Iviii. 5, 6. is it such a fast that I 
have chosen ? a day for a man to afflict his soul ? is it 
to bow down his head as a bulrush, and to spread 
sackcloth and ashes under him ? wilt thou call this a 
fast, and an acceptable day unto Jehovah ? is not this 
the fast that I have chosen ? to loose the bands of 
wickedness, to undo the heavy burthens, and to let 
the oppressed go free, and that ye break every yoke ? 
Joel ii. 12, 13. turn ye even to me with all your 
heart, and with fasting, and with weeping, and 
mourning ; and rend your heart, and not your gar 
ments . Jonah iii. 6 9. word came unto the king 
of Nineveh, and he arose from his throne, and he laid 

his robe from him saying, Let neither man nor 

beast, herd nor flock taste anything but let them 

cry mightily unto God ; yea, let them turn every one 
from his evil way, and from the violence that is in 
their hands. Zech. vii. 5. < when ye fasted and 
mourned in the fifth and seventh month, did ye at all 
fast unto me, even unto me ? 

Religious fasts are either private or public. 

A private fast is one imposed by an individual on 
himself or his family, for private reasons. 2 Sam. xii. 
16. < David besought God for the child; and David 
fasted, and went in, and lay all night upon the earth. 
Psal. xxxv. 13. as for me, when they were sick, my 
clothing was sackcloth ; I humbled my soul with fast 
ing. Neh. i. 4. it came to pass when I heard these 
words that I sat down and wept, and mourned certain 


days, and fasted, and prayed before the God of 
heaven. Dan. ix. 3. I set my face unto the Lord 
God to seek by prayer and supplications, with fasting 
and sackcloth and ashes. x. 2, 3. in those days I 
Daniel was mourning full three weeks ; I ate no 
pleasant bread, neither came flesh nor wine in my 
mouth, neither did I anoint myself at all. Luke ii. 
37. she served God with fastings and prayers night 
and day. 1 Cor. vii. 5. ; except it be with consent 
for a time, that ye may give yourselves to fasting and 
prayer. To this head belongs the precept, Matt. vi. 
16 18. when ye fast, be not as the hypocrites, of a 
sad countenance ; for they disfigure their faces that 
they may appear unto men to fast : verily I say unto 
you, They have their reward : but thou, when thou 
fastest, anoint thine head, and wash thy face ; that 
thou appear not unto men to fast. 

A public fast is that which is proclaimed by the 
church or civil power for public reasons. Lev. xvi. 
29. this shall be a statute for ever unto you, that in 
the seventh month, on the tenth day of the month, ye 
shall afflict your souls, and do no work at all . 1 
Sam. vii. 6. they fasted on that day, and said there, 
We have sinned against Jehovah. xxxi. 13. they 
took their bones, and buried them under a tree at Ja- 
besh, and fasted seven days. Ezra viii. 21. then I 
proclaimed a fast there at the river of Ahava, that we 
might afflict ourselves before our God, to seek of 
him Esther iv. 3, 15, 16. there was great mourn 
ing among the Jews, and fasting, and weeping, and 

wailing, and many lay in sackcloth and ashes then 

Esther bade them return Mordecai this answer ; Go, 


gather together all the Jews that are present in Shu- 
shan, and fast ye for me, and neither eat nor drink 
three days, night nor day ; I also and my maidens 
will fast likewise. ix. 31, 32. to confirm those days 

of Purim in their time appointed the matters of 

the fastings and their cry ; to which allusion is made 
Zech. vii. 5. viii. 19. Joel ii. 15, 16. blow the trum 
pet in Zion, sanctify a fast. Acts xiii. 2, 3. as they 
ministered to the Lord, and fasted. xiv. 23. 4 when 
they had prayed with fasting, they commended them 
to the Lord. 

To fasting were anciently added various inflictions 
for the mortification of the body, conformably to the 
customs of those nations. Compare Ezra ix. 3. Jonah 
iii. 6. and the passages quoted above. 

Even outward fasting sometimes averts the anger 
of God for a season. 1 Kings xxvii. 29. because he 
humbleth himself before me, I will not bring the evil 
in his days. 

There is also a fasting which works miracles. Matt. 
xvii. 21. this kind goeth not out but by prayer and 

A vow is a promise respecting some lawful matter, 
solemnly made to God, sometimes with the sanction 
of an oath, and by which we testify our readiness and 
hearty resolution to serve God, or the gratitude with 
which we shall receive the fulfilment of our prayers. 
Gen. xxviii; 20. Jacob vowed a vow, saying . 1 
Sam. i. 11. she vowed a vow, and said . Psal. 
cxix. 106. 4 I have sworn, and I will perform it, that 
I will keep thy righteous judgments. Neh. x. 29. 
they entered into a curse and into an oath to walk in 
God s law. 


Vows are general or special. 

General vows relate to things which God has com 
manded ; and are either public or private. 

A public vow is one which is vowed by the whole 
church ; and is usually called in Scripture a cov 
enant. Josh. xxiv. 22, 23. ye are witnesses against 
yourselves, that you have chosen you Jehovah to serve 
him ; and they said, We are witnesses. 2 Chron. xv. 
12 14. they entered into a covenant to seek Jeho 
vah God of their fathers and they sware unto 

Jehovah. Ezra x. 5. he made the chief priests, the 
Levites, and all Israel to swear that they should do 
according to this word. 

A private vow is one which is vowed by an indi 
vidual ; as for instance the baptismal vow. 

Special vows relate to things lawful, but not ex 
pressly commanded ; and are undertaken for special 
reasons. Acts xviii. 1 8. having shorn his head in 
Cenchrea ; for he had a vow. xxi. 23. we have 
four men which have a vow on them. 

We must be careful, however, not to interdict our 
selves or others from those things which God intended 
for our use, as meat or drink ; except in cases where 
the exercise of our liberty may be a stumbling-block 
to any of the brethren. Matt. xv. 17,18. do not ye yet 
understand that whatsoever entereth in at the mouth 
goeth into the belly, and is cast out into the draught? 
Mark vii. 15, 16. there is nothing from without a 
man that entering into him can defile him, &c. The 
reason is given v. 19. < because it entereth not into 
his heart, but into his belly, &c. Rom. xiv. 14. I 
am persuaded by the Lord Jesus, that there is nothing 
unclean of itself. v. 17. for the kingdom of God 


is not meat and drink . 1 Cor. vi. 13. meats for 
the belly, and the belly for meats ; but God shall 
destroy both it and them. viii. 8. meat commend- 
eth us not to God ; for neither if we eat, are we the 
better, neither if we eat not, are we the worse. Coloss. 
ii. 20, &c. if ye be dead with Christ from the rudi 
ments of the world, why as though living in the world 
are ye subject to ordinances ? touch not, taste not, 
handle not ; which all are to perish with the using . 
1 Tim. iv. 3, 4. forbidding to marry, and command 
ing to abstain from meats, which God hath created to 
be received with thanksgiving of them which believe 
and know the truth ; for every creature of God is 
good, and nothing to be refused. Heb. xiii. 9. not 
with meats, which have not profited them that have 
been occupied therein. Acts x. 13. rise, Peter, kill 
and eat. v. 15. what God hath cleansed, that call 
not thou common. The same rule applies to mar 
riage : Matt. xix. 11. * all men cannot receive this 
saying, save them to whom it is given. 1 Cor. vii. 
9. but if they cannot contain, let them marry. v. 26. 
4 1 suppose therefore that this is good for the present 
distress. v. 36, 37. if any man think that he be- 
haveth himself uncomely towards his virgin, &c. 1 
Tim. iv. 3. forbidding to marry; and to other sub 
jects of a similar nature. 1 Tim. iv. 8. bodily exer 
cise profiteth little ; but godliness is profitable unto 
all things. 

Vows of voluntary poverty are also to be accounted 
superstitious : Prov. xxx. 8. give me neither pov 
erty nor riches ; inasmuch as poverty is enumerated 
among the greatest evils : Deut. xxviii. 48. in hun 
ger, and in thirst, and in nakedness, and in want of 


all things. Acts xx. 35. it is more blessed to give 
than to receive. Eph. iv. 28. * rather let him labour, 
working with his hands the thing which is good, that 
he may have to give to him that needeth. 

No one can make a special vow who is not his own 
master, and exempt from subjection to any other au 
thority ; as a son or a daughter to a parent, a wife to 
her husband, a male or female servant to their lord. 
See Num. vi. and xxx. 13. every vow, and every 
binding oath to afflict the soul, her husband may 
establish it, or her husband may make it void. Neither 
can a general or special vow be made by one who has 
not yet arrived at the full use of his judgment. Con 
sidering how generally this rule is received among 
divines, it is strange that they should so far forget 
their own doctrine, as to require the special vow of 
baptism from infants. 

Any one, who is in these respects qualified, may 
bind himself by a special vow ; when once made, how 
ever, he is not at liberty to recal it, but must fulfil it 
at all hazards. Deut. xxiii. 20. when thou shalt vow 
a vow unto Jehovah thy God, thou shalt not slack to 
pay it ; for Jehovah thy God will surely require it of 
thee, and it would be sin in thee. Num. xxx. 2. if a 
man vow avow unto Jehovah .... he shall not break his 
word, he shall do according to all that proceedeth out 
of his mouth. Eccles. v. 4, 5. < when thou vowest a 
vow unto God, defer not to pay it ; for he hath no 
pleasure in fools : pay that which thou hast vowed : 
better is it that thou shouldest not vow, than that thou 
shouldest vow and not pay. 

An impious vow, however, is not binding, any 
more than an unjust oath. Matt. xv. 5. ye say, Who- 

VOL. n. 38 


soever shall say to his father or his mother, It is a 
gift, by whatsoever thou mightest be profited by me ; 
and honour not his father or his mother, he shall be 
free. Here that which ought to have been applied 
to the support of the parents, had been vowed as a 
gift to God ; so that either the vow could not be ful 
filled, or the support of the parents must be with 
drawn. Christ therefore decides that the parents are 
to be supported, and that the impious vow is of no 

The opposite of a vow is sacrilege; which consists 
in the non-performance of a vow, or in the appropri 
ation to private uses of things dedicated to God.* 
Josh. vii. 11. they have even taken of the accursed 
thing, and have also stolen, and dissembled also. 5 
Prov. xx. 25. it is a snare to the man who devoureth 
that which is holy, and after vows to make inquiry. 
Mai. iii. 8. &LC. will a man rob God ? yet ye have 
robbed me : but ye say, Wherein have we robbed 
thee ? in tithes and offerings : ye are cursed with a 
curse, for ye have robbed me, even this whole na 
tion. i. 8. if ye offer the blind for sacrifice, is it 
not evil ? 

Thus far of prayer and its auxiliaries. 

Thanksgiving consists in returning thanks with 
gladness for the divine benefits. Job i. 21. Jehovah 
gave, and Jehovah hath taken away ; blessed be the 
name of Jehovah. Eph. v. 20. giving thanks 
always for all things unto God and the Father, in the 
name of our Lord Jesus Christ. 

* Yet, sacrilegious, to himself would take 
That which to God alone of right belongs. 

Paradut Regained^ III. 140. 


Addresses to God, and particularly thanksgivings, 
are frequently accompanied by singing, and hymns in 
honour of the divine name.* Mark xiv. 26. when 
they had sung an hymn . Eph. v. 19, 20. speak 
ing to yourselves in psalms and hymns and spiritual 
songs, singing and making melody in your heart to 
the Lord ; giving thanks always. Col. iii. 16. 
* teaching and admonishing one another in psalms and 
hymns and spiritual songs. James v. 13. is any 
merry ? let him sing psalms. 

* In the hymn of our first parents, when 

prompt eloquence 

Flowed from their lips in prose or numerous ver?e, 
Milton says of the angels extolling their IVIakfrr, 

ye behold him, and with songs 

And choral symphonies, day without night, 

Circle his throne rejoicing. Paradise Lost* V. 161. 



ANOTHER species of Invocation consists in Oaths, and 
in the casting of the Lot, 

An Oath is that whereby we call God to witness 
the truth of what we say, with a curse upon ourselves, 
either implied or expressed, should it prove false. 
Ruth i. 17. l Jehovah do so to me, and more also. 
See also 1 Kings ii. 23, 24. 2 Cor. i. 23. < I call 
God for a record upon my soul. See also Philipp. 
i. 8. 

The lawfulness of oaths is evident from the express 
commandment, as well as example of God. Deut. vi. 
13. * thou shalt fear Jehovah thy God, and serve him, 
and shalt swear by his name. See also x. 20. Isai. 
Ixv. 16. he that sweareth in the earth shall swear by 
the God of truth. Jer. xii. 16. if they will dili 
gently learn the ways of my people, to swear by my 
name. Gen. xxii. 16. by myself have I sworn, 
saith Jehovah. Exod. vi. 8. concerning the which 
I did swear to give it. Deut. xxxii. 40. 1 lift up 
my hand to heaven, and say, I live for ever. PsaL 


xcv. 11. * unto whom I sware in my wrath . ex. 4. 
4 Jehovah hath sworn, and will not repent. Heb. vi. 
13. because he could sware by no greater, he sware 
by himself. 

Agreeable to this is the practice of angels and holy 
men. Dan. xii. 7. he held up his right hand, and 
his left hand unto heaven, and sware by him that liv- 
eth for ever, Rev. x. 5, 6. the angel sware by him 
that liveth for ever and ever. Gen. xiv. 22, 23. I 
have lift up mine hand unto Jehovah . . . that I will 
not take from a thread, &c. xxxi. 53. Jacob sware 
by the fear of his father Isaac ; that is, by God. 

It is only in important matters, however, that re 
course should be had to the solemnity of an oath. 
Exod. xx. 7. thou shalt not take the name of Jeho 
vah thy God in vain. Heb. vi. 16. men verily swear 
by the greater, and an oath for confirmation is to them 
the end of all strife. 

An oath involving a promise is to be observed, even 
contrary to our interest, provided the promise itself be 
not unlawful. Josh. ix. 19. we have sworn unto 
them by Jehovah God of Israel ; now therefore we 
may not touch them. Judges xxi. 7. how shall 
we do for wives for them that remain, seeing we have 
sworn by Jehovah that we W 7 ill not give them of our 
daughters to wives ? Psal. xv. 4. he that sweareth 
to his own hurt, and changeth not. 

In connexion with this subject, it has been made 
matter of discussion whether an oath sworn to a rob 
ber for the observance of secresy, or for the payment 
of a stipulated ransom, is binding. Some answer, 
that the oath only which relates to ransom is to be 
observed, not that which relates to secresy; inasmuch 


as every man is bound by a prior obligation to the 
civil magistrate to denounce any known robber, and 
that this obligation is of more force than the subse 
quent one of secresy can possibly be. They conclude, 
therefore, that it is the duty of such person to give 
information to the magistrate, and to consider his com 
pulsory oath as annulled by his prior engagement, the 
weaker obligation yielding to the stronger.* If how 
ever this be just, why does it not apply equally to the 
oath respecting ransom ? seeing that it is the positive 
duty of every good man, not to support robbers with 
his substance, and that no one can be compelled to do 
a dishonourable action, even though bound by oath to 
its performance. This seems to be implied in the 
word jusjurandum itself, which is derived from jus. 
Considering the robber, therefore, as one with whom 
(at least while in the act of robbery,) we can be under 
no engagement, either of religious obligation, or civil 
right, or private duty, it is clear, that no agreement 
can be lawfully entered into with one thus circum 
stanced. If then under the influence of compulsion, 

* -... Thou know st the magistrates 

And princes of my country came in person, 
Solicited, commanded, threaten d, urg d, 
Adjur d by all the bonds of civil duty 
And of religion, press d how just it was, 
How honourable, how glorious to entrap 
A common enemy, tvho had destroyed 
Such numbers of our nation . 

At length that grounded maxim 

So ripe and celebrated in the mouths 
Of wisest men, that to the public good 
Private respects must yield, with grave authority, 
Took full possession of me, and prevail d ; 
Virtue, as I thought, truth, duty so enjoin d. 

Sampson Agonist es^ 850 


we have sworn to perform any such act as that above 
described, we have only committed a single offence ; 
but if from religious scruples we observe an oath 
extorted under such circumstances, the sin is doubled, 
and instead of giving honour to God, and acquitting 
ourselves of an obligation which we ought never to 
have incurred, we are only entangling ourselves more 
deeply in the bonds of iniquity. Hence, if we fail 
to perform such agreement, it ought not to be im 
puted to us as a crime that we deceive one who is him 
self guilty of deceit or violence towards us, and refuse 
to ratify an unlawful compact.* If, therefore, a man 
has allowed himself to be involved in such an engage 
ment, the point for consideration is, not whether a 
bond of faith extorted by a robber ought in conscience 
to be observed, but how he may best effect his es 

To the fulfilment of oaths is opposed, first, a super 
stitious denial of their legality. For the precept of 
Christ, Matt. v. 33, &c. swear not at all, neither by 
heaven, &c. does not prohibit us from swearing by 
the name of God, any more than the passage James 
v. 12. (inasmuch as it was foretold that even under 
the gospel every tongue should swear by the God of 
truth, Isai. xlv. 22, 23. and Ixv. 16.) We are only 
commanded not to swear by heaven or by earth, or by 
Jerusalem, or by the head of any individual. Besides, 
the prohibition does not apply to serious subjects, but 
to our daily conversation, in which nothing can occur 

* How soon 

Would height recal high thought?, how soon unsay 

What feign d submission swore? ease would recant 

Vows made in pain, as violent arid void. Paradise LOJ/, IV. 94. 


of such importance as to be worthy the attestation of 
God. Lastly, Christ s desire was that the conversation 
and manners of his disciples should bear such a stamp 
of truth and good faith, that their simple asseveration 
should be considered as equivalent to the oath of 

Secondly, perjury ; which consists in swearing to 
what we know to be false, with the view of deceiving 
our neighbour, or in making a lawful promise under 
the sanction of an oath, without intending to per 
form it, or at least, without actually performing it. 
Lev. xix. 12. * ye shall not swear by my name falsely, 
neither shalt thou profane the name of thy God. 
Peter was betrayed into this offence, Matt. xxvi. 72, 74. 

I have said our neighbour, with reference to the 
question discussed above. For as it would be a crime 
to make a sworn promise to a robber or assassin, who 
in committing the act has forfeited his title to the 
rights of social life, so to observe the oath would not 
be to repair the original offence, but to incur a second ; 
at any rate, there can be nothing wrong in refusing to 
ratify the promise. Cases, however, may occur, in 
which a contrary decision shall be necessary, owing to 
the degree of solemnity in the form of the oath, or to 
other accompanying circumstances. An instance of 
this occurs in the three kings, Hoshea, Hezekiah, and 
Zedekiah. 2 Kings xvii. 4. the king of Assyria 
found conspiracy in Hoshea .... therefore the king 
of Assyria shut him up, and bound him in prison. 
xviii. 7. Jehovah was with Hezekiah, and he pros 
pered whithersoever he went forth, and he rebelled 
against the king of Assyria, and served him not. 
2 Chron. xxxvi. 13. Zedekiah also rebelled against 


king Nebuchadnezzar, who had made him swear by 
God. The fault of Hoshea seems to have been not 
so much his rebellion, as his reliance on So king of 
Egypt. In Hezekiah it was considered meritorious 
and praiseworthy that he trusted in the Lord, rather 
than in his enemy. To Zedekiah, on the contrary, it 
was objected, first, that his defection from the enemy 
was not accompanied by a return to the protection of 
God, and secondly, that he acted in opposition to God s 
special command, 2 Chron. xxxvi. 13, and Jcr. xxvii.6. 
* now have I given all these lands into the hand of Neb 
uchadnezzar. There is, however, this difference be 
tween a robber and a national enemy, that with the 
one the laws of war are to be observed, whereas the 
other is excluded from all rights, whether of war or of 
social life. 

Thirdly, common swearing. Lev. v. 4, 5. < if a soul 
swear, pronouncing with his lips to do evil or to do 
good, whatsoever it be that a man shall pronounce 
with an oath, and it be hid from him, when he know- 
eth of it then he shall be guilty in* one of these : and 
it shall be, when he shall be guilty in one of these 
things, that he shall confess that he hath sinned in that 
thing. To this may be added rash swearing. 1 Sam. 
xh. 39. though it be in Jonathan my son, he shall 
surely die. v. 44. < God do so and more also, for 
thou shalt surely die, Jonathan. 

Fourthly, unlawful oaths ; that is to say, oaths of 
which the purport is unlawful, or which are exact 
ed from us by one to whom they cannot be 
lawfully taken. Of the former kind was the oath 
of David respecting the destruction of the house 
of Nabal, 1 Sam. xxv. 22. from which example 
we may also learn that the breach of such oaths 

VOL. /j. 39 


is better than the performance, v. 33, 34. a rule dis 
regarded bj Herod, when he beheaded John for his 
oath s sake. Of the latter, David s oath to Shimei is 
an instance. 2 Sam. xix. 23. < the king sware unto 
him. Hence, although David himself did not violate 
his oath, he forbad his son to observe it, 1 Kings ii. 
8, 9. he cursed me with a grievous curse. ...and I 

sware to him now therefore hold him not guiltless, 

for thou art a wise man, and knowest what thou 
oughtest to do unto him. Solomon therefore com 
mitted no breach of faith in punishing Shimei with 
death, of w^hich the latter was doubly deserving, as 
being himself guilty of perjury : 1 Kings ii. 36, 37. 
compared with v. 42, &;c. 

Fifthly, an idolatrous oath ; which consists in 
swearing, not by God, but by some other object, con 
trary to the prohibition Matt. v. 33. and James v. 12. 

Next in solemnity to an oath is a grave assevera 
tion, as Gen. xlii. 15, 16. * by the life of Pharaoh; 
or 1 Sam. i. 26. as thy soul liveth, my lord ; that is, 
as surely as thou livest, or as I wish that thou mayest 
live. Such also is the expression of Christ, verily, 
verily, I say unto you ; and that of Paul, 1 Cor. xv. 
31. vvj TVJV ynsTspav %ctv%n<Ttv, 4 I protest by your re 
joicing ; although, strictly speaking, the particle v\ 
has the force of an oath. 

To the same head belongs what is commonly called 
adjuration ; that is to say, the charging any one in 
the name of God, by oath or solemn asseveration, 
to speak the truth to the best of his knowledge re 
specting the subject of inquiry. Thus Joshua adjured 
Achan, vii. 19. my son, give, I pray thee, glory to 
Jehovah God of Israel, and make confession unto 


him. Gen. xxiv. 3. i I will make thee swear by Je 
hovah, God of heaven. Numb. v. 21. then the 
priest shall charge the woman with an oath of curs 
ing. Ezra x. 5. then Ezra made the chief priests 
to swear, &c. Neh. xiii. 25. I made them swear 
hy God, saying, Ye shall not give your daughters 
unto their sons, &c. . 1 Thess. v. 27. * I charge 
you by the Lord that this epistle be read . There 
is no impropriety in adjuring even our dearest and 
most faithful friends. Gen. xlvii. 29. put, I pray 
thee, thy hand under my thigh. 

Adjurations are to be complied with, in matters 
not contrary to religion or equity. Thus Christ, 
Matt. xxvi. 63, 64. on the adjuration even of the im 
pious high-priest Caiaphas, no longer kept silence, 
but confessed openly that he was the Christ. 

Opposed to this are magical adjurations, and the 
superstitious or mercenary practice of exorcism. Acts 
xix. 13, &c. certain of the vagabond Jews, exor 
cists, took upon them, &:c. 

Thus far of oaths. In the Casting of the Lot we 
appeal to the Deity for the explanation of doubts, and 
the decision of controverted questions. Lev. xvi. 8. 
Aaron shall cast lots upon the two goats. Josh. 
vii. 14. it shall be, that the tribe which Jehovah tak- 
eth, shall come according to the families thereof. 1 
Sam. x. 20. when Samuel had caused all the tribes 
of Israel to come near, the tribe of Benjamin was 
taken. Prov. xvi. 33. the lot is cast into the lap, 
but the whole disposing thereof is of Jehovah. xviii. 
18. the lot causeth contentions to cease, and parteth 
between the mighty. 1 Chron. xxvi. 13, 14. they 
east lots, as well the small as the great. Neh. x. 84*. 


we cast the Jots among the priests, the Levites, and the 
people. Luke i. 9. according to the custom of the 
priest s office, his lot was to burn incense. Acts i. 
24, 26. they prayed, and said, Thou Lord, which 
knowest the hearts of all men, show whether of these 
two thou hast chosen and the lot fell upon Mat 

Against the use of the lot it has been urged, that on 
successive repetitions the result is not invariably the 
same, and that therefore it must be considered as a 
matter of chance. This objection is of no force, inas 
much as the Deity, even in his direct verbal commu 
nications with the prophets of old, did not uniformly 
return the same answer, when tempted by importun 
ate inquiries ; as in the instance of Balaam, Num. 

xxii. 12, 20. thou shalt not go with them rise up 

and go with them. 

To this is opposed the casting of lots in jest, or 
with a superstitious or fraudulent purpose. 

To the invocation or adoration of the Deity are 
opposed idolatry, and invocation of angels or saints. 

Idolatry consists in the making, worshipping, or 
trusting in idols, whether considered as representa 
tions of the true God, or of a false one. Exod. xx. 4, 
6. thou shalt not make unto thee any graven image, 
or any likeness of any thing that is in heaven above, 
or that is in the earth beneath, or that is in the water 
under the earth ; thou shalt not bow down thyself to 
them, nor serve them. See also Lev. xxvi. 1. Deut. 
xvi. 21, 22. thou shalt not plant thee a grove of any 

trees near unto the altar of Jehovah neither shalt 

thou set thee up any image, which Jehovah thy God 
hateth. xxvii. 15. cursed be the man that rnaketh 


any graven or molten image. Isai. ii. 8. their land 
also is full of idols. xvii. 8. * he shall not look to 
the altars, the work of his hands . Acts xvii. 16. 
4 his spirit was stirred in him, when he saw the city 
wholly given to idolatry. 1 Cor. viii. 4. we know 
that an idol is nothing in the world. x. 6, 7, 14. 
neither be ye idolaters, &c. 2 Cor. v. 16. though 
we have known Christ after the flesh, yet now hence 
forth know we him no more. Gal. v. 19, 20. the 
works of the flesh are these, adultery idola 
try, witchcraft they which do such things shall 

not inherit the kingdom of God. See also 1 John v. 
21. Rev. ix. 20. that they should not worship devils 
and idols of gold. Idolatry is described, Isai. Ivii. 5. 
enflaming yourselves with idols under every green 
tree. Jer. vii. 31. they have built the high places 
of Tophet. xi. 13. according to the number of thy 
cities w r ere thy gods . xxxii. 29. they shall burn 
it with the houses upon whose roofs they have offered 
incense unto Baal. Ezek. viii. 5, &c. behold north 
ward at the gate of the altar this image of jealousy / 
Hos. iv. 13. they sacrifice upon the tops of the moun 

Whether of the true God . Exod. xxxii. 5. when 
Aaron saw it, he built an altar before it, and Aaron 
made proclamation, and said, To-morrow is a feast to, 
Jehovah; compared with Psal. cvi. 19, 20. they 
made a calf in Iloreb, thus they changed their 
glory into the similitude of an ox. Dent, iv, 15, 16. 
take ye therefore good heed unto yourselves, for ye 
saw no manner of similitude on the day that Jehovah 
spake unto you in Horeb, out of the midst of the fire: 
lest ye corrupt yourselves, and make you a graven 


image, the similitude of any figure, the likeness ol* 
male or female. It is indeed said, Exod. xxiv. 10. 
that Moses and the elders saw the God of Israel, and 
there was under his feet as it were a paved work of a 
sapphire stone, and as it were the body of heaven in 
his clearness ; and v. 11. < they saw God ; and v. 
17. the sight of the glory of Jehovah was like de 
vouring fire on the top of the mount in the eyes of 
the children of Israel ; but it is clear, from the pas 
sage of Deuteronomy quoted above, that they saw 
the likeness of no living thing whatever. So Ezek. 

i. 27, 28. ; I saw from the appearance of his loins 

even upward, and from the appearance of his loins 
even downward ; where no mention is made of his 
face. Judges xvii. 4. the founder made thereof a 
graven image and a molten image, and they were in 
the house of Micah ; compared with v. 13. then 
said Micah, Now know I that Jehovah will do me 
good, seeing I have a Levite to my priest. 5 2 Kings 
xvii. 28. 4 then one of the priests whom they had car 
ried away from Samaria, came and dwelt in Bethel, 
and taught them how they should fear Jehovah. Isai. 
xl. 18. to whom then will ye liken God, or what 
likeness will ye compare unto him? xliv.10. who hath 
formed a god, or molten a graven image that is prof 
itable for nothing ? xlvi. 5, 6. to whom will ye liken 
me, and make me equal ? they hire a goldsmith, 
and he maketh it a god : they fall down, yea, they 
worship. Jer. ii. 11, &c. hath a nation changed their 
gods which are yet no gods ? but my people have 
changed their glory for that which doth not profit. 
Acts xvii. 29. forasmuch then as we are the offspring 
of God, we ought not to think that the Godhead is 


like unto gold, or silver, or stone, graven by art and 
man s device. Rom. i. 23, 24. * they changed the 
glory of the incorruptible God into an image made 
like unto corruptible man. Hence to worship the 
true God under the form of an idol was considered 
as criminal as to worship devils. 2 Chron. xi. 15. 
4 he ordained him priests for the high places, and for 
the devils, and for the calves that he had made ; 
although Jeroboam doubtless imagined that he was 
appointing priests to Jehovah, while he was in reality 
officiating in the rites of those which were not Gods. 

Or of a false God. Numb, xxxiii. 52. then shall 
ye destroy all their pictures, and destroy all their 
molten images, and quite pluck down all their high 
places. 7 See also Deut. vii. 5, 25. xii. 2, 3. In 
pursuance of these injunctions, pious rulers in all ages 
have opposed idolatry ;* Moses, Asa, 2 Chron. xiv. 3. 
xv. 8, &c. Jehoshaphat, Hezekiah, Josiah, 2 Kings 
xxiii. 1 25. 2 Chron. xxxiv. 4. fee. the whole 
people, 2 Chron. xxiii. 17. and xxxi. 1. 

The cherubic images over the ark are not to be 
accounted idols ; first, as being representations not of 

* See the treatise Of true Religion, where after describing the twofold 
power, ecclesiastical and political, claimed by the Roman Catholics, Mil 
ton proceeds thus: Whether therefore it be fit or reasonable to tolerate 
men thus principled in religion towards the state, I submit it to the consider 
ation of all magistrates, who are best able to provide for their own and the 
public safety. As for tolerating the exercise of their religion, supposing 
their state-activities not to be dangerous, I answer, that toleration is either 
public or private ; and the exercise of their religion, as far as it is idola 
trous, can be tolerated neither way : not publicly, without grievous arid 
nnsufferable scandal given to all conscientious beholders ; not privately, 
without great offence to God, declared against all kind of idolatry, though 

secret. Ezek. viii. 7, 8 Having shown thus, that popery, a? being 

idolatrous, is not to be tolerated either in public or in private, it must now 
be thought how to remove it, &r. &c. Prose Works, IV. 264. 

false gods, but of the ministering spirits of Jehovah, 
and eonsequently not objects of worship ; secondly, 
as being made by the special command of God 

Even the brazen serpent, the type of Christ, was 
commanded to be demolished, as soon as it became 
an object of religious w6rsliip, 2 Kings xviii. 4. he 
brake in pieces the brazen serpent that Moses had 

Hence the Papists err in calling idols the laymen s 
books ;* their real nature whether considered as books 
or teachers, appears from Psal. cxv. 5, &c. they have 
mouths, but they speak not.... they that make them 
are like unto them, so is every one that trusteth in 
them. Isai. xliv, 18. they have not known nor un 
derstood, for he hath shut their eyes . Jer. x. 8, 
14, 15. every man is brutish in his knowledge ; 
every founder is confounded by the graven image ; for 
his molten image is falsehood, and there is no breath 
in them ; they are vanity and the work of errors ; in 
the time of their visitation they shall perish. Habak. 
ii. 18, 19. what profiteth the graven image, that the 
graver thereof hath graven it ; the molten image and 
a teacher of lies, that the maker of his work trusteth 
therein, to make dumb idols ? woe unto him that saith 
to the wood, Awake ; to the dumb stone, Arise, it 
shall teach ; behold, it is laid over with gold and 
silver, and there is no breath at all in the midst 
of it. 

* ; They will not go about to prove their idolatries by the word of God, 
but turn to shifts and evasions, and frivolous distinction* ; idols they say 
are laymen s books, and a great means to stir up pious thoughts and devo 
tion in the learnedest." 1 Ibid. IV. 2G6. 


We are commanded to abstain, not only from idola 
trous worship itself, but from all things and persons 
connected with it. Acts xv. 20. * that they abstain 
from pollutions of idols, and from fornication. v. 29. 
6 from meats offered to idols. ...and from fornication. 
Rev. ii. 14. 4 who taught Balak to cast a stumbling- 
block before the children of Israel, to eat things sacri 
ficed unto idols, and to commit fornication. v. 20. 
6 to commit fornication, and to eat things sacrificed 
unto idols. From a comparison of these passages, 
it would appear that the fornication here prohibited, 
was a part of idolatrous worship. 1 Cor. viii. 10. if 
any man see thee which hast knowledge sit at meat 
in the idol s temple, shall not the conscience of him 
that is weak be emboldened to eat, &c. x. 14. flee 
from idolatry. v. 20, &c. they sacrifice to devils, 
and not to God ; and I would not that ye should have 
fellowship with devils. 2 Cor. vi. 16. what agree 
ment hath the temple of God with idols ? 1 Thess. 
i. 9. ye turned to God from idols, to serve the living 
and true God. 1 Pet. iv. 3. we walked in lasciv- 
iousness....and abominable idolatries. 1 John v. 21. 
little children, keep yourselves from idols. 

A question here arises, whether it be lawful for a 
professor of the true religion to be present at idol- 
worship, in cases where his attendance is necessary 
for the discharge of some civil duty. The affirmative 
seems to be established by the example of Naaman 
the. Syrian, 2 Kings v. 17 19. who was permitted, 
as an additional mark of the divine approbation, to 
construct for himself a private altar of Israelitish 
earth, although, as a Gentile, he was uncircumcis- 

VOL. IT. 40 


cd. * It is however safer and more consistent with 
the fear of God, to avoid, as far as possible, duties of 
(his kind, even of a civil nature, or to relinquish them 

The invocation of saints and angels is forbidden. 
Acts x. 26. * stand up ; 1 myself also am a man. 7 
xiv. 15. sirs, why do ye these things ? we also are 
men of like passions with you . Col. ii. 18. < let 
no man beguile you of your reward in a voluntary 
humility and worshipping of angels. Rev. xix. 10. 
4 1 fell at his feet to worship him ; and he said unto 
me, See thou do it not, I am thy fellow-servant. See 
also xxii. 8, 9. The reason is, that God is kinder 
and more favourable to us than any saint or angel 
either is, or has power to be. Psal. Ixxiii. 2o. whom 
have I in heaven but thee ? and there is none upon 
earth that I desire beside thee. Isai. Ixiii. 16. doubt 
less thou art our father, though Abiaham be ignorant 
of us, and Israel acknowledge us not. ; thou, O Jeho 
vah, art our father, our redeemer. Further, the 
charge of absurdity and folly which the prophets 
uniformly bring against the worshippers of idols, ap 
plies equally to those who worship images of saints 
or angels. Isai. xlvi. 6, 7, &c. they lavish gold out 
of the bag, &c....aud hire a goldsmith. ..they bear him 
upon the shoulder, &c. See also other passages. 

The subterfuges by which the Papists defend the 
worship of saints and angels, are truly frivolous. 
They allege Gen. xlviii. 15, 16. the angel which 

* That he may dispense with me, or thee, 

Present in temples at idolatrous riles, 

For some important cause, thou need st not doubt. 

Samson Jlgonistes. 1377. 


redeemed me from all evil, bless the lads. Jacob 
here was not praying, but conferring his benediction 
on the sons of Joseph ; no one therefore will contend 
that the words are to be taken as an invocation, but 
simply as an expression of hope that God, and the 
redeeming angel as his minister, should bless the lads. 
Some indeed contend that the angel here spoken of 
was not a created being ; but whether this be true, or 
whether it entered into the mind of Jacob or not, in 
volves another and a far more difficult controversy. 
They urge also Job v. 1. to which of the saints will 
thou turn ? which however may as properly be un 
derstood of living saints, as in James v. 14. let him 
call for the elders of the church, and let them pray 
over him ; where it is not recommended that the 
dead should be invoked, but that those who are living 
and present should be intreated to pray for us. 

Another opposite to invocation is the tempting of 
God. Exod. xvii. 7. they tempted Jehovah, saying, 
Is Jehovah among us or not? PsaL Ixxviii. 18, 19. 
they tempted God in their heart by asking meat for 
their lust : yea, they spake against God ; they said, 
Can God furnish a table in the wilderness ? v. 41. 
they tempted God, and limited the Holy One of 
Israel. xciv. 7. yet they say, Jah shall not see, nei 
ther shall the God of Jacob regard it. xcv. 7 9. as 
in the day of temptation in the wilderness, when your 
fathers tempted me, proved me, and saw my works. 
Matt. iv. 7. thou shalt not tempt the Lord thy God. 
1 Cor. x. 22. do we provoke the Lord to jealou 
.are we stronger than he ? 

A third consists in the invocation of devils, and the 
practice of magical arts. Exod. xxii. 18. thou shalt 


not suffer a witch to live. 5 Lev. xix. 26. neither 
shall ye use enchantment, nor observe times. xx. 27. 
a man also or a woman that hath a familiar spirit, or 
that is a wizard, shall surely be put to death ; they 
shall stone them with stones, their blood shall be 
upon them. v. 6. the soul that turneth after such as 
have familiar spirits, and after wizards, to go a 
whoring after them, I will even set my face against 
that soul, and will cut him off from among his people. 
xix. 31. neither seek after wizards, to be defiled 
with them. Num. xxiii. 23. surely there is no 
enchantment against Jacob; neither is there any divi 
nation against Israel. Deut. xviii. 10 12. there 

c 1 

shall not be found among you any one that maketh 
his son or his daughter to pass through the fire, or that 
useth divination, or an observer of times, or an 
enchanter, or a witch, or a charmer, or a consulter 
with familiar spirits, or a wizard, or a necromancer ; 
for all that do these things are an abomination unto 
Jehovah. 2 Kings xxi. 6. he made his son pass 
through the fire, and observed times, and used enchant 
ments, and dealt with familiar spirits and wizards. 
Isai. viii. 19. when they shall say unto you, Seek 
unto them that have familiar spirits, and unto wizards 
that peep and that mutter ; should not a people seek 
unto their God ? for the living to the dead ? xliv. 25. 
I am he that frustrateth the tokens of the liars, and 
maketh diviners mad. xlvii. 13, 14. let now the 
astrologers, the stargazers, the monthly prognostica- 
tors, stand up and save thee from these things that 
shall come upon thee : behold, they shall be as stub 
ble. Jer. x. 2. be not dismayed at the signs of 


heaven ; for the heathen are dismayed at them. * 
Mic. v. 12. I will cut off witchcrafts out of thine 
hand, and thou shalt have no more soothsayers. 

All study of the heavenly bodies, however, is not 
unlawful or unprofitable ; as appears from the journey 
of the wise men, and still more from the star itself, 
divinely appointed to announce the birth of Christ, 
Matt. ii. 1, 2. 

* Thus our Saviour in Paradise Regained, IV. 486. 

what they can do as signs 

Betok ning, or ill boding, I contemn 

As false portents, not sent from God, but thee: 
compared with the words of Satan, v. 379, &c. 

Now contrary, if I read aught in heav n, 

Or heav n write aught of fate, by what the stars 

Voluminous, or single characters, 

In their conjunction met, give me to spell, 

Sorrows and labours, opposition, hate, 

Attends thee, scorns, reproaches, injuries, 

Violence and stripes, and lastly cruel death. 

A kingdom they portend thee, but what kingdom, 

Real or allegoric, I discern not. 

These last words probably allude to the star, mentioned below, by which 
the birth of Christ, as King of the Jews, was announced to the wise men. 



WE have treated of the first part of true religion, the 
invocation or adoration of the Deity ; we proceed to 
the remaining part, the sanctijication of the divine 
name under all circumstances. 

An ardent desire of hallowing the name of God, 
together with an indignation against whatever tends 
to the violation or contempt of religion, is called zeak 
Psal. ,lxix. 8, 9. I am become a stranger unto my 

brethren for the zeal of thine house hath eaten me 

up. cxix. 139. my zeal hath consumed me, because 
mine enemies have forgotten thy words. Rom. xii. 
11. not slothful in business, fervent in spirit, serving 
the Lord. 

Examples of this virtue are seen in Lot, 2 Pet. ii. 
7, 8. in Moses, Exod. xxxii. 19. in Phinehas, Num. 
xxv. 7. in Elijah, 1 Kings xix. 10. in Jeremiah, Jer. 
xxiii. 9 11. mine heart within me is broken . . . for 
the land is full of adulterers ; in Christ, Matt. xii. 30. 
John ii. 14, &c. in Stephen, Acts vii. 51, &c. in Paul 
and Barnabas, xiv. 14. and xvii. 16, 17. 


Its opposites are, first, lukewarmness, as exempli 
fied in Eli, I Sam. ii. 29. and iii. 13. in the chief 
rulers of the Jews, John xii. 43. in the Laodiceans, 
Rev. iii. 15, 16. 

Secondly, an ignorant and imprudent zeal. 2 Sam. 
xxi. 1, 3. because he slew the Gibeonites....Saul 
sought to slay them in his zeal to the children of 
Israel and Judah. Rom. x. 2. < I bear them record 
that they have a zeal of God, but not according to 

Thirdly, a too fiery zeal. Jonah iv. 1 3. Luke 
ix. 54, i wilt thou that we command fire to come 
down from heaven ? 

Fourthly, an hypocritical and boastful zeal, as that 
of Jehu, 2 Kings x. 16. come with me and see my 
zeal for Jehovah. 

The name of God is to be hallowed in word as 
well as in deed. To hallow it in word, is never to 
name it but with a religious purpose, and to make an 
open profession of the true faith, whenever it is 

The holy or reverential mention of God is incul 
cated Exod. xx. 7. thou shalt not take the name of 
Jehovah thy God in vain. 

To this is opposed an impious or reproachful 
mention of God, or, as it is commonly called, blas 
phemy, from the Greek j5&*0$iffji/*, as in the Hebrew 
nSV"l3 with the root H3, and H^S*] with the root 
/*? This was the crime of the Israelitish woman s 
son, Levit. xxiv. 11. who blasphemed (or expressly 
named) the name of Jehovah, and cursed (or spake 
impiously), v. 14. bring forth him that hath cursed 
without the camp. Such also was that of Rabshakeh 


and the other Assyrians, 2 Kings xix. 6. c be not 
afraid of the words which thou hast heard, with 
which the servants of the king of Assyria have blas 
phemed me ; of the scribes, Mark iii. 22. they said, 
He hath Beelzebub, compared vnth v. 29. * he that 
shall blaspheme against the Holy Ghost , for the 
scribes had said that the deeds of the Father working 
in Christ were the deeds of Beelzebub ; of those 
whom Paul before his conversion compelled to blas 
pheme, Acts xxvi. 11. of the Jews at Corinth, xviii. 6. 
when they opposed themselves and blasphemed ; 
of Paul himself in his unconverted state, 1 Tim. i. 13. 
who was before a blasphemer and a persecutor ; of 
Hymenseus and Alexander, v. 19, 20. that they may 
learn not to blaspheme, inasmuch as having put 
away a good conscience concerning faith, they had 
made shipwreck; of those profane persons mention 
ed in James ii. 7. do not they blaspheme that worthy 
name by the which ye are called ? of the beast, Rev. 
xiii. 5, 6. there was given unto him a mouth speak 
ing great things and blasphemies ; of the followers of 
the beast, xvi. 11. t they blasphemed the God of hea 
ven, because of their pains and their sores. 

Considering, however, that all the Greek writers, 
sacred as well as profane, use the word blasphemy in 
a general sense, as implying any kind of reproach 
against any person whatever, which is also the re 
ceived usage of the corresponding word in Hebrew, 
Isai. xliii. 28. * I have given Israel to reproaches. 
li. 7. neither be ye afraid of their revilings ; Ezek. 
v. 15. so it shall be a reproach and a taunt, that is, 
to the Jews ; Zeph. ii. 8. t the revilings of the chil 
dren of Ammon, whereby they have reproached my 


people ; in all which passages the same word is used, 
being that which we translate blasphemy : so also 
Matt. xv. 19. false witness, blasphemies. (Com 
pare Mark vii. 22.) 1 Tim. vi. 1. that the name of 
God and his doctrine be not blasphemed. (Compare 
Tit. ii. 5.) 2 Pet. ii. 10. they are not afraid to speak 
evil of dignities (3Acr<vi/xoL/vT Gr.); v. 11. whereas 
angels . . . bring not railing accusation against them 
before the Lord (Mf$mu>v xp/V/v Gr.) : considering, 
1 say, that such is the meaning invariably attached to 
the Greek word even by the sacred writers, I am 
of opinion that those who introduced this foreign term 
into the Latin language, did wrong in restricting it to 
the single sense of speaking evil of God ; especially 
since, at the same time that they narrowed its mean 
ing in one direction, they expanded it in another to 
an almost indefinite vagueness ; insomuch, that pre 
suming on the general ignorance as to the true signifi 
cation of the word, they have not scrupled to brand as 
blasphemy every opinion differing from their own on 
the subject of God or religion.* This is to resemble 
the scribes, Matt. ix. 3, who, when Christ had simply 
said, v. 2. * thy sins be forgiven thee, immediately 
said within themselves, This man blasphemeth ; 
whereas blasphemy, as is evident from the foregoing 

* Some are ready to cry out, what shall then be done to blappbemy ? 
Them I would first exhort not thus to terrify and pose the people with a 
Greek word ; but to teach them better what it is, being a most usual and 
common word in that language to signify any slander, any malicious or 
evil speaking, whether against God or man, or any thing to good belonging^ 
Blasphem} , or evil speaking against God maliciously, is far from conscience 
in religion. Treatise of Civil Power in Ecclesiastical Causes. Prose 
Works, III. 324. 4 Id esse blasphemiam quo tu pacto evinces? nisi si 
forte theologorum dictatb quibusvis contradicere, nunc primum blasphemia 
est credenda. Jluctoris pro se Dcfensio. Prose Worki, V. 285. 
VOL. II. 41 


examples, consists solely in uttering reproaches againsf 
God, openly and with a high hand, Numb. xv. 30. 
Matt. xv. 19. out of the heart proceed blasphemies, 
and that whether against God or men. This sin there 
fore is not to be imputed to those, who in sincerity of 
heart, and with no contentious purpose, promulgate or 
defend their conscientious persuasions respecting God, 
founded, as appears to them, on the Scriptures. If 
on the other hand blasphemy is interpreted according 
to the Hebrew sense, it will comprehend too much ; 
for in this sense every obstinate sinner will be a blas 
phemer, and as such, according to those who regard 
the law of Moses on this subject as still in force, pun 
ishable with death.* Numb. xv. 30. the soul that 
doeth ought presumptuously .... the same reproach- 
eth (or blasphemeth) Jehovah ; and that soul shall 
be cut off from among his people. Ezek. xx. 27, 28. 
4 yet in this your fathers have blasphemed me, in that 
they have committed a trespass against me ; for \vhen 
[ had brought them into the land . . . then they saw 
every high hill, &,c. 

A second opposite is irreverent or jesting mention 
of the name of God, or of religious subjects. 

The most solemn mention of the name of God con 
sists in dedicating to his glory whatever is intended for 
the use of man. 1 Cor. x. 31. < whether ye eat or 
drink, or whatsoever ye do, do all to the glory of God. 7 
1 Tim. iv. 4, 5. nothing is to be refused, if it be 
received with thanksgiving ; for it is sanctified by the 
word of God and prayer. Acts xxvii. 35. he took 

* Such a? these, indeed, were capitally punished br the law of Moses, 
as the only true heretics, idolaters, plain and open deserters of God and hi* 
known law. Treatise of Civil Power, c. HI. 326. 


bread, and gave thanks to God in presence of them 
all. 7 1 Cor. vii. 14. the unbelieving husband is 
sanctified by the wife. 

Opposed to this are superstitious consecrations! 
such as are common among the Papists. 

Thus far of the solemn and reverential mention of 
the name of God. We are next to consider the duty 
of making a consistent, and, when necessary, an open 
profession of his true worship. This is enjoined Matt, 
x. 32, 33. whosoever, therefore, shall confess me 
before men, him will I confess also before my Father 
which is in heaven ; but whosoever shall deny me 
before men, him will I also deny before my Father 
which is in heaven. 5 Psal. cxix. 46. I will speak 
of thy testimonies also before kings, and will not be 
ashamed. Luke ix. 26. whosoever shall be ashamed 
of me and of my words, of him shall the Son of man 
be ashamed, when he shall come . Rom. x. 10. 
* with the heart man believeth unto righteousness, and 
with the mouth confession is made unto salvation. 
2 Cor. iv. 13. it is written, I believed, and there 
fore have I spoken ; we also believe, and therefore 
speak. 1 Tim. vi. 12 14. thou hast professed a 
good profession before many witnesses ; I give thee 
charge in the sight of God, who quickeneth all things, 
and before Christ Jesus, who before Pontius Pilate 
witnessed a good confession, that thou keep this com 
mandment. 2 Tim. i. 16. 4 he was not ashamed of 
my chain. ii. 12. if we deny him, he also will 
deny us. 1 Pet. iii. 15. be ready always to give an 
answer to every man that asketh you a reason of the 
hope that is in you. Heb. x. 35, cast not away 
therefore your confidence. 


This profession, when it leads to death, or impris 
onment, or torments, or disgrace, is called martyrdom. 
Matt. v. 11. blessed are ye when men shall revile 
you, and persecute you, and shall say all manner of 
evil against you falsely for my sake. Philipp. i. 20, 
4 with all boldness, as always, so now also Christ 
shall be magnified in my body, whether it be by life, 
or by death. v. 29. for unto you it is given in the 
behalf of Christ, not only to believe on him, but also 
to suffer for his sake. Heb. xi. 36, &c. others had 
trial of cruel mockings and scourgings, yea moreover 
of bonds and imprisonment . 1 Pet. iii. 14. but 
and if ye suffer for righteousness sake, happy are ye. 

It is generally through the means of martyrdom 
that the spread of the gospel is effected. Philipp. i. 
14. many of the brethren in the Lord, waxing confi 
dent by my bonds, are much more bold to speak the 
word without fear. 

Opposed to this is, first, the concealment of our 
religion. This was the fault of Nicodemus, John iii. 
2. the same came to Jesus by night. xii. 42. nev 
ertheless among the chief rulers also many believed on 
him, but because of the Pharisees they did not confess 
him, lest they should be put out of the synagogue. 
Isai. lix. 4. none calleth for justice, nor any pleadeth 
for truth. 

Secondly, apostasy. 2 Chron. xxviii. 6. he slew 
in Judah an hundred and twenty thousand in one day, 
which were all valiant men, because they had forsaken 
Jehovah God of their fathers. John vi. 66. 4 from 
that time many of his disciples went back and walked 
no more with him. 1 Tim. iv. 1, &c. * in the latter 
times some shall depart from the faith. &c. ffeb. vi. 


4, fee. c it is impossible for those who were once en 
lightened .... if they shall fall away, to renew them 
again unto repentance. x. 29. of how much sorer 
punishment, suppose ye, shall he be thought worthy, 
who hath trodden under foot the Son of God. 

Thirdly, an unseasonable profession. Malt. vii. 6. 
give not that which is holy unto the dogs . . . lest 
they turn again and rend you. xvi. 20. then 
charged he his disciples that they should tell no man 
that he was Jesus the Christ. 

Such are the means by which the name of God is 
hallowed in word. It is hallowed in deed, when our 
actions correspond with our religious profession. 
Matt. v. 16. let your light so shine before men, 
that they may see your good works, and glorify your 
Father which is in heaven. 

Opposed to this, is a neglect to act conformably to 
our profession. Thus Moses and Aaron are said, 
contrary to their usual custom, not to have sanctified 
God in the eyes of the people, Numb. xx. 12. and 
David, a man otherwise holy, gave occasion to the 
Gentiles to think and speak ill of God, by reason of 
his adultery, 2 Sam. xii. 14. So also the Jews, of 
whom St. Paul writes, Rom. ii. 24. the name of 
God is blasphemed among the Gentiles through you, 
as it is written ; alluding to Isai. Hi. 5. Ezek. xxxvi. 
20. when they entered unto the heathen, whither 
they went, they profaned my holy name, when they 
said to them, These are the people of Jehovah, and 
are eone forth out of his land. 



THUS far of the parts of divine worship. We are now 
to consider its circumstances. 

The circumstances of worship are the same as of 
all things natural, place and time.* 

Public worship, previously to the law of Moses, 
was not confined to any definite place ; under the law 
it took place partly in the synagogues and partly in 
the temple ; under the gospel any convenient place is 
proper. John iv. 21, 23. ye shall neither in this 
mountain, nor yet at Jerusalem, worship the Father ; 
but the hour cometh, and now is, when the true wor 
shippers shall worship the Father in spirit and in 
truth ; as Malachi had also prophesied, i. 1 1 . in every 
place incense shall be offered unto my name. 

* .... l Ihut the body, with all the circumstances of place and time, 
were purified by the affections of the regenerate soul. Of Reformation in 
England, Prose Works, I. 1. Tertius modus est adjunctoruiu quse 
.recipiunlur ad siirrjectum ; quae vulgo circtimstantiae nuncupantur, qnia 
extra subjectum sunt. Hue terapus refertur. Jlrlis Logical plenior Insti 
iutw. IV. 224, 


With regard to the time of public worship, what 
this was before the law, does not appear. Under the 
law it was the Sabbath, that is, the seventh day, 
which was consecrated to God from the beginning of 
the world, Gen. ii. 2, 3. but which (as stated above, 
Book I. chap, x.) was not, so far as we can learn, 
observed, or commanded to be observed, till the sec 
ond month of the departure of the Israelites from 
Egypt, Exod. xvi. 1, 23, 25, 29. when it was en 
forced with severe prohibitions : v. 23. to-morrow 
is the rest of the holy sabbath unto Jehovah ; bake 
that which ye will bake to day, and seethe that which 
ye will seethe ; and that which remaineth over, lay up 
for you to be kept until the morning. xx. 8, &c. 
remember the sabbath-day, to keep it holy ; that is, 
remember it according to the previous command 
ment in the sixteenth chapter, referred to above ; 
or it may be an emphatic manner of admonition, 
xxxi. 14. ye shall keep the sabbath-day there 
fore, for it is holy unto you : every one that defileth it 
shall surely be put to death. xxxiv. 21. in earing 
time, and in harvest thou shalt rest. xxxv. 2, 3. a 
sabbath of rest to Jehovah ... ye shall kindle no fire 
throughout your habitations on the sabbath-day. 
Lev. xxiii. 3. six days shall work be done, but the 
seventh day is the sabbath of rest, an holy convoca 
tion. Num. xv. 32, &c. they found a man that 
gathered sticks on the sabbath-day. 2 Chron. xxxvi. 
20, 21. them that had escaped from the sword he 
carried away to Babylon . . . until the land had en 
joyed her sabbaths. Jer. xvii. 21, 22. bear no bur 
then on the sabbath-day. Neh. x. 31. if the people 
of the land bring ware or any victuals on the sabbath- 


day to sell, that we would not buy it of them/ 
xiii. 15, &c. in those days saw I in Judah some 
treading wine presses on the sabbath. 

The command to observe the Sabbath was given to 
the Israelites for a variety of reasons, mostly peculiar 
to themselves, and which are recorded in different 
parts of the Mosaic law. First, as a memorial of 
God s having completed the work of creation on the 
seventh day. Exod. xx. 11. xxxi. 15 17. < where 
fore the children of Israel shall keep the sabbath, to 
observe the sabbath throughout their generations, for 

a perpetual covenant for in six days Jehovah made 

heaven and earth, and on the seventh day he rested 
and was refreshed. Here although the reason given 
for the celebration of the Sabbath applies equally to 
all other nations, the Israelites alone are enjoined to 
observe it ; as is also the case with the command to 
abstain from creeping things, Lev. xi. 44. ye 
shall therefore sanctify yourselves, and ye shall be 
holy, for I am holy ; neither shall ye defile your 
selves with any manner of creeping thing that creep- 
eth upon the earth ; with the law against disfiguring 
the body, and other similar commands, Deut. xiv. 1, 
&c. ye are the children of God ; for the reasons 
on which these precepts are founded apply equally to 
believers in general, and to all ages, although the pre 
cepts themselves are* no longer obligatory. This has 
been remarked by our countryman Ames.* Non est 

* Dr. William Ames, a Puritan divine in the time of James and Charles 
the First, and Professor of Divinity in the University of Franeker, a town 
of the Netherlands, in Friesland. It was partly from the work quoted 
above, and partly from The Abridgment of Christian Divinilie by VVol- 
lebius, that Milton, according to Phillips, compiled for the use of his pu 
pils a s} r stem of divinity, which they wrote on Sundays at his dictation. 


catholics veritatis ilia rcgula intcrpretandi scripturas 
qua? tradi solct a quibusdam, officia ilia omnia esse 
moralia et immutabilia quae raliones morales et iminu- 
tabiles habent sibi anncxas ; nisi sic inteliigatur ut 
ilia officia sequantur ex illis rationibus, nullo singular! 
Dei praecepto intercedente. Ames, Medull. Theol. 
lib. ii. c. 13. This however cannot be said either of 
the precepts above-mentioned, or of the Sabbath. 

Secondly, because God was pleased by this distin 
guishing mark to separate the Israelites from other 
nations. Exod. xxxi. 13, &c. * it is a sign between 
me and you throughout your generations, that ye may 
know that I am Jehovah that doth sanctify you ; ye 
shall keep the sabbath therefore, for it is holy unto 
you. Ezek. xx. 12. to be a sign between me and 

An English translation of Ames s treatise was published by order of the 
House of Commons in 1642, under the title of The Marrow of Sacred 
Divinity, drawne out of the Holy Scriptures and the Interpreters thereof^ 
and brought into method. It is divided into two books, of which the first, 
entitled On Faith in God, contains forty-one chapters, and the second, 
On Observance toward God, twenty-two. It is quite evident that Milton 
has frequently availed himself of this volume, both in the distribution of 
his subject and arrangement of the chapters, which frequently coincides 
with that of Ames, and in particular passages and applications of Scrip 
ture; though their opinions differ materially on several important points. 
The translation is very badly executed, as the version of the passage 
quoted in the text will show. " That rule therefore of interpreting the 
Scriptures which is wont to be delivered by some, is not universally true ; 
that all those duties [are] morall and immutable, which havp morall and 
immutable reasons joyned to them ; except it be thus understood, that 
those duties doe follow upon those reasons, no special command coming 
betweene." Milton quotes in his Tetrachordon the definition of marriage 
given by Ames, and passes a just censure on it. See Prose Works, II. 141. 
The Treatise of Wollebius is also divided into two parts, On the Knowl 
edge and on the Worship of God, the first comprised in thirty-six, and 
the second in fourteen chapters. The plan of the latter division is very 
similar to the corresponding portion of Milton s work, and not only the 
arguments, but even whole sentences are sometimes almost identically the 

VOL. II. i2 


them, that they might, know that I am Jehovah that 
sanctity them. See also v. 20. 

Thirdly, that the slaves and cattle might enjoy a 
respite from labour. Exod. xxiii. 12. that thine ox 
and thine ass may rest, and the son of thine handmaid 
and the stranger may he refreshed. Dent. v. 12, 14. 
* keep the sabbath-day.. ..that thy man-servant and thy 
maid-servant may rest as well as thou. This reason 
applies only where servants are in a state of slavery, 
and subject to severe labour ; the condition of hired 
servants, who are now generally employed, being 
much easier than that of purchased slaves in old time. 

Fourthly, in remembrance of their liberation from 
Egypt. Deut. v. 15. remember that thou wast a 
servant in the land of Egypt, and that Jehovah thy 
God brought thee out thence through a mighty hand 
and by a stretched out arm ; therefore Jehovah thy 
God commanded thee to keep the sabbath-day. 

Fifthly, as a shadow or type of things to come. 
Col. ii. 16, 17. < in respect of an holy-day, or of the 
new moon, or of the sabbath-days ; which are a 
shadow of things to come : but the body is of 
Christ. Of what things to come the sabbaths are a 
shadow, we are taught Heb. iv. 9, 10. namely, of 
that sabbatical rest or eternal peace in heaven, of 
which all believers are commanded to strive to be 
partakers through faith and obedience, following the 
example of Christ. 

Works of charity and mercy were not forbidden 
on the Sabbath, upon the authority of Christ himself. 
Mark ii. 27. the sabbath was made for man, and not 
man for the sabbath. iii. 4. is it lawful to do good 
on the sabbath-days, or to do evil ? to save life, or to 


kill r Luke xiii. 15, 16. < doth not each one of you on 
the Sabbath loose his ox ?.... ought not this woman 
to be loosed from this bond on the sabbath-da \ : 
xiv. 5. 4 which of you shall have an ox or an ass fallen 
into a pit, &c. John vii. 23. i are ye angry at me 
because I have made a man every whit whole on the 
sabbath-day ? Even for a man to take up his bed, 
v. 11. although consonant to the spirit of the law, was 
contrary to its letter, Jer. xvii. 21, 22. 

Since then the Sabbath was originally an ordinance 
of the Mosaic law, since it was given to the Israelites 
alone, and that for the express purpose of distinguish 
ing them from other nations, it follows that, if (as 
W 7 as shown in the former book) those who live under 
the gospel are emancipated from the ordinances of the 
law in general, least of all can they be considered as 
bound by that of the Sabbath, the distinction being 
abolished which was the special cause of its institu 
tion.* It was for asserting this in precept, and en 
forcing it by example, that Christ incurred the heavy 
censure of the Pharisees, John ix. 16. this man is not 
of God, because he kecpeth not the sabbath-day. Gal. 
iv. 9, 10 how turn ye again to the w T eak and beggarly 
elements, whereunto ye desire again to be in bondage ? 
ye observe days, and months, and times, and years. 
Col. ii. 16, 17. Met no man therefore judge you in 
meat, or in drink, or in respect of an holy-day, or of 
the new moon, or of the sabbath-days. If it be 

* See Book I. Chap, xxvii. and the uo e in p. 90. To what i. <!irre 
may he added the folUnvins? passage from A brief History of J\losr^ , / 1. 
Milton is speaking of the Russian church. They hold (lie ten command 
ments not to oonrf-rn tln -m. s;-yin (Iv t Cod ^ 1h( j rn nr.drr the IM\V, 
which Christ by his <\<^,\\\\ on lh" cross h;t1l> ^tr- ^tl.fxl. 1 Prose Works, IV. 


contended, that it is only the septennial, and not the 
seventh day sabbath which is said by Paul to be ab 
rogated, I reply, first, that no exception is here made ; 
and, secondly, that it may as well be contended that 
baptism is not meant Heb. vi. 2. on account of the 
plural noun baptisms. Besides, it is certain that the 
words sabbath and sabbaths are used indiscriminately 
of the seventh day ; Exod. xxxi. 13, 14. Isai. Ivi. 2, 
4, 6. Whoever therefore denies that under the words 
of the apostle, in respect of an holy-day, or of the 
new moon, or of the sabbath-days, the Sabbath of 
the fourth commandment is comprehended, may as 
well deny that it is spoken of 2 Chron. ii. 4. or viii. 
13. or xxxi. 3. from which passages the words of Paul 
seem to be taken. 

The law of the Sabbath being thus repealed, that 
no particular day of worship has been appointed in its 
place, is evident from the same apostle, Rom. xiv. 5. 
4 one man esteemeth one day above another ; another 
esteemeth every day alike ; let every man be fully 
persuaded in his own mind. For since, as was ob 
served above, no particular place is designated under 
the gospel for the public worship of God, there seems 
no reason why time, the other circumstance of wor 
ship, should be more defined. If Paul had not intend 
ed to intimate the abolition of all sabbaths whatever, 
and of all sanctification of one day above another, he 
would not have added in the following verse, * he that 
regardeth not the day, to the Lord he doth not regard 
it. * For how does he not regard the day to the Lord, 

* c What but a vain shadow else is the abolition of those ordinances, 
that hand-writing nailed to the cross ? What great purchase i. this Christian 
liberty which Paul so often boasts of? His doctrine is, that he Mho eats or 


if there be any commandment still in force by which 
a particular day, whether the Sabbath or any other, is 
to be observed ? 

It remains to be seen on what they ground their 
opinion, who maintain that the Lord s day is to be 
observed as set apart for public worship by divine 
institution, in the nature of a new sabbath. It is 
urged, first, that God rested on the seventh day. 
This is true ; and with reason, inasmuch as he had 
finished a great work, the creation of heaven and 
earth ; if then we are bound to imitate him in his 
rest, without any command to that effect, (and none 
has yet been produced,) we are equally bound to imi 
tate his work, according to the fable of Prometheus of 
old ;* for rest implies previous labour. They rejoin, 
that God hallowed that day. Doubtless he hallowed 
it, as touching himself, for on the seventh day he 
rested and was refreshed, Exod. xxxi. 17. but not as 
touching us, unless he had added an express com 
mandment to that effect ; for it is by the precepts, 
not by the example, even of God himself, that we 
are bound. t They affirm again, that the Sabbath 
was observed previously to the Mosaic law. This is 

eats not, regards a day, or regards it not, may do either to l!ie Lord. 1 
Speech for the Liberty of Unlicensed Printing. Prose Works, 1. 327. 

* It would be helpful tons if we might .borrow such authority as tin 
rhetoricians by patent may give us, with a kind of Promethean skill to 
shape and fashion this outward man into (lie similitude of a body. Reason 
of Church Government urged against Prelaty. Prose Works, I. 133. 
Malui abs te decerpta transcriber, quse tu Aristoteli, ut ignem Jovi Pro 
metheus, ad eversionero monarcharum, et perniciem ipsius tuam, surripui?- 
ti. Pro Populo Jlnglicano Defcnsio, V. 115. 

t l They ought to know, or to remember, that not examples, but express 
commands oblige our obedience to God or man. The likeliest JItans lo 
remove Hirelings, &c. III. 357. 


asserted with more confidence than probability ; even 
if it were so, however, (a point as to which we are 
altogether ignorant) it is equally certain that sacrifi 
cial rites, and distinctions between things clean and 
unclean, and other similar observances, were in force 
during the same period, which nevertheless are not 
classed among moral duties. 

They urge, however, that the celebration of the 
Sabbath was subsequently ordained by the fourth 
commandment. This is true, as regards the seventh 
day ; but how does this apply to the first day ? If, on 
the plea of a divine command, they impose upon us 
the observance of a particular day, how do they pre 
sume, without the authority of a divine command, to 
substitute another day in its place ? or in other words 
to pronounce, that not merely the seventh day, which 
was appointed for the observation of the Israelites 
alone, but any one of the seven may, even on the 
authority of the fourth commandment itself, be kept 
holy ; and that this is to be accounted an article of 
moral duty among all nations. 

In the first place, I do not see how this assertion can 
be established, for it is impossible to extort such a 
sense from the words of the commandment ; seeing 
that the reason for which the command itself was 
originally given, namely, as a memorial of God s hav 
ing rested from the creation of the world, cannot be 
transferred from the seventh day to the first ; nor can 
any new motive be substituted in its place, whether 
the resurrection of our Lord, or any other, without the 
sanction of a divine commandment. Since then it is 
evident from more than one passage of Scripture, that 
the original Sabbath is abrogated, and since we 

are no where told that it has been transferred from 
one day to another, nor is any reason given why it 
should be so transferred, the church, when she sanc 
tioned a change in this matter, evinced, not her obe 
dience to God s command (inasmuch as the command 
existed no longer) but her own rightful liberty ; for 
in any other view it can only be termed folly. To 
make any change whatever in a commandment of God, 
whether we believe that commandment to be still in 
force or not, is equally dangerous, and equally repre 
hensible ; inasmuch as in so doin; we are either 
annulling what is not yet repealed, or re-enacting 
what is obsolete. It ought also to be shown what 
essential principle of morality is involved in the num 
ber seven ; and why, when released from the obliga 
tion of the Sabbath, we should still be bound to re 
spect a particular number, possessing no inherent 
virtue or efficacy. The only moral sabbatical rest 
which remains for us under the gospel, is spiritual and 
eternal, pertaining to another life rather than in the 
present. Heb. iv. 9 11. there remaineth therefore 
a rest to the people of God ; for he that hath entered 
into his rest, he also hath ceased from his own works, 
as God did from his : let us labour therefore to enter 
into that rest, lest any man fall after the same example 
of unbelief. If then the commandment of the Sab 
bath was given to those alone whom God had brought 
out of the land of Egypt, and out of the house of 
bondage, it is evidently inapplicable to us as Chris 
tians ; or if, as is contended, it is applicable to us 
inasmuch as we have been brought out of the slavery 
of a spiritual Egypt, the Sabbath ought to be such 
as the deliverance, spiritual and evangelical, not bodily 


and legal ; above all, it ought to be a voluntary, not a 
constrained observance,* lest we should be merely 
substituting one Egyptian bondage for another ;f for 
the Spirit cannot be forced. To contend therefore 
that what, under the new dispensation, ought to be 
our daily employment, has been enjoined as the bus 
iness of the Sabbath exclusively, is to disparage the 
gospel worship, and to frustrate rather than enforce 
the commandments of God. 

It is urged, however, that it is on the fourth com 
mandment that the church relies as its perpetual au 
thority for the observance of public worship. That 
public worship is commended, and inculcated as a vol 
untary duty, even under the gospel, I allow; but that it is 
a matter of compulsory enactment, binding on believers 
from the authority of this commandment, or of any Si- 
naitical precept whatever, I deny. With regard to the 
doctrine of those who consider the decalogue as a code 
of universal morality, I am at a loss to understand 
how such an opinion should ever have prevailed ; 
these commandments being evidently nothing more 
than a summary of the whole Mosaic law, as the 
fourth in particular is of the whole ceremonial law ; 
which therefore can contain nothing applicable to the 
gospel worship. 

Whether the festival of the Lord s day (an expres 
sion which occurs only once in Scripture, Rev. i. 10.) 
was weekly or annual, cannot be pronounced with 

* God delights not to make a drudge of virtue, whose actions must be 
all elective and unconstrained. Doctrine and Discipline of Divorce. 
Prose Works, II. 51. 

t What would ye say now, grave fathers, if you should wake and see 
unworthy bishops, or rather, no bishop 6 , but Egyptian task-masters of cere 
monies, thrust purposely upon the groaning church, to the affliction and 
vexation of God s people ? Of Reformation in England, I. 13. 


certainty, inasmuch as there is not (as in the case of 
the Lord s Supper) any account of its institution, or 
command for its celebration, to be found in scripture. 
If it was the day of his resurrection, why, we may ask, 
should this be considered as the Lord s day in any higher 
sense than that of his birth, or death, or ascension ? 
why should it be held in higher consideration than the 
day of the descent of the Holy Spirit ? and why 
should the celebration of the one recur weekly, whereas 
the commemoration of the others is not necessarily 
even annual, but remains at the discretion of each 
believer ? 

Neither can the circumstance of Christ s having 
appeared twice to his disciples on this day (if indeed 
the words after eight days, John xx. 26. are rightly 
interpreted the eighth day after) be safely adduced in 
proof of the divine institution of a new sabbath; inas 
much as there can be no doubt that he appeared on 
other days also, Luke xxiv. 36. and John xxi. 3, 4. 
1 Peter saith unto them, I go a fishing, which was 
not lawful on the Sabbath ; so that the day following, 
on the morning of which Christ appeared, could not 
have been the first day of the week. Even suppos 
ing, however, that it had been so, still the assigning 
this as a reason for the institution of a new sabbath is 
matter solely of human inference; since no command 
ment on this subject, nor any reason for such insti 
tution, is found in all Scripture. 

From commandments, of w 7 hich we have proved 
the non-existence, we pass to examples ; although no 
example can weaken the force of a contrary precept. 
We shall proceed, however, to prove, that what are 
adduced as examples are not such in reality. First 

VOL. IT. 43 


then, with regard to Acts xx. 7. where it is related 
that the disciples dwelling at Troas came together 
to break bread upon the first day of the week, who 
shall determine with certainty whether this was a 
periodical meeting, or only held occasionally, and of 
their own accord ; whether it was a religious festival, 
or a fraternal meal ; whether a special assembly con 
voked on that particular day, or a daily meeting like 
those recorded in chap. ii. 42. compared with v. 46 ; 
lastly, whether this meeting W 7 as held by order of the 
apostles, or whether it was merely permitted by them 
in compliance with the popular custom, according to 
their frequent practice on other occasions ? 

The inference deduced from 1 Cor. xvi. 2. is 
equally unsatisfactory ; for what the apostle is here 
enjoining, is not the celebration of the Lord s day, 
but that on the first day of the week (if this be the 
true interpretation of -/MTO, ^ civ o-/3j3arwv, per unam 
sabbathorum) each should lay by him (that is at home) 
for the relief of the poor ; no mention being made of 
any public assembly, or of any collection at such as 
sembly, on that day. He was perhaps led to select 
the first day of the week, from the idea that our alms 
ought to be set aside as a kind of first-fruits to God, 
previous to satisfying other demands ; or because the 
first day of the week was most convenient for the ar 
rangement of the family accounts. Granting, how 
ever, that the Corinthians were accustomed to assem 
ble on that day for religious purposes, it no more 
follows that we are bound to keep it holy in conform 
ity with their practice, without a divine command to 
that effect, than that we are bound to observe the 
Jewish sabbath in conformity with the practice of the 


Philippians, or of Paul himself, Acts xvi. 13. on the 
sabbath we went out of the city by a river side, where 
prayer was wontto be made. xvii. 2. Paul, as his man 
ner was, went in unto them, and three sabbath-days 
reasoned with them out of the scripture. xviii. 3,4. he 
abode with them and wrought .... and he reasoned in 
the synagogue every sabbath ; following his own 
occupation at home, as we have reason to believe, 
during the six remaining days. 

Those therefore, who on the authority of an ex 
pression occurring only once in Scripture, keep holy 
a sabbath-day, for the consecration of which no divine 
command can be alleged, ought to consider the dan 
gerous tendency of such an example, and the conse 
quences with which it is likely to be followed in the 
interpretation of Scripture. 

Hence we arrive at the following conclusions ; first, 
that under the gospel no one day is appointed for 
divine worship in preference to another, except such 
as the church may set apart of its own authority for 
the voluntary assembling of its members, wherein, 
relinquishing all worldly affairs, we may dedicate our 
selves wholly to religious services, so far as is con 
sistent with the duties of charity ; and, secondly, 
that this may conveniently take place once every 
seven days, and particularly on the first day of the 
week ;* provided always that it be observed in com 
pliance with the authority of the church, and not in 
obedience to the edicts of the magistrate ; and like 
wise that a snare be not laid for the conscience by the 

* l As therefore the seventh day is not moral, but a convenient recourse 
of worship in fit season, whether seventh or other number . The Likeliest 
Means to remove Hirelings out of the Church. Prose Works, III. 367. 


allegation of a divine commandment, borrowed from 
the decalogue ; an error against which Paul diligently 
cautions us, Col. ii. 16. let no man therefore judge 
you, &c. For if we under the gospel are to regulate 
the time of our public worship by the prescriptions of 
the decalogue, it will surely be far safer to observe 
the seventh day, according to the express command 
ment of God, than on the authority of mere human 
conjecture to adopt the first. I perceive also that 
several of the best divines as Bucer, Calvin, Peter 
Martyr, Musculus, Ursinus, Gomarus, and others, 
concur in the opinions above expressed.* 

* Several of these divines are elsewhere mentioned by Milton in terms of 
commendation. Bucer (whom our famous Dr. Rainolds was wont to pre 
fer before Calvin) in his comment on Matthew, and in his second book of 
the kingdom of Christ .... This book he wrote here in England, where he 
lived the greatest admired man. Tetrachordon. Prose Works, II. 232. 
See also the address to the Parliament, prefixed to the Judgment of Martin 
Bncer concerning Divorce, 68 78. Peter Martyr is twice quoted with 
reference to the same subjects. Ibid. 67, 233. Musculus is also called 4 a 
divine of no mean fame. Ibid. 233. In proof of Milton s assertion that 
these divines agree with him on the subject of the sabbath, the following 
passages may be cited from their respective works. Sic de sabbalho. Quod 
septimo die, ilia quas a Judaeis observatur numeratione, ab omni opere 
servili vacandum erat, prascepturn legis externum fuit, solis Judaeis, quibus 
datum exstitit, observandum, c. . . . Haec ergo ad nos pertinent, ilia 
Judaeis recte relinquunlur. BUCER. in sacra quatuor Evangelia Enarrat. 
Perpet. ad Matt. x. 9. Caeteruru non dubium quin Domini Christi ad- 
ventu, quod cseremoniale hie fin sabbntho] erat, abolitum fuerit. Ipse enim 
veritas est, cujus praesentia figurae omnes evanescunt .... Ideo sublatam 
umbram fuisse rei futurse alibi scribit apostolus ; corpus exstare in Christo, 
hoc est, solidam veritatis substantiam, quam illo loco bene explicavit. Ea 
non uno die contenta est, sed toto vitae nostrae cursu, donee penitus nobis- 
metipsis mortui, Dei vita impleamur. A Christianis ergo abesse debet 
super? titiosa dierum observatio, c. &c. CALVIN. Instit. Christian, cap. 
viii. Sect. 31. See also Comment, in quinque libros Mosis^ nearly at the 
end of the preface to the remarks on the Mosaic law. * Deinde quod locum 
Pauli Heb. iii. et iv. concernit, notandum est illud hodie non esse alligandum 
septimo diei, sed exigere a nobis perpetuam obedientiam verbo Dei prass- 
tandam. Est enim nobis perpetuus sabbathismus, quo coram Deo in spiritu 

coinparentes, majestatem illius celebramus, cum adoratione invocamus, ae 
vocem illius audimus ; verum hie sensus et modus iste mystici sahbathismi 
non excludit ecclesiasticoruin conventuum usum, sicut hodie fariatici qui- 
darn homines somniant, ac seipsos una cum aliis ab ecclesiae conventibus 
abducunt. Muse ULUS, Comment, in Psalm, xcv. 8. 4 Cum igitur sab- 
bathum septimani diei typus fuerit, admonens populem et de suo officio, 
sive de pietnte ersra Deum, et de beneficio Dei erga populam per Christum 
praestando, una cum aliis coeremoniis, adventu Christi, per quern est imple- 
tum quod ilia significabarit, abroicatum est. Quod etiam Paulus testatur 
Col. ii. 1 &c. &c. URSINUS, Tractat. Theolog. in expositione Quarti Prce- 
cepti. Chritiani respondent Judaeis . . . . sabbathum abrogatum ratione 
caeremoniae et geminae circumstantiae, &c .... deinde observatione septimi 
illius diei dtfiniti. Quo modo appendix erat legis moralis, ad populum 
Judaicum solum pertmens. 1 GOMARUS, Oper. Theolog. in Explicatione 
Ep. ad C olossenses , cap. ii. PETER MARTYR, however, seems to hold a 
different opinion. c Qui autem robustiori fide erant prsediti, illi omnes dies 
perinde habuerunt. Dominicam tamen diem excipimus ; pertinet enim ad 
decalogum, ut ex hebdomada integra unus dies divino cultui consecretur, 
&c. Comment, in Ep. ad Romanos, cap. xiv. 



HITHERTO we have treated of the virtues compre 
hended in our duty towards God; we are next to 
speak of those which belong to our duty towards 
men ; although even in these we may be considered 
as serving God, so long as they are done in obedience 
to the divine command. Matt. vii. 12. all things 
whatsoever ye would that men should do to you, do 
ye even so to them : for this is the law and the proph 
ets. Col. iii. 23. l whatsoever ye do, do it heartily, 
as to the Lord, and not unto men. James i. 26, 27. 
if any man among you seem to be religious, and 
bridleth not his tongue, but deceiveth his own heart, 
this man s religion is vain ; pure religion and unde- 
filed before God and the Father is this, To visit the 
fatherless and widows in their affliction, and to keep 
himself unspotted from the world. 1 John iv. 20. 
if a man say, I love God, and hateth his brother, he 
is a liar ; for he that loveth not his brother whom he 
hath seen, how can he love God whom he hath not 

seen ? 


Inasmuch therefore as God is best served by inter 
nal worship, whereas man stands more in need of 
outward attention, the external service even of God 
is sometimes to be postponed to our duties towards 
men. Prov. xxi. 3. to do justice and judgment is 
more acceptable to Jehovah than sacrifice. Jer. vii. 
4, 5. trust ye not in lying words, saying, the temple 
of Jehovah, the temple of Jehovah, the temple of 
Jehovah are these : for if ye throughly amend your 
ways and your doings . Matt. xii. 1, &c. Jesus 
went on the sabbath-day through the corn ; and his 
disciples were an hungered . v. 7. I will have 
mercy and not sacrifice. xv. 5. ye say, Whosoever 
shall say to his father or his mother, It is a gift, by 
whatsoever thou mightest be profited by me, and 
honour not his father or his mother, he shall be free. 
See also Mark vii. 11, 12. and ii. 27, the sabbath 
was made for man, and not man for the sabbath. 

The virtues connected with our duty towards man 
are partly those which each individual owes to him 
self, and partly those which we owe to our neigh 
bours. Lev. xix. 18. thou shalt love thy neighbour 
as thyself. See also Matt. xix. 19. 

These virtues, like those relating to God, are either 
general or special. 

The general virtues are love and righteousness. In 
the first book I treated of love generally, and in its 
wider sense as identified with holiness ; I now pro 
ceed to define it more particularly, with reference to 
its object as follows. Love is a general virtue, in 
fused into believers by God the Father in Christ 
through the Spirit, and comprehending the whole diity 
of love owing from each individual to himself and lit* 


neighbour. It is nowhere more fully described than 
in the whole thirteenth chapter of the first epistle to 
the Corinthians, to which we shall have frequently to 
refer. Compare also 1 John iii. 18, 19. mv little 
children, let us not love in word, neither .ongue, 
but in deed and in truth : and hereby we know that 
we are of the truth, and shall assure our hearts before 

By God, &c. 1 John iii. 10. in this the children 
of God are manifest, and the children of the devil ; 

whosoever doeth not righteousness neither he that 

loveth not his brother. iv. 7. love is of God, and 
every one that loveth is born of God, and knoweth 
God. Gal. v. 22. the fruit of the Spirit is love. 

Into believers. Gal. v. 6. faith that \vorketh by 

The opposite of this is uncharitableness ; which 
renders all our other qualities and actions, however 
excellent in appearance, of no account. 1 Cor. xiii. 
1, &c. though I speak with the tongues of men and 
of angels, and have not charity, I am become as 
sounding brass, or as a tinkling cymbal, 

The other general virtue belonging to the regener 
ate is righteousness, whereby we render to each his 
due, whether to ourselves, or to our neighbour. 
Prov. xvi. 8. better is a little with righteousness, 
than great revenues without right. Isai. Ixi. 8. I 
Jehovah love judgment ; I hate robbery for burnt- 
offering. Matt. vii. 12. all things whatsoever ye 
would that men should do to you, do ye even so to 
them. Rom. xiii. 7. render therefore to all their 


Belonging to the regenerate. 1 John iii. 10. in 
this the children of God are manifest, and the chil 
dren of the devil ; whosoever doeth not righteousness 
is not of God. Hence under righteousness is fre 
quently included the observance of the whole law. 

Opposed to this is, first, unrighteousness, which 
excludes from the kingdom of heaven. 1 Cor. vi. 9. 

* know ye not that the unrighteous shall not inherit 
the kingdom of God? Jer. xvii. 11. * as the par 
tridge setteth on eggs, and hatcheth them not, so he 
that getteth riches, and not by right, shall leave them 
in the midst of his days, and at his end shall be a 

Secondly, a pharisaical righteousness. Matt. v. 20. 

* except your righteousness shall exceed the righteous 
ness of the scribes and Pharisees, ye shall in no case 
enter into the kingdom of heaven. 

Both these general virtues, as has been stated above, 
are exercised partly towards ourselves, and partly to 
wards our neighbour. 

The love of man towards himself consists in loving 
himself next to God, and in seeking his own temporal 
and eternal good. Prov. xi. 17. the merciful man 
doeth good to his own soul, but he that is cruel 
troubleth his own flesh. xix. 8. he that getteth 
\visdom loveth his own soul. Eph. v. 29. no man 
ever yet hated his own flesh, but nourished! and eher- 
isheth it. Philipp. ii. 12. work out your own sal 
vation. 1 Tim. v. 23. drink no longer water, but 
use a little wine for thy stomach s sake, and thine 
often infirmities. 

VOL. IT. 44 


Opposed to this is, first, a perverse hitred of self.* 
Eph. v. 29. as above. In this class are to be reck 
oned those who lay violent hands on themselves, (who 
nevertheless are not excluded from decent burial, 2 
Sam. xvii. 23.) and all who are guilty of presumptu 
ous sin. Prov. viii. 36. l he that sinneth against me 
hateth his own soul ; all they that hate me love 
death. xxix. 24. whoso is partner with a thief 
hateth his own soul. 

Secondly, a preposterous self-love, whereby a man 
loves himself more than God, or despises his neigh 
bour in comparison of himself. In allusion to the 
former species of self-love Christ says, John xii. 25. 
; he that loveth his life shall lose it. Respecting the 
latter see 2 Tim. iii. 2, &c. men shall be lovers of 
themselves . On the contrary, those are commended, 
Rev. xii. 11, 4 who loved not their lives unto the death. 
Matt. x. 39. he that loseth his life for my sake shall 
find it. See also Mark viii. 35, &c. Matt. xvi. 23. 
he said unto Peter, Get thee behind me, Satan, thou 

Be penitent, and for thy fault contrite ; 
But act not in thy own affliction, son ; 
Repent the sin ; but if the punishment 
Thou canst avoid, self-preservation bids : 
Orth execution leave to high disposal, 
And let another hand, not thine, exact 
Thy penal forfeit for thyself ; perhaps 
God will relent, and quit thee all his debt ; 
\Vhoever more approves, and more accepts, 
(Best pleas d with humble and filial submission) 
Him who, imploring mercy, sues for life, 
Than who, self-rigorou?, chooses death as due ; 
Which argues over-just, and self-displeas d 
For self-offence, more than for God offended. 

Sampson J]gonistes, 502. 


art an offence unto me ; for thou savourest not the 
things that be or God, but those that be of men. 

Righteousness towards ourselves consists in a prop 
er method of self-government. 1 Cor. ix. 27. I 
keep under my body, and bring it into subjection. 1 
From this, as from a fountain, the special virtues in 
general derive their origin ; inasmuch as under the 
head of righteousness towards ourselves are included, 
first, the entire regulation of the internal affections ; 
secondly, the discriminating pursuit of external good, 
and the resistance to, or patient endurance of, exter 
nal evil. 

The regulation of the affections. Prov. xxv. 28. 
6 he that hath no rule over his own spirit is like a city 
that is broken down and hath no walls. Gal. v. 16, 

17. the flesh lusteth against the Spirit so that ye 

cannot do the things that ye would. v. 24. they 
that are Christ s have crucified the flesh with the 
affections and lusts. Col, in. 5. mortify therefore 
your members that are upon the earth. 1 Tliess. iv. 
4, 5. that every one of you should know r how to 
possess his vessel in sanciification and honour. James 
i. 14, 15. l every man is tempted, when he is drawn 
away of his own lust, and enticed. 1 Pet. iv. 2. 
that he no longer should live the rest of his time in 
the flesh to the lusts of men, but to the will of God. 

The affections are love, hatred ; joy, sorrow ; hope, 
fear ; and anger. 

Love is to be so regulated, that our highest affec- 

O O 

tions may be placed on the objects most worthy of 
them ; in like manner, hatred is to be proportioned to 
the intrinsic hatefulness of the object. Gen. vi. 2. 
the sons of God saw the daughters of men that 


they were fair, and they took them . 1 Sam. xvi 
7, 8. look not on his countenance, or on the height 
of his stature. Esth. ii. 15. Esther obtained favour 
in the sight of all them that looked upon her. Prov. 
vi. 25. lust not after her beauty in thy heart. xi. 
22. as a jewel of gold in a swine s snout, so is a 
fair woman which is without discretion. Rom. xii. 
9. abhor that which is evil ; cleave to that which is 
good. 1 Cor. x. 6. we should not lust after evil 

Our joy ought to be so regulated, that we may de 
light in things essentially good in proportion to their 
excellence, and in things indifferent so far only as is 
consistent with reason. The same rule is to be ob 
served with regard to sorrow. Deut. xii. 7. there 
shall ye eat before Jehovah your God, and ye shall 
rejoice . See also v. 12, 18. xxvi. 11. thou shalt 
rejoice in every good thing which Jehovah thy God 
hath given unto thee. Job xxii. 19. the righteous 
see it, and are glad ; and the innocent laugh them 
to scorn. Psal. iv. 6 8. lift thou up the light of 
thy countenance upon us ; thou hast put gladness in 
my heart more than in the time that their corn and 
their wine increased. xxx. 11, 12. thou hast turned 
for me my mourning into dancing. Iviii. 10. the 
righteous shall rejoice when he seeth the vengeance ; 
he shall wash his feet in the blood of the wicked. 
cxxvi. 2. then was our mouth filled with laughter. 7 
Luke ii. 10. M bring you good tidings of great joy. 
xxiv. 52. they returned to Jerusalem with great joy ; 3 
and to the same effect in many other passages. Prov. 
x. 23. * it is as sport to a fool to do mischief ; but a 
man of understanding hath wisdom. xv. 21. folh 


is joy to him that is destitute of wisdom ; but a man 
of understanding walketh uprightly. xvii. 5. whoso 
mocketh the poor, reproacheth his maker. v. 22. a 
merry heart doeth good like a medicine ; but a broken 
spirit drieth the bones. See also xviii. 14. xxvi. 19. 
* so is the man that deceiveth his neighbour, and saith, 
Am not I in sport ? Eccles. ii. 2. I said of laughter, 
It is mad ; and of mirth, What doeth it ? vii. 2 4. 
it is better to go to the house of mourning, than to 
go to the house of feasting ; for that is the end of all 
men. Isai. xxii. 12, &c. in that day did the Lord 
God of hosts call to weeping and to mourning.... and 
behold joy and gladness . Jer. xxxi. 4. 4 thou shalt 
again be adorned with thy tabrets, and shalt go forth 
in the dances of them that make merry. v 7 . 13. then 
shall the virgin rejoice in the dance, both young men 
and old together, for I will turn their mourning into 
joy. Lam. v. 15. the joy of our heart is ceased, 
our dance is turned into mourning. Amos vi. 6. that 
drink wine in bowls.... but they are not grieved for the 
affliction of Joseph. There are occasions on which 
tears are not unbecoming even a wise man. Gen. xlii. 
24. Joseph turned himself about from them, and 
wept. Psal. cxix. 136. rivers of waters run down 
mine eyes, because they keep not thy law. 

In the proper regulation of hope and fear, the cause, 
the object, and the degree of excitation are chiefly to 
be considered. Concerning hope, see above ; con 
cerning fear, Matt. \. 28. fear not them which kill 
the body. Isai. viii. 12, 13. compared with 1 Pet. 
iii. 14. be not afraid of their terror. Even the 
bravest may occasionally be influenced by fear. Gen. 
xxxii. 7. then Jacob was greatly afraid. Exocl. ii. 


14. Moses feared. 1 Kings xix. 3. when he saw 
that, he arose and went for his life. PsaL Iv. 5 7. 
because of the voice of the enemy. ...fearfulness and 
trembling are come upon me. 2 Cliron. xx. 3. Je- 
hoshaphat feared. Nehem. ii. 2. < then I was very 
sore afraid. 

In anger, we are to consider the motive for the pas 
sion, its degree, and duration. Prov. xvi. 32. he 
that is slow to anger is better than the mighty, and he 
that ruleth his spirit than he that taketh a city. xix. 
11. the discretion of a man deferreth his anger, and 
it is his glory to pass over a transgression. Mark iii. 
5. when he had looked round upon them with anger, 
being grieved for the hardness of their hearts . ? 
Eph. iv. 2. 4 \vith long-suffering. v. 26. be ye an 
gry, and sin not ; let not the sun go down upon your 
w r rath. Col. i. 11. ; unto all patience and long-suf 

The excess of anger is irascibility. Prov. xii. 16. 
a fool s wrath is presently known. xiv. 17. 6 he 
that is soon angry dealeth foolishly, and a man of 
wicked devices is hated. xxii. 24, 25. * make no 
friendship with an angry man . xxvii. 3. a stone 
is heavy. ...but a fool s wrath is heavier. xxix. 22. 
an angry man stirreth up strife. Eccles. vii. 9. be 
not hasty in thy spirit to be angry ; for anger resteth 
in the bosom of fools. Matt. v. 22. whosoever is 
angry with his brother without a cause, shall be in 
danger of the judgment. Eph. iv. 31. let all wrath 
and anger... .be put away from you. From this in 
firmity even the best of men are not always exempt. 
Acts xv. 38, 39. the contention was so sharp between 
them, that, &c. . 


From well-regulated affections proceeds the proper 
government of the tongue. Prov. xi. 9. an hypo 
crite with his mouth destroyeth his neighbour ; but 
through knowledge shall the just be delivered. v. 11. 
t by the blessing of the upright the city is exalted ; 
but it is overthrown by the mouth of the wicked. xii. 
14. a man shall be satisfied with good by the fruit 
of his mouth. xiii. 2. * a man shall eat good by the 
fruit of his mouth ; but the soul of the transgressors 
shall eat violence. xv. 2, 4, 7. the tongue of the wise 
useth knowledge aright ; but the mouth of fools pour- 
eth out foolishness. v. 23. a man hath joy by the 
answer of his mouth, and a word spoken in due sea 
son how good is it! v. 28. the heart of the righte 
ous studieth to answer : but the mouth of the wicked 
pourcth out evil things. xvi. 1. the answer of the 
tongue is from Jehovah. v. 23, 27. the heart of 
the wise teacheth his mouth, and addeth learning to 
his lips. xviii. 13. he that answereth a matter be 
fore he heareth it, it is folly and shame unto him. 
xix. 28. an ungodly witness scorneth judgment, and 
the mouth of the wicked devoureth iniquity. xxix. 
20. seest thou a man that is hasty in his words ? 
there is more hope of a fool than of him. Matt. xii. 
34, 36, 37. how can ye, being evil, speak good 
things ? for out of the abundance of the heart the 
mouth speaketh. James iii. 2, &c. if any man of 
fend not in word, the same is a perfect man. Psal. 
cxli. 3. set a watch, O Jehovah, before my mouth ; 
keep the door of my lips. Prov. xviii. 21. death 
and life are in the power of the tongue. xxi. 23. 
whoso keepeth his mouth and his tongue, keepeth 
his soul from troubles. 



THE special virtues which regulate our desire of ex 
ternal advantages, have reference either to bodily 
gratifications, or to the possessions which enrich and 
adorn life. 

The virtue which prescribes bounds to the desire 
of bodily gratification, is called temperance. Tit. ii. 
11, 12. the grace of God that bringeth salvation 
hath appeared unto all men, teaching us, that denying 
ungodliness and worldly lusts, we should live soberly, 
righteously, and godly, in this present world. 1 Pet. 
ii. 11. < as strangers and pilgrims, abstain from fleshly 
lusts which war against the soul. 2 Pet. ii. 9. the 
Lord knoweth how ... to reserve the unjust unto 
the day of judgment to be punished ; but chiefly them 
that walk after the flesh in the lust of uncleanness. 

Under temperance are comprehended sobriety and 
chastity, modesty and decency. 

Sobriety consists in abstinence from immoderate 
eating and drinking.* 1 Thess. v. 8. 4 let us, who 

* Abstinence in diet, says a biographer of Milton, was one of his favour 
ite virtue?, which he practised invariably through life, and availed himself 


are of the day, be sober. 1 Pet, i. 13. * wherefore 
gird up the loins of your mind, be sober. iv. 7. the 
end of all things is at hand ; be ye therefore sober, 
and watch unto prayer. v. 8. < be sober, be vigilant; 
because your adversary the devil, as a roaring lion, 
walketh about seeking whom he may devour. Esth. 
\. 8. < the drinking was according to law ; none did 
compel : for so the king had appointed to all the offi 
cers of his house, that they should do according to 
every man s pleasure. 

The opposites of this virtue are drunkenness and 
gluttony ; instances of which may be seen in Noah, 
Gen. ix. Lot, Gen. xix. and Benhadad, 1 Kings xx. 
16. Prov. xx. 1. wine is a mocker. xxi. 17. 4 he 
that loveth wine . . . shall not be rich. xxiii. 3, &c. 

of every opportunity to recommend in his writings. He is reported to 
have partaken rarely of wine or of any strong liquors. In his Speech for 
the Liberty of Unlicensed Printing, the following passage occur?: How 
great a virtue is temperance, how much of moment through the whole life 
of man ! Yet God commits the managing .so great a trust, without particu 
lar law or prescription, wholly to the demeanour of every grown man. 
Prose Works, I. 290. Again, in Paradise Lost : 

well observe 

The rule of JVW too much, by temperance taught, 
In what thou eat st and driukM, seeking from thence 
Due nourishment, not gluttonous delight, 
Till many year? over thy head return. XL 530. 

See also Sampson Jlgonistes, 542, &c. and the second elegy to Deodati. 
In the Apology for Sintctymnuus, he vindicates himself with some indig 
nation against the charge of being a sack-drinker, which one of his oppo 
nents had brought against him. He concludes his defence with the follow 
ing sentence. * For the readers [of the book in which the accusation ap 
peared] if they can believe me, principally for those reasons which I have 
alleged, to be of life and purpose neither dishonest rmr unchaste, they 
will be easily induced to think me sober both of wine and of word ; but 
if I have been already successless in persuading them, all that 1 can further 
say will be but vain ; arid it will be better thrift to save two tedious labors, 
mine of excusing, and theirs of needless hearing. 1 Prose Works, I. 126. 

VOL. ii. 45 


4 be not desirous of his dainties, for they are deceitful 
meat. v. 20, 21. be not among wine-bibbers, 
among riotous eaters of flesh . v. 29 32. who 
hath woe ? who hath sorrow ? who hath contentions ? 
who hath babbling ? who hath wounds without cause ? 
who hatli redness of eyes ? they that tarry long at the 
wine. Isai. v. 11, 12. woe unto them that rise up 
early in the morning, that they may follow strong 
drink . . . but they regard not the work of Jehovah. 
v. 22. woe unto them that are mighty to drink wine. 
xxviii. 1, 3, 7, 8. woe to the crown of pride, to the 
drunkards of Ephraim . Ezek. xvi. 49. behold, 
this w r as the iniquity of thy sister Sodom, pride, ful 
ness of bread. Luke xxi. 34, take heed to your 
selves, lest at any time your hearts be overcharged 
with surfeiting, and drunkenness, and cares of this 
life, and so that day come upon you unawares. 
Rom. xiii. 13. let us walk honestly, as in the day; 
not in rioting and drunkenness. 1 Cor. vi. 10. nor 
drunkards .... shall inherit the kingdom of God. 
Gal. v. 21. drunkenness, revellings, and such like 
.... shall not inherit the kingdom of God. Hos. iv. 
10. they shall eat, and not have enough. vii. 5. in 
the day of our king the princes have made him sick 
with bottles of wine. Habak. ii. 15. woe unto him 
that giveth his neighbour drink. Eph. v. 18. be 
not drunk with wine, wherein is excess ; but . 
1 Pet. iv. 3, 4. the time past of our lives may suffice 
us .... when we walked in lascivionsness, lusts, 
excess of wine, revellings, banquetings, .... wherein 
they think it strange that ye run not with them to 
the same excess of riot. 


Allied to sobriety is watchfulness. Matt. xxiv. 42. 
* watch therefore ; for je know not what hour your 
lord doth come. See also xxv. 13. xxvi. 41. Mark 
xiii. 35. v. 37. * what I say unto you, I say unto 
all, Watch. Luke xii. 37. blessed are those ser 
vants, whom the lord when he cotneth shall find 
watching. xxi. 36. watch ye therefore and pray 
always, that ye may be accounted worthy to escape 
all these things that shall come to pass. Col. iv. 2. 
continue in prayer, and watch . 1 Thess. v. 6. 
therefore let us not sleep, as do others ; but let us 
watch and be sober. 1 Pet. v. 8. be sober, be vig 
ilant. Rev. iii. 3. if therefore thou shall not watch, 
I will come upon thee as a thief in the night. xvi. 
15. blessed is he that watcheth, and keepeth his 
garments, lest he walk naked. In most of these pas 
sages it appears that the watchfulness spoken of refers 
less to the sleep of the body, than to the lethargy of 
the mind. 

The opposite to this, is an excessive love of sleep.* 
Prov. xx. 13. love not sleep, lest thou come to poverty. 

* Miton s habit of early rising is mentioned by all his biographer?. In 
summer he rose at four, in winter at five ; or if he remained in bed be_yond 
these hours, he employed a person to read to him from (he time of his 
awaking. He has left the following account of his mode of living during 
his early years in the Jlpology for Smectymnuus. * Those morning haunts 
are where they should be, at home ; riot sleeping, or concocting (he surfeits 
of an irregular feast, but up and stirring, in winter, often ere the sound of 
any bell awake men to labour or devotion ; in summer as oft wi(h the bird 
that first rouses, or not much tardier, to read good authors, or cause thena 
to be read, till the attention be weary, or memory have its full fraught : 
then with useful and generous labours preserving the body s health and 
hardiness to render lightsome, clear, and not lumpish obedience (o (he 
mind, (o the cause of religion, and our country s liberty, when it shall 
require firm hearts in sound bodies to stand and cover their stations, rather 
than to see the ruin of our protestation^ aud the inforcemerit of a slavisk 
i;fe. Prose Works, I. 220. 


Chastity consists in temperance as regards the un 
lawful lusts of the flesh ; which is also called sancti- 
fication. 1 Thess. iv. 3. this is the will of God, 
even your sanctification, that ye should abstain from 
forry cation. Rev. xiv. 4. these are they which 
were not defiled with women, for they are virgins : 
these are they which follow the Lamb. 

To chastity are opposed all kinds of impurity ; 
effeminacy, sodomy, bestiality, &;c. which are offences 
against ourselves in the first instance, and tending to 
our own especial injury.* 1 Cor. vi. 15, 16. know 
ye not that your bodies are the members of Christ ? 
shall I then take, &c. ? what, know ye not that he 
which is joined to an harlot is one body? . v. 18. 
flee fornication : every sin that man doeth is without 
the body ; but he that committeth fornication, sinneth 

* The same enemy of Milton who was alluded to in a preceding pa;e as 
charging him with intemperance in drinking, also accuses him of licentious- 
nes, and of frequenting play-houses and the bordelloes. 1 The, imputa 
tion is thus repelled : Having had the doctrine of Holy Scripture, unfold 
ing those chaste and high mysteries, with timeliest care infused, that the 
body is for the Lord, and the Lord for the body, thus also I arsrued to my 
self, that if unchastity in a woman, whom St. Paul terms the glory of man, 
be such a scandal and dishonour, then certainly in a man, who is both the 
image and glory of God, it must, though commonly not so thought, be much 
more deflowering and dishonourable ; in that he sins both against his own 
body, which is the perfecter sex, and his own glory, which is in the wo 
man ; and that which is worst, against the image and glory of God, which 
is in himself. Nor did I slumber over that place expressing such hisrh re 
wards of ever accompanying the Lamb, with those celestial songs to others 
inapprehensible, but not to those \vho were not defiled with women, which 
doubtless means fornication, for marriage must not be called a defilement. 
Thus large I have purposely been, that if I have been justly taxed with 
this crime, it may come upon me, after all this my confession, with a ten 
fold shame ; but if I have hitherto deserved no such opprobrious word or 
suspicion, I may hereby engage myself now openly to the faithful observa 
tion of what I have professed. Apology for Smectymnuus. Prose Works, 
I. 226. See also the noble passage in Comus ; 418 475. 


against his own body. See also Prov. vi. 24, &c. 
Gen. xxxviii. 9,10. * the thing which he did displeased 
the Lord. Exod. xxii. 19. whosoever lieth with a 
beast shall surely be put to death. Lev. xviii. 22, 23. 
thou shalt not lie with mankind. Dent, xxiii. 17. 
there shall be no whore of the daughters of Israel, 
nor, &c. xxvii. 21. cursed is he that lieth with any 
manner of beast. Prov. ii. 16 to deliver thee from 
the strange woman. v. 3, &c. the lips of a strange 
woman drop as an honeycomb. vi. 24. to keep 
thee from the evil woman. See also v. 32. vii. 25. 
let not thine heart decline to her w T ays. ix. 18. he 
knoweth not that the dead are therp . xxii. 14. 
the mouth of strange women is a deep pit See 
also xxiii. 26, 27. xxx. 20. such is the way of an 
adulterous woman ; she eateth, and wipeth her mouth, 
and saith, I have done no wickedness. 1 Kings xiv. 
24. there were also sodomites in the land. Rom. 
xiii. 13. not in chambering and wantonness. 1 Cor. 
vi. 9, 10. be not deceived ; neither fornicators .... 
nor adulterers, nor effeminate, nor abusers of them 
selves with mankind . . . shall inherit the kingdom of 
God. v. 13, &c. the body is not for fornication, but 
for the Lord, and the Lord for the body. Eph. v. 
3 5. fornication and all uncleanness ... let it not 
be once named among you, as becometh saints . . . 
nor filthiness . . . which are not convenient . . . for 
this ye know, that no whoremonger, nor unclean per 
son . . . hath any inheritance in the kingdom of Christ 
and of God. 

Modesty consists in refraining from all obscenity of 
language or action, in short, from whatever is incon 
sistent with the strictest decency of behaviour in ref- 


erence to sex or person. Deut. xxv. 11, 12. when 
men strive together, &:c. Job xxxi. 1. I made a cove 
nant with mine eyes, &;c. 1 Cor. xi. 10. for this 
cause ought the woman to have power on her head, 
because of the angels. Heb. xii. 28. we may serve 
God acceptably, with reverence and godly fear. 2 
Kings iv. 15. when he had called her, she stood in 
the door. The same ideas of womanly decorum 
existed even among the Gentiles. Thus Homer in 
troduces Penelope ; 

<TT pat TTApa crr^fjiov Ttytos 7rvx.y. Trowroto. Odyss. d. 333. 

She beneath 

The portal of her stately mansion stood. 

I. 414. Cowptr^s Translation. 

Opposed to this are obscene conversation, and 
filthy and licentious gestures. Isai. iii. 16, &c. 
therefore Jehovah will smite with a scab the crown 
of the head of the daughters of Zion, and Jehovah 
will discover their secret parts. Matt. v. 28. who 
soever looketh on a woman, &c. Eph. v. 4. neither 
filthiness, nor foolish talking, nor jesting, which are 
not convenient. 2 Pet. ii. 14. having eyes full of 

Decency consists in refraining from indecorum or 
lasciviousnsss in dress or personal appearance. Exod. 
xx. 26. neither shalt thou go up by steps unto mine 
altar, that thy nakedness be not discovered thereon. 
Deut. xxii. 5. the woman shall not wear that which 
pertaineth unto a man, neither shall a man put on a 
woman s garment ; for all that do so are abomination 
unto Jehovah thy God. Zeph. i. 8. it shall come 
to pass that I will punish all such as are clothed 


in strange apparel. Matt. xi. 8. they that wear soil 
clothing are in kings houses. 1 Tim. ii. 9. in 
like manner also that women adorn themselves in 
modest apparel, with shamefacedness and sobriety, 
not with broidered hair, or gold, or pearls, or costly 
array. 1 Pet. iii. 3. whose adorning let it not be 
that outward adorning of plaiting the hair, and of 
wearing of gold, or of putting on of apparel. 2 Kings 
ix. 30. * she painted her face, &c. 

Moderation in the enjoyment of temporal posses 
sions manifests itself in the virtues of contentment, 
frugality, industry, and a liberal spirit. 

Contentment is that virtue whereby a man is in 
wardly satisfied with the lot assigned him by divine 
providence. Prov. x. 22. the blessing of Jehovah, 
it maketh rich. xxx. 8. give me neither poverty 
nor riches ; feed me with food convenient for me. 
Eccles. iii. 12, 13. < I know that there is no good in 
them, but for a man to rejoice and to do good in his 
life ; and also that every man should eat and drink, 
and enjoy the good of all his labour, it is the gift of 
God. v. 18, &c. behold that which I have seen ; it 
is good and comely for one to eat and to drink, and 
to enjoy the good of all the labour that he taketh un 
der the sun all the days of his life which God giveth 
him, for it is his portion ; every man also to whom 
God hath given riches and wealth, and hath given him 
power to eat thereof, and to take his portion arid rejoice 
in his labour ; this is the gift of God : for he shall 
not much remember the days of his life ; because God 
answereth him in the joy of his heart. vi. 1,2. there 
is an evil which I have seen under the sun, and it is 
common among men; a man to whom God hath given 


riches, wealth, and honour, so that he wanteth nothing 
for his soul of all that he desireth, yet God giveth him 
not power to eat thereof, but a stranger eateth it. ix.9, 
10. live joyfully with the wife whom thou lovest / 
Zech. ix. 16, 17. how great is his goodness, and how 
great is his beauty! . Philipp. iv. 11, 12. not 
that I speak in respect of want ; for I have learned in 
whatsoever state I am, therewith to be content : I 
know both how to be abased, and I know how to 
abound ; every where, and in all things, I am in 
structed both to be full and to be hungry, both to 
abound and to suffer need. 1 Tim. vi. 6, 7. godli 
ness with contentment is great gain ; for we brought 
nothing into this world, and it is certain we can carry 
nothing out : and having food and raiment let us 
therewith be content. Heb. xiii. 5. be content with 
such things as ye have. Even in poverty. Psal. 
xxiii. 1,2. Jehovah is my shepherd ; I shall not 
want. xxxiv. 9, &c. there is no want to them that 
fear him ; the young lions do Jack and suffer hun 
ger . xxxvii, 16, 18, 19. a little that a righteous 

man hath is better, &c they shall not be ashamed 

in the evil time, and in the days of famine they shall 
be satisfied. xl. 17. I am poor and needy, yet Je 
hovah thinketh upon me . Ixviii. 10. thou hast 
prepared of thy goodness for the poor. Prov. x. 3. 
Jehovah will not surfer the soul of the righteous to 
famish. Hence poverty is not to be accounted a 
disgrace. Prov. xvii. 5, whoso mocketh the poor, 
reproacheth his maker. xix. 1. better is the poor 
that walketh in his integrity, than he that is perverse 
in his lips. xxviii. 6. better is the poor that walk- 
nth in his uprightness, than he that is perverse in his 


ways, though he be rich. v. 11. i the rich man is \\isC 
in his own conceit, but the poor that hath understand 
ing searcheth him out. We are forbidden to glory in 
riches, or to put our confidence in them. Prov. xi. 28. 
he that trusteth in his riches shall fall. Ecdes. vi. 
11. seeing there be many things that multiply van 
ity. Mark x. 2325. how hardly shall they 

that have riches enter into the kingdom of God ! it 

is easier for a camel to go through the eye of a 
needle . 1 Tim. vi. 17, 18. charge them that are 
rich in this world that they be not high-minded, nor 
trust in uncertain riches, but in the living God. 2 
Kings xx. 13, 14. Hezekiah hearkened unto them, 
and showed them all the house of his precious things. 
Opposed to this arc, first, anxiety respecting the 
necessaries of life. Matt. vi. 25, &c. take no thought 
for your life, what ye shall eat, or what ye shall 
drink, nor yet for your body, what ye shall put on. 
v. 33. seek ye first the kingdom of God and his 
righteousness, and all these things shall be added unto 


Secondly, covetousness. Job xx. 15. he hath 
swallowed down riches, and he shall vomit them 
up again. Josh. vii. 21. when I saw among 

the spoils, &c then I coveted them and took 

them. Psal. cxix. 36. incline my heart unto thy 
testimonies, and not to covetousness. Prov. i. 11>. 
; so are the ways of every one that is greedy of gain, 
which taketh away the life of the owners thereof. 
xv. 27. * he that folgreedy of gain troubleth his own 
house. xx. 21. ; an inheritance may be gotten hastily 
at the beginning, bilt the end thereof shall not be 
blessed. Ecdes. ii. 26. * to the sinner he giveth 
VOL. n. 46 

travail, to gather and to heap up, that he may give to 
him that is good before God. iv. 8. there is one 
alone, and there is not a second ; yea, he hath neither 
child nor brother, yet is there no end of all his labour, 
neither is his eye satisfied with riches. v. 10. he 
that loveth silver, shall not be satisfied with silver. 
Isai. Ivii. 17. for the iniquity of his covetousness 
was I wroth, and smote him. Matt. vi. 19. lay not 
up for yourselves treasures upon earth, where moth 
and rust doth corrupt. xxvii. 5. he cast down the 
pieces of silver, &c. Luke xii. 15. take heed and 
beware of covetousness : for a man s life consisteth 
not in the abundance of the things that he possesseth. 
1 Tim. vi. 9, &c. they that will be rich fall into 
temptation and a snare, and into many foolish and 
hurtful lusts. Heb. xiii. 5. let your conversation be 
without covetousness. For covetousness is idolatry. 
Matt. vi. 24. ye cannot serve God and mammon. 
Eph. v. 5. nor covetous man, who is an idolater. 
Col iii. 5. covetousness, which is idolatry. It is 
likewise styled the root of all evil. 1 Tim. vi. 10. 
the love of money is the root of all evil ; which 
while some coveted after, they have erred from the 

Thirdly, a murmuring against the wisdom of God 
in making provision for the wants of this life. Jude 
16. these are murmurers, complainers, walking after 
their own lusts, and their mouth speaketh great swell 
ing words, having men s persons in admiration be 
cause of advantage. 

Frugality consists in avoiding expense, so far as is 
seemly, and in wasting nothing which is capable of 


being applied to an useful purpose. John vi. 12. 

* gather up the fragments that remain. 

The opposite of this is penuriousness. 1 Sam. 
xxv. 3. the man was churlish. v. 11. shall I then 
take my bread, and my water .... and give it unto 
men? Eccles. vi. 2. a man to whom God hath 
given riches, wealth, and honour, so that he wanteth 
nothing for his soul of all that he desireth, yet God 
giveth him not power to eat thereof, but a stranger 
eateth it. 

Industry is that by which we honestly provide for 
ourselves the means of comfortable living. Gen. ii. 
15. to dress it and to keep it. iii. 19. in the sweat 
of thy face thou shalt eat bread. Prov. x. 4. he 
becometh poor that dealeth with a slack hand. v. 5. 
he that gathereth in summer is a wise son. xii. 11. 
4 he that tiileth his land shall be satisfied with bread. 
xiv. 23. in all labour there is profit. xxi. 5. the 
thoughts of the diligent tend only to plenteousness, 
but of every one that is hasty only to want. xxii. 29. 

* seest thou a man diligent in his business ? he shall 
stand before kings. 1 Thess. iv. 11, 12. work with 
your own hands, as we commanded you ; that ye may 
walk honestly toward them that are without, and that 
ye may have lack of nothing. 2 Thess. iii. 12. we 
exhort by our Lord Jesus Christ, that with quiet 
ness they work, and eat their own bread. 

The opposite of this is remissness in making pro 
vision for the necessaries of life. Prov. vi. 6. go to 
the ant, thou sluggard. x. 5. he that sleepeth in 
harvest is a son that causeth shame. xiii. 4. the 
soul of the sluggard desireth, and hath nothing. xix. 
24. < a slothful man hideth his hand in his bosom. 7 


xx. 4. the sluggard will not plow by reason of the 
cold ; therefore shall he beg in harvest and have noth 
ing. 7 xxi. 25. the desire of the slothful killeth him, 
for his hands refuse to labour. xxii. 13. the slothful 
man says, There is a lion in the streets. xxiv. 30. 
I went by the field of the slothful. xxvi. 14. as the 
door turneth upon his hinges, &e. xxviii. 19. he 
that after vain persons shall have poverty 
enough. Eccles. iv. 5, 6. the fool foldeth his hands 
together, and eateth his own flesh : better is an hand 
ful with quietness, than both the hands full with trav 
ail and vexation of spirit. 2 Thess. iii. 10. if any 
would not work, neither should he eat. 

Liberality is a temperate use of our honest acquisi 
tions in the provision of food and raiment, and of the 
elegancies of life. 

Iii the provision of food. Gen. xxi. 8. Abraham 
made a great feast. Job i. 5. it was so when the 
days of their feasting were gone about, that Job sent 
and sanctified them. Psal. xxiii. 5. thou preparest 
a table before me in the presence of mine enemies ; 
thou anointest mine head with oil ; my cup runneth 
over. civ. 15. wine that maketh glad the heart of 
man, and oil to make his face to shine . Prov. 
xxxi. 6. give strong drink unto him that is ready to 
perish. Dan. x. 3. I ate no pleasant bread. Luke 
v. 29. Levi made him a great feast. John xii. 2, 3. 
there they made him a supper .... then took Mary 
a pound of ointment of spikenard, very costly. Acts 
xiv. 17. filling our hearts with food and gladness. 

Of the elegancies of life. Gen. xxiv. 22. the man 
took a golden ear-ring of half a shekel weight . 
2 Sam. i. 24. who clothed you in scarlet, with other 


delights, who put on ornaments of gold upon your 
apparel. Prov. xiv. 24. the crown of the wise is 
their riches. xxxi. 22, 25. she maketh herself cover 
ings of tapestry . Eccles. ix. 8. let thy garments 
be always white, and let thy head lack no ointment. 

The opposite of this is luxury. Prov. xxi. 17. i he 
that loveth pleasure shall ^e a poor man ; he that lov- 
eth wine and oil shall not be rich. Luke xvi. 19. 
there was a certain rich man which was clothed in 
purple and fine linen, and fared sumptuously every 

The virtues more peculiarly appropriate to a high 
station are lowliness of mind and magnanimity. 

Lowliness of mind consists in thinking humbly of 
ourselves, and in abstaining from self-commendation, 
except where occasion requires it. Exod. iii. 11. 
6 who am I, that I should go unto Pharoah ? PsaL 
cxxxi. 1. my heart is not haughty, nor mine eyes 
lofty, neither do I exercise myself in great matters, or 
in things too high for me. Prov. xi. 2. with the 
lowly is wisdom. xii. 9. a man that is despised and 
hath a servant, is better than he that honoureth him 
self. xv. 33. before honour is humility. See also 
xviii. 12. xvi. 19. better is it to be of an humble 
spirit with the lowly, than to divide the spoil with the 
proud. xxix. 23. honour shall uphold the humble in 
spirit. Jer. i. 6, 7. ah Lord .... I am a child. 
Dan. ii. 31. this secret is not. revealed to me for any 
wisdom that I have more than any living. Matt. 
xxiii. 12. he that humbleth himself shall be exalted. 
Rom. xii. 10. in honour preferring one another. 
2 Cor. x. 13. we will not boast of things without 
our measure, but according to the measure of the rule," 


he. v. 15. fc not boasting of things without our meas 
ure . Eph. \\\. 8. unto me who am less than the 
least of all saints . v. 21. submitting yourselves 
one to another in the fear of God. Philipp. ii. 3. 
* in lowliness of mind let each esteem other better 
than themselves. 

In abstaining from self-commendation, except 
where occasion requires it. Job xii. 3. I have under 
standing as well as you, I am not inferior to you. 
xiii. 2. what ye know, the same do I know also. 
xxix. 8, &;c. the young men saw me, and hid them 
selves, and the aged arose and stood up. Judges v. 
7. until I Deborah arose, that I arose a mother in 
Israel. Eccles. i. 16. lo, I am come to great estate, 
and have gotten more wisdom than all they that have 
been before me. 

Opposed to this are, first, arrogance. Prov. xx. 6. 
6 most men will proclaim every one his own goodness. 
xxvi. 16. the sluggard is wiser in his own conceit, 
than seven men that can render a reason. James iii. 
1 . be not many masters, knowing that we shall re 
ceive the greater condemnation. 

Secondly, a desire of vain glory. Matt, xxiii. 12. 
4 whosoever shall exalt himself shall be abased. John 
v. 41. I receive not honour from men. v. 44. how 
can ye believe, which receive honour one of another ? 
xii. 42, 43. they loved the praise of men more than 
the praise of God. Gal. v. 26. * let us not be desi 
rous of vain glory. 1 Thess. ii. 6. l nor of men 
sought we glory, neither of you, nor yet of others. 

Thirdly, boasting. Prov. xxv. 14. whoso boast- 
eth himself of a false gift, is like clouds and wind 
without rain. 


Fourthly, a crafty or hypocritical extenuation of 
our own merits, for the purpose of extorting greater 

Fifthly, a glorying in iniquity and misdeeds. PsaL 
lii. 1. why boastest thou thyself in mischief, O thou 
mighty man ? Isai. iii. 9. they declare their sin as 
Sodom, they hide it not ; woe unto their soul, for they 
have rewarded evil unto themselves. 

Allied to lowliness is the love of an unspotted rep 
utation, and of the praises of good men, with a pro 
portionate contempt for those of the wicked. PsaL 
cxix. 22. remove from rne reproach and contempt ; 
for I have kept thy testimonies. v. 39. * turn away 
my reproach, which I fear. Prov. xxii. 1. < a good 
name is rather to be chosen than great riches, and 
loving favour rather than silver and gold. Eccles. 
vii. 1 . a good name is better than precious ointment. 7 
1 Kings xviii. 13. was it not told my lord what I 
did, when Jezebel slew the prophets of Jehovah ? 
Neh. v. 14, 15. i so did not I, because of the fear of 
God. Matt. v. 11. blessed are ye when men. ...shall 
say all manner of evil against you falsely for my 
sake. 2 Cor. vi. 8. by honour and dishonour, by 
evil report and good report, as deceivers and yet true. 
Heb. xi. 24 26. esteeming the reproach of Christ 
greater riches than the treasures in Egypt. xiii. 13. 
let us go forth therefore unto him without the camp, 
bearing his reproach. 

Opposed to this is a shameless disregard of reputa 
tion. Luke xviii, 2. c which feared not God, neither 
regarded man. 

Secondly, an excessive and indiscriminate passion 
for esteem and praise, from whatever quarter. Prov. 


xxvii. 2. k let another man praise thee, and not thine 
own mouth. Matt, xxiii. 5. all their works they do 
for to be seen of men. Luke vi. 26. c woe unto you 
when all men shall speak well of you. 

Magnanimity is shown, when in the seeking or 
avoiding, the acceptance or refusal of riches, advan 
tages, or honours, we are actuated by a regard to our 
own dignity, rightly understood. Thus Abraham did 
not refuse the gifts of the king of Egypt, Gen. xii. 
13. xx. 14. though he rejected those of the king of 
Sodom, xiv. 22, 23. and though he declined to accept 
the field offered him by Ephron the Hittlte. except on 
payment of its full value, xxiii. 13. Thus also Job, 
although restored to his former health and prosperity, 
did not disdain the congratulatory offerings of his 
friends, xlii. 11. In this spirit Gideon refused the 
kingdom, Judges viii. 23. The same disposition ac 
companied Joseph in his exaltation from a prison to the 
first honours of the empire, Gen. xli. So also Dan. 
u. 48, 49. then the king made Daniel a great man, 
and gave him many great gifts. On the other hand, 
chap. v. 17. he answered and said before the king, 
Let thy gifts be to thyself, and give thy rewards to 
another ; but v. 29. Belshazzar commanded, and 
they clothed Daniel with scarlet. He was actuated 
by the same temper in refusing and in accepting dig 
nities, vi. 2. over these were three presidents, of 
whom Daniel was first. Such was also the spirit of 
Nehemiah in asking honours, ii. 5. I said unto the 
king, If it please the king, and if thy servant hath 
found favour in thy sight, that thou wouldest send me 
into Judah ; of Samuel in laving down his authority. 
1 Sam. x. 1. then Samuel took a vial of oil, and 


poured it upon his head, and kissed him, and said, Is 
it not because Jehovah hath anointed thee ? of Eli- 
sha in refusing a reward for the cure he had wrought, 
2 Kings v. 15, 16. as Jehovah liveth, before whom I 
stand, I will receive none ; of Christ in rejecting the 
empire of the world, Matt. iv. 9. all these things will 
I give thee, if, &c. Luke iv. 6. John vi. 15. when 
Jesus therefore perceived that they would come and 
take him by force to make him a king, he depart 
ed : in despising riches, 2 Cor. viii. 9. though he 
Was rich, yet for your sakes he became poor ; in ac 
cepting honours, Matt. xxi. 7, &c. they brought the 

ass, and the colt and they set him thereon. Such, 

finally, is the spirit by which every true Christian is 
guided in his estimate of himself. James \. 9, 10. 
1 let the brother of low degree rejoice in that he is 
exalted ; but the rich in that he is made low. 

Allied to this is indignation at the unfounded 
praises or undeserved prosperity of the wicked, 
Prov. xxx. 21, &c. for three things the earth is dis 
quieted, and for four which it cannot bear ; for a ser 
vant when he reigneth, and a fool when he is filled 
with meat ; for an odious woman when she is marri 
ed, and an handmaid that is heir to her mistress. 
When however this feeling exceeds due bounds, it 
ceases to be praise-worthy. Psal. xxxvii. 1. fret 
not thyself because of evil doers. v. 7, 8. fret not 
thyself because of him who prospereth in his way, 
because of the man who bringeth wicked devices to 
pass. Prov. iii. 31. envy thou not the oppressor, 
and choose none of his ways. The language of in 
dignation is used, Job xxx. 1, &;c. Psal. xv. 4. in 
whose eyes a vile person is contemned, but he hon- 

VOL. ii. 47 


oureth them that fear Jehovah. The vehemence of 
its expression sometimes borders on indecency. See 
Ezek. xvi. 25, 38. 

Opposed to magnanimity are, first, an ambitious 
spiri . Numb. xii. 2. hath Jehovah indeed spoken 
only by Moses ? hath he not spoken also by us ? xvi. 
3. seeing all the congregation are holy, every one of 
them, and Jehovah is among them : wherefore then 
lift ye up yourselves above the congregation of Jeho 
vah ? Judges ix. 1,2. Abirnelech went to Shechem 

and communed with them... .saying, Speak, I pray 

you, in the ears of all the men of Shechem, &c. 2 
Sam. xv. 2. Absalom rose up early, and stood beside 
the way of the gate . v. 4 O that I were made 
judge in this land . Prov. xxv. 27. for men to 
search their own glory is not glory. 

Secondly, pride, when a men values himself with 
out merit, or more highly than his merits deserve, or 
is elated by some insignificant circumstance. 2 Sam. 
xxii. 28. thine eyes are upon the haughty, that thou 
mayest bring them down. Prov. vi. 16, 17. these 
six things doth Jehovah hate.... a proud look . xv. 
25. Jehovah will destroy the house of the proud. 
xvi. 5. every one that is proud in heart is an abom 
ination to Jehovah. v. 18. pride goeth before de 
struction. xviii. 12. before destruction the heart 
of man is haughty. xxi. 4. an high look, and a 
proud heart . xxix. 23. a man s pride shall bring 
him low. 

Thirdly, pusillanimity ; of which Saul when chosen 
king is an example, 1 Sam. x. 21, 22. when they 
sought him, he could not be found... .behold, he hath 
hid himself among the stuff. 



THE virtues which regulate our desire of external 
good have been spoken of; we are next to consider 
those which are exercised in the resistance to, or the 
endurance of evil. 

These virtues are fortitude and patience. 

Fortitude is chiefly conspicuous in repelling evil, or 
in regarding its approach with equanimity. Josh. i. 
6, 7, 9. have not I commanded thee ? be strong and 
of a good courage ; be not afraid, neither be thou dis 
mayed. Heb. xi. 32, &c. the time would fail me 
to tell of Gideon, &c. who through faith subdued 
kingdoms. Psal. iii. 9. I will not be afraid of ten 
thousands of people that have set themselves against 
me round about. See Psal. xviii. 32, &c. xxiii. 4. 
1 though I walk through the valley of the shadow of 
death, I will fear no evil ; for thou art with me. 
xxxvii. 12, &c. the wicked plotteth against the just 

....the wicked have drawn out the sword their sword 

shall enter into their own heart. xlvi. 1, 2. God is 
our refuge and strength therefore will we not fear. 


though the earth be removed. Ivi. 11. in God have 
I put my trust ; I will not be afraid what man can do 
tmto me. See also cxviii. 6. cxii. 7, 8. ; he shall not 
be afraid of evil tidings. Prov. iii. 24, 25. 4 when thou 
liest down, thou shalt not be afraid. xxiv. 5, 6. a 
wise man is strong ; yea, a man of knowledge increas- 
eth strength. xxviii. 1. the righteous are bold as 
a lion. Isai. xli. 10. fear thou not, for I am with 
thee. li. 7. fear ye not the reproach of men, nei 
ther be ye afraid of their revilings. v. 12. I am he 
that comforteth you ; who art thou that thou shouldst 
be afraid ? Dan. iii. 16. they said to the king.... 
we are not careful to answer thee in this matter. 
Matt. x. 28, &c. 4 fear not them which kill the 
body . The great pattern of fortitude is our Sa 
viour Jesus Christ, throughout the whole of his life, 
and in his death. Luke xiii. 31, &c. go ye and tell 
that fox, Behold, I cast out devils, and I do cures to 
day and to-morrow, and the third day I shall be per 
fected. John xi. 7, 8. his disciples say unto him, 
Master, the Jews of late sought to stone thee, and 
goest thou thither again ? 2 Tim. i. 7. God hath 
not given us the spirit of fear, but of power, and of 
love, and of a sound mind. 1 John ii. 14. * I have 
written unto you, young men, because ye are strong, 
and the word of God abideth in you, and ye have 
overcome the wicked one. 

Opposed to fortitude, are, first, timidity. PsaL 
xxvii. 1. Jehovah is my light and my salvation, 
whom shall I fear ? Prov. x. 24. the fear of the 
wicked, it shall come upon him. xxv. 26. a right 
eous man falling down before the wicked, is as a 
troubled fountain and a corrupt spring. 


1 the wicked flee when no man pursueth. xxix. 25. 
4 the fear of man bringeth a snare. Isai. xli. 13, 14. 
4 fear not, thou w r orm Jacob. Neh. vi. 11. should 
such a man as I flee ? Matt. xxiv. 6. ye shall hear 
of wars and rumours of wars : see that ye be not 
troubled. Rev. xxi. 8. the fearful and unbelieving 
.... shall have their part in the lake that burneth . 

Secondly, rashness, which consists in exposing our 
selves to danger unnecessarily. Prov. xiv. 16. a 
wise man feareth and departeth from evil ; but the 
fool rageth, and is confident. This fault is exempli 
fied in Amaziah, 2 Kings xiv. 8. come, let us look 
one another in the face ;* and in Josiah, 2 Chron. 
xxxv. 20 22. he sent ambassadors unto him, say 
ing nevertheless Josiah would not turn his face 

from him . Christ has taught us to avoid it by his 
example. John vii. 1. he would not walk in Jewry, 
because the Jews sought to kill him. xi. 53, 54. 
Jesus therefore walked no more openly among the 
Jews.- Matt. x. 23. when they persecute you in 
this city, flee ye into another. 

Patience consists in the endurance of misfortunes 
and injuries. Psal. Ixix. 7. for thy sake I have borne 
reproach, shame hath covered my face Prov. xi. 12. 
1 he that is void of wisdom despiseth his neighbour ; 
but a man of understanding holdeth his peace. xvii. 
27. he that hath knowledge spareth his w T ords, and 
a man of understanding is of an excellent spirit. xix. 
11. * the discretion of a man deferreth his anger. 
Eccles. vii. 21. also take no heed unto all words that 
are spoken, lest thou hear thy servant curse thee. 
Isai. 1. 7, 8. 1 have set my face like a flint . Matt. 
v. 39. Resist not evil, but whosoever shall smite thee 


on thy right cheek, turn to him the other also. 1 Cor. 
vi. 7. why do ye not rather take wrong ? 1 Thess. 
v. 14. l be patient towards all men. See above on 
patience towards God. Compensation for injuries, 
nevertheless, is occasionally exacted even by pious 
men. Acts xvi. 37. they have beaten us openly 
uncondemned, &c. 

The opposites to this are, first, impatience and ef 
feminacy of temper. Prov. xxiv. 10. if thou faint 
in the day of adversity, thy strength is small. 

Secondly, an hypocritical patience, which volunta 
rily inflicts upon itself unnecessary evils. This is 
exemplified in the prophets of Baal, 1 Kings xviii. 
28. they cut themselves after their manner with 
knives ; and in the flagellations of the modern Papists. 

Lastly, a stoical apathy ; for sensibility to pain, 
and even lamentations, are not inconsistent with true 
patience ; as may be seen in Job and the other saints, 
when under the pressure of affliction.* 

* This distinction is well illustrated in the character of Samson, through 
out the drama which bears that name. 



HITHERTO we have treated of the duties of charity 
and justice owing from man to himself; we are next 
to consider the same virtues as exercised towards our 

Charity towards our neighbour consists in loving 
him as ourselves. Lev. xix. 18. thou shalt love thy 
neighbour as thyself; I am Jehovah. 1 John iv. 11. 
beloved, if God so loved us, we ought also to love 
one another. Under the name of neighbour are com 
prehended all to whom we have the opportunity of 
rendering service or assistance. Luke x. 36, 37. 
4 which now of these three, thinkest thou, was neigh 
bour unto him ? he that showed mercy on him ; 
as in the present instance the Samaritan showed 
mercy on the Jew, although estranged from him in so 
many respects. 

Chiefly however believers: Gal. vi. 10. i as we 
have therefore opportunity, let us do good unto all 


*nen, especially unto them that are of the household 
of faith ; inasmuch as, in addition to the ordinary tie 
of affinity, we are connected with them by a spiritual 
bond : Eph. iv. 3. endeavouring to keep the unity 
of the Spirit in the bond of peace. Next in degree 
are those most closely allied to us by relationship or 
friendship. Rom. i\. 3. 4 I could wish that myself 
were accursed from Christ for my brethren, my kins 
men according to the flesh ; who are Israelites . 1 
Tim. v. 4. let them learn first to show piety at home, 
and to requite their parents ; for that is good and ac 
ceptable before God. 

Even our enemies are not to be excluded from the 
exercise of our charity, inasmuch as they are not 
excluded from our prayers. Exod. xxiii. 4, 5. if 
thou meet thine enemy s ox or ass going astray, &c. 
Prov. xxv. 21 , 22. i if thine enemy be hungry, give 
him bread to eat ; and if he be thirsty, give him water 
to drink ; for thou shalt heap coals of fire upon his 
head, and Jehovah shall reward thee. See also Rom. 
xii. 14, 20. Matt. v. 44. love your enemies, bless 
them that curse you, do good to them that hate you. 
Matt. vi. 15. < if ye forgive not men their trespasses, 
neither will your Father forgive your trespasses. Luke 
xxii. 51. he touched his ear and healed him. xxiii. 
34- Father, forgive them . Rom. xii. 17. recom 
pense to no man evil for evil. v. 21. i be not over 
come of evil, but overcome evil with good. 1 Thess. 
v. 15. see that none render evil for evil unto any 
man. 1 Pet. iii. 9. not rendering evil for evil. 
We are taught the same by the example of God him- 
sdf. Matt. v. 44. love your enemies ..... thai ye 
may be the children of your Father which is in 


heaven. Rom. v. 8. God commendeth his love to 
wards us, in that, while we were yet sinners* Christ 
died for us. 

The opposite of this virtue is, first, uncharitable- 
ness towards our neighbour. James ii. 15, 16. if a 
brother or sister be naked, and destitute of daily 
food, &c. 

Secondly, hypocritical charity. Malt. vi. 2 4. 
6 when thou doest thine alms, do not sound a trumpet 
before thee, as the hypocrites do . 

Thirdly, an excessive and preposterous love. 1 Sam. 
ii. 29. thou honourest thy sons above me . xvi. 
1. how long wilt thou mourn for Saul, seeing I have 
rejected him ? Matt. x. 37. he that loveth father or 
mother more than me, is not worthy of me. 

Fourthly, hatred of our neighbour. 1 John iii. 15. 
whosoever hateth his brother is a murderer. iv. 8. 
4 he that loveth not, know eth not God, for God is 

Fifthly, a meddling disposition. Prov. xxvi. 17. 
4 he that passeth by and meddleth with strife belong 
ing not to him, is like one that taketh a dog by the 

Hatred, however, is in some cases a religious duty ; 
as when we hate the enemies of God or the church.* 
2 Chron. xix. 2. c shouldest thou love them that hate 
Jehovah? Psal. xxxi. 6. ; I have hated them that 
regard lying vanities. cxxxix. 21, 22. do 1 not 
hate them, O Jehovah, that hate thee ? Prov. xxviii. 
4. they that forsake the law, praise the wicked ; but 

* But ye will say, these (the prophets] had immediate warrant from God 
to be thus hitter ; and I say, so much the plainlier is it proved, that there 
may be a sanctified bitterness against the enemies of truth. 1 Apology f ft 
Smectyinnuus. Prose Work?, I. 232. 

VOL. n. 48 


such as keep the law contend with them. xxix. 27. 
e an unjust man is an abomination to the just. 
Jer. xlviii. 10. i cursed be he that doeth the work of 
Jehovah deceitfully, and cursed be he that keepeth 
back his sword from blood. We are to hate even 
our dearest connexions, if they endeavour to seduce 
or deter us from the love of God and true religion. 
Exod. xxxii. 27. slay every man his brother, and 
every man his companion. Deut. xiii. 6 8. if thy 
brother, the son of thy mother, or thy son, or thy 
daughter, or the wife of thy bosom, or thy friend 
which is as thine own soul, entice thee secretly, say 
ing, Let us go, and serve other gods, &c. Luke xiv. 
26. 4 if any man come to me, and hate not his father, 
and mother, and wife, &c. Thus Christ, notwith 
standing his love for Peter : Mark viii. 33. get thee 
behind me, Satan. 

Love towards our neighbour is absolute or recip 

Under absolute love are comprised humanity, 
good will, and compassion. 

Humanity consists in the performance of those 
ordinary attentions which man owes to man, whether 
living or dead, as the partaker of one common nature. 
Deut. xxii. 1 . &c. thou shalt not see thy brother s ox 
or his sheep go astray, &c. 

Towards the dead humanity is shown by mourning 
for their loss, and by a decent sepulture. 

Mourning is the appropriate mark of respect paid to 
the memory of all who are not utterly worthless. 
Gen. 1. 3. the Egyptians mourned for him threescore 
and ten days. 2 Sam. i. 12. they mourned and 
wept, and fasted until even, for Saul, and for Jonathan 


his son, and for the people of Jehovah, and for the 
house of Israel, because they were fallen by the 
sword. iii. 31, 32. the king wept at the grave of 
Abner, and all the people wept. Much more there 
fore to those of our own household. Thus the ancient 
patriarchs: Gen. 1. 10. they mourned with a great 
and very sore lamentation. So also when believers 
are cut off. Acts viii. 2. devout men carried Ste 
phen to his burial, and made great lamentation over 
him. Even on such occasions, however, our grief 
ought not to be immoderate. Lev. xxi. 2. 4, 5. he 
shall not defile himself, being a chief man among his 
people, to profane himself; they shall not make bald 
ness upon their head, neither shall they shave off the 
corner of their beard ; nor make any cuttings in their 
flesh. Deut. xiv. 1 . } e are the children of Jehovah 
your God ; ye shall not cut yourselves, nor make any 
baldness between your eyes for the dead. 1 Thess. 
iv. 13. sorrow not, even as others which have no 

Decent burial. Gen. xxiii. 8. * that I may bury 
my dead out of my sight. xxxv. 20. Jacob set a 
pillar upon her grave. 1. 2, &c. Joseph commanded 
his servants the physicians to embalm his father. 
2 Chron. xvi. 14. they laid him in the bed which was 
filled with sweet odours and divers kinds of spices, 
&c. To remain unburied is an indignity. Jer. viii. 2. 
* they shall spread them before the sun, and the moon, 
and all the host of heaven, &c. xvi. 4. &c. they 
shall not be lamented, neither shall they be buried. 
Any place of sepulture which is consistent with de 
cency, may be adopted without impropriety. Sarah, 
for instance, was buried in a cave, Gen. xxiii. 19. 


Rachel, not in Ephrah, but on the high road to that 
city. xxxv. 18. xlviii. 7. Samuel in his own house 
at Ramah, 1 Sam. xxv. 1. and Christ in a garden 
near the plaee of crucifixion. When Jacob and 
Joseph made it their especial request to be gathered 
unto the sepulchre of their fathers in the land of 
promise, this was in token of their reliance on the 
divine declarations, Gen. xlix. 29. 1. 25. Josh. xxiv. 
32. Heb. xi. 22. by faith, Joseph . . . gave com 
mandment concerning his bones. 

The opposite of humanity is, first, inhumanity ; 
against which there are the severest prohibitions, Lev. 
xix. 14. thou shalt not curse the deaf, nor put a 
stumbling-block before the blind. Deut. xxvii. 18. 


4 cursed be he that maketh the blind to wander out of 
the way. Such was that of the Edomites towards 
the Israelites in their distress, Amos i. 6, &c. Psal. 
cxxxvii. 7. rase it, rase it, even to the foundation 
thereof. Such too was that of the priest and Levite 
in the parable, who passed by on the other side, when 
the traveller who had fallen among thieves was lying 
half dead and plundered, Luke x. 31, 32. 

Secondly, an incautious and unadvised humanity ; 
as for instance, when we become responsible for 
another without due consideration. Prov. vi. 1, 2. 
6 if thou be surety for thy friend, if thou hast stricken 
thy hand with a stranger, thou art snared with the 
words of thy mouth . xi. 15. he that is surety 
for a stranger shall smart for it, and he that hateth 
suretyship is sure. xvii. 18. a man void of under 
standing striketh hands . xx. 16. Make his garment 
that is surety for a stranger. See also xxvii. 13. 
xxii. 26, 27. be not one of them that strike hands, &c. 


Thirdly, an officious humanity. Prov. xxv. 17. 
* withdraw thy foot from thy neighbour s house, lest 
he be weary of thee, and so hate thee. 1 Kings xiii. 
15, 16. then he said unto him, Come home with me, 
and eat bread. 5 

Lastly, an excess of humanity, which makes pro 
vision for the idle and undeserving. 2 Thess. iii. 10. 
4 if any would not work, neither should he eat. 

The second modification of love is good will, which 
consists in wishing well to all men. Such was that 
of Titus, 2 Cor. viii. 16. which put the same earn 
est care into the heart of Titus for you ; and of the 
angels, Luke ii. 10. I bring you good tidings of great 
joy ; and xv. 10. there is joy in the presence of the 
angels of God over one sinner that repenteth. Rom. 
xii. 15. rejoice with them that do rejoice. 

The opposite of this is, first, envy, or a grudging 
disposition ; W 7 hich is shown in various ways. First, 
when a man cannot bear that others should participate 
in his good fortune : as in the instance of the labour 
ers W 7 ho were hired first into the vineyard, Matt. xx. 
11, &LC. and of the Jews who were unwilling that 
salvation should be extended to the Gentiles, as ma) 
be seen throughout the book of Acts. Secondly, 
when a man grudges another that which he cannot 
himself obtain ; which is exemplified in the envy with 
which Satan regards the salvation of the human race;* 
in Cain s anger against his brother, because God had 

* Aside the devil turn d 

Frr envy, yet with jealous leer malign 

Ey d them askance. Paradise Lost, IV. 502. 

I reck not, so it light well aim d, 

Since higher I fall short, on him who next 
Provokes my envy, this new favourite 
Of Heaven, this man of clay. IX. 173. 


more respect unto him, Gen. iv.* in Esau, xxvii. 41. 
in Joseph s brethren, Acts vii. 9. in Saul, 1 Sam. 
xviii. 7, 8. and in the princes of Persia, Dan. vi. 
Thirdly, when a man is jealous that any should be 
endued with the same gifts as one of whom he is him 
self an admirer or follower ; which is exemplified in 
Joshua. Num. xi. 28. in John s disciples, John iii. 
26. and in those of Christ, Mark ix. 38. 4 we saw 
one casting out devils in thy name, &c. Envy is to 
be shunned, Matt. xx. 15. is thine eye evil, because 
I am good ? partly as instigating to crimes, murder 
for instance, Gen. iv. 2 Sam. iii. 24, 27. 4 what hast 

thou done ? behold Abner came unto thee and he 

smote him there under the fifth rib ; and partly as 
being in its nature a self-tormentor : Prov. xiv. 30. 
4 envy is the rottenness of the bones. James iii. 16. 

where envying is, there is confusion and every 

evil work. 

Secondly, pretended good will ; which is exempli 
fied in the Pharisees who invited Christ to eat bread, 
Luke xiv. 1, &c. it came to pass as he went into the 
house of one of the chief Pharisees to eat bread on 
the sabbath-day, that they watched him. 

The third modification of absolute love is compas 
sion. Zech. vii. 9. shew mercy and compassions 
every man to his brother. Job xxx. 25. did not I 
weep for him that was in trouble ? Matt. v. 7. 
blessed are the merciful. Luke x. 33. t a certain 

Samaritan had compassion on him. Rom. xii. 

15. weep with them that weep. Compassion ex- 

* Th unjust the just hath slain, 

For envy that his brother s offering found 
From Heav n acceptance. XI. 455. 


tends even to animals. Prov. xii. 10. a righteous 
man regardeth the life of his beast. Deut. xxii. 6 8. 
if a bird s nest chance to be before thee in the way, 

The opposite of this is, first, immercifulness. Prov. 
xii. 10. " the tender mercies of the wicked are cruel. 
James ii. 13. he shall have judgment without mer 
cy, that hath shewed no mercy. 

Secondly, a rejoicing in the misfortunes of others* 
Psal. lii. 1. why boastest thou thyself in mischief? 
This is exemplified in the Edomites, Psal. cxxxvii. 
Prov. xxiv. 17. rejoice not when thine enemy fall- 

Thirdly, pretended pity. Psal. xii. 6. if he come 
to see me, he speaketh vanity. 

Fourthly, a misplaced compassion. Jer. xvi. 7. 
neither shall men tear themselves for them in mourn 
ing, to comfort them for the dead . This is exem 
plified in the pity of Ahab for Benhadad. 

Under reciprocal love are comprised brotherly love 
and friendship. 

Brotherly or Christian love is the strongest of all 
affections, whereby believers mutually love and assist 
each other as members of Christ, and are as far as 
possible of one mind ; bearing at the same time to the 
utmost of their power with the weaker brethren, and 
wdth such as are of a different opinion. Psal. cxxxiii. 
1. behold how good and how pleasant it is for 
brethren to dwell together in unity. John xiii. 34, 
&c. by this shall all men know that ye are my dis 
ciples, if ye have love one to another. xv. 12, &c. 
this is my commandment, That ye love one another, 
as I have loved you : greater IOVP hath no man than 

this . See also Eph. v. 1. 1 John iii. 16. John 
xvii. 11. that they may be one, as we are. Rom. 
xiv. 19. let us therefore follow after the things which 
make for peace, and things wherewith one may edify 
another. 2 Cor. xiii. 11. be of one mind, live in 
peace ; and the God of love and peace shall be with 

you. Eph. iv.15. that we speaking the truth in 

love, may grow up into him in all things, which is the 
head, even Christ. Philipp. ii. 2. that ye be like- 
minded, having the same love, being of one accord, of 
one mind. Col. ii. 1, 2. their hearts being knit to 
gether in love. iii. 15. let the peace of God rule in 
your hearts, to the which also ye are called in one 
body, and be ye thankful. 1 Thess. iv. 9. as touch 
ing brotherly love ye need not that I write unto you, 
for ye yourselves are taught of God to love one anoth 
er. Heb. xiii. 3, &c. remember them that are in 
bonds, as bound with them . 1 Pet. ii. 17. love 
the brotherhood. iv. 8. above all things have fer 
vent charity among yourselves, for charity shall cover 
the multitude of sins. 2 Pet. i. 7. add to brotherly 
kindness charity. 1 John ii. 10. he that loveth 
his brother abideth in the light, and there is none oc 
casion of stumbling in him. iii. 14, 15. we know 
that we have passed from death unto life, because we 
love the brethren. iv. 7, 8. beloved, let us love one 
another, for love is of God. v. 2. by this w r e know 
that we love the children of God, when we love God, 
and keep his commandments. 

Bearing with the weaker brethren, &c. Acts xxi. 
20, &c. thou seest, brother, how many thousands of 
Jews there are which believe, and they are all zealous 
of the law.. therefore this. Gal. vi. 1, 2. 


* brethren, if a man be overtaken in a fault, ye which 
are spiritual restore such an one in the spirit of meek 
ness, considering thyself, lest thou also be tempted ; 
bear ye one another s burdens. Eph. iv. 2. i with 
all lowliness and meekness, with long-suffering, for 
bearing one another in love. Col. iii. 12 14. put 
on therefore, as the elect of God, holy and belov 
ed, bowels of mercies, kindness, humbleness of mind, 
meekness, long-suffering ; forbearing one another, and 
forgiving one another ; if any man have a quarrel 
against any, even as Christ forgave you, so also 
do ye. 

Opposed to this are divisions, enmities, rivalries 
among brethren, &c. Gen. xiii. 8. let there be no 
strife, I pray thee, between me and thee, and between 
my herdmen and thy herdmen, for w T e be brethren. 
1 Cor. iii. 3. whereas there is among you envying, 
and strife, and divisions, are ye not carnal ? Gal. v. 
20,21. hatred, variance, emulations, wrath, strife, 

seditions, heresies, envy ings they which do such 

things shall not inherit the kingdom of God. 1 John 
ii. 9. 11. he that saith he is in the light, and hateth 
his brother, is in darkness even until now. To these 
may be added a pretended brotherly love, from which 
great danger often arises to believers. 2 Cor. xi. 26. 
in perils among false brethren. Gal. ii. 4. and 
that because of false brethren unawares brought in. 

Friendship is a most intimate union of two or more 
individuals, cemented by an interchange of all good 
offices, of a civil at least, if not of a religious kind. 
Eccles. iv. 9, &c. two are better than one, because 
they have a good reward for their labour . It takes 
precedence of all degrees of relationship. Deut. xiii. 

VOL. ii. 49 


6. * thy friend, which is as thine own soul. Protf. 
xvii. 17. a friend loveth at all times. 1 xviii. 24. 
* there is a friend that sticketh closer than a brother. 
xxvii. 10. thine own friend, and thy father s friend, 
forsake not, neither go into thy brother s house in the 
day of thy calamity ; for better is a neighbour that is 
near, than a brother that is far off. 

Friendship, and even common companionship with 
good men, is safe and advantageous. Gen. xii. 3. 1 
will bless them that bless thee. xviii. 26. if I find in 
Sodom fifty righteous within the city, then will I spare 
all the place for their sakes. xix. 21. see, I have 
accepted thee concerning this thing also. xx. 7. he 
is a prophet, and he shall pray for thee, and thou shall 
live. Numb. xi. 2. the people cried unto Moses * 
and when Moses prayed unto Jehovah, the fire was 
quenched. xiv. 19, 20. pardon, I beseech thee, the 
iniquity of this people....! have pardoned according to 
thy word. 1 Sam. xv. 6. go, depart...lest 1 destroy 
you with them : for ye showed kindness to all the 
children of Israel . Psal. cxix. 63. I am a compan 
ion of all them that fear thee. Prov. xiii. 20. he 
that walketh with wise men shall be wise. Isai. Ixv. 
8. * so will I do for my servants sake. Ezek. xxii. 
30. I sought for a man among them that should 
make up the hedge. They are also useful as coun 
sellors. Exod. xviii. 14. when Moses father-in-law 
saw all that he did to the people, &c. v. 24. so 
Moses hearkened unto the voice of his father-in-law. 
Prov. xii. 15. he that hearkeneth unto counsel is 
wise. xxvii. 9. ointment and perfume rejoice the 
heart ; so doth the sweetness of a man s friend by 
hearty counsel. The benefits of their friendship, how- 


ever, extend not to the ensuring our salvation in a fu 
ture life ; not even in the instance of those who asso 
ciated with Christ on earth : Matt. xii. 46, &c. Mark 
iii, 35. Luke xi. 27. xiii. 26. John vii. 5. 

Opposed to this, are, first, pretended friendship. 
Job xix. 13, &c. he hath put my brethren far from 
me, and mine acquaintance are verily estranged from 
me. 12, &c. it was not an enemy that 
reproached me, then I could have borne it.. ..but it was 
thou, a man mine equal, rny guide, and mine acquaint 
ance ; we took sweet counsel together, and walked 
unto the house of God in company. Prov. xix. 4. 

6, 7. many will intreat the favour of the prince, &c. 
Of this crime the traitor Judas is an example. 

Secondly, friendship or social intercourse with the 
wicked. Gen. xiv. 12. they took lot . xix. 12, 
&c. hast thou here any beside ?.... bring them out of 
this place. Psal. i. 1. blessed is the man that walk- 
eth not in the counsel of the ungodly. xxvi. 4, 5. 
I have not sat with vain persons . cxli. 4. in 
cline not my heart to any evil thing, to practice wick 
ed works with men that work iniquity. Prov. xiii. 
20. a companion of fools shall be destroyed. xiv. 

7. go from the presence of a foolish man. v. 9. 
fools make a mock at sin : but among the righteous 
there is favour v. 14* a good man shall be satisfied 
from himself. xxiv. 1,2. neither desire to be with 
them. xxviii. 7. he that is a companion of riotous 
men, shameth his father. Rom. i. 31, 32. who not 
only do the same, but have pleasure in them that do 
them. 1 Cor. xv. 33. be not deceived : evil com 
munications corrupt good manners. Eph. v. 7. be 
not ye therefore partakers with them. v. 11. f have 


no fellowship with the unfruitful works of darkness. 
Such intercourse, however, is sometimes unavoidable 
in the present life. Judges xi. 3. there were gather 
ed vain men to Jephthah, and went out with him. 1 
Sam. xxii. 2. i every one that was in distress, and every 
one that was in debt....gathered themselves unto him. 
xxx. 22. then answered all the wicked men and men 
of Belial, of those that went with David . PmL 
cxx. 5, 6. < woe is me!.... my soul hath long dwelt 
with him that hateth peace. 1 Cor. v. 9 11. ; I 
wrote unto you in an epistle not to company with for- 
nicators ; yet not altogether with the fornicators of 
this world. ..for then ye must needs go out of the 
world ; but... if any man that is called a brother be a 
fornicator . 

Thirdly, enmity. Prov. xvii. 14. the beginning 
of strife is as when one letteth out water ; therefore 
leave off contention before it be meddled with. v. 
19. heloveth transgression that loveth strife; and 
he that exalteth his gate, seeketh destruction. xx. 3. 
4 it is an honour for a man to cease from strife ; 
but every fool will be meddling. xxvi. 26. whose 
hatred is covered by deceit, his wickedness shall be 
showed before the whole congregation. 



The special virtues, or various modes of charity or 
justice as regards our neighbour, relate to him either 
under the general acceptation of the word neighbour, 
as denoting simple proximity ; or under some special 
acceptation, where our relationship arises from special 

The discharge of our special duties towards our 
neighbour includes the regulation not only of our ac 
tions, but of our affections, as concerns him. Exod. 
xx. 17. thou shalt not covet thy neighbour s house . 

Special duties towards our neighbour, using the 
word in its general sense, regard either his internal or 
external good. 

His internal good is consulted by a regard to his, 
safety and honour ; his external, by a concern for his 
good name and worldly interests. Our regard to his 
safety should extend not merely to the present life, 
but to the eternal state. Prov. x. 11. the mouth of 
a righteous man is a well of life. Rom. xiv. 15. 
4 destroy not him with thy meat, for whom Christ 
died. James v. 20. < let him know that he which 


converteth the sinner from the error of his way, shall 
save a soul from death, and shall hide a multitude of 
sins. The duty of preserving our neighbour s life is 
inculcated, Prov. xxiv. 11, 12. if thou forbear to 
deliver them that are drawn unto death, and those 
that are ready to be slain ; if thou sayest, Behold, we 
knew it not ; doth not he that pondereth the heart 
consider it ? doth not he know it ? and shall not he 
render to every man according to his works ? 

Under this class of virtues are comprehended inno 
cence, meekness, and placability. 

Innocence consists in doing a voluntary injury to 
no one. Psal. xxiv. 4. he that hath clean hands. 
xxvi. 6. I will wash mine hands in innocency. 
Rom. xii. 18. if it be possible, as much as lieth in 
you, live peaceably with all men. Heb. xii. 14. fol 
low peace with all men. 

Meekness is that by which we are so far from offer 
ing or taking offence, that we conduct ourselves 
mildly and affectionately towards all men, as far 
as is practicable. Num. xii. 3. * now the man Moses 
was very meek, above all the men which were upon 
the face of the earth. Psal. xxv. 9. the meek will 
he teach his way. cxlvii. 6. Jehovah lifteth up the 
meek. Isai. hi. 1. i Jehovah hath anointed me to 
preach good tidings unto the meek. Matt. v. 5. 
* blessed are the meek. xi. 29, learn of me, for I 
am meek and lowly of heart, and ye shall find rest 
unto your souls. xxi. 5. behold, thy King cometh 
unto thee, meek . Tit. iii. 2. c showing all meek 
ness unto all men/ 5 

Placability consists in a readiness to forgive those 
by whom we have been injured. Matt, vi. 12, 14< 


forgive us our debts, as we forgive our debtors .... 
for if ye forgive men their trespasses, jour heavenly 
Father will also forgive you. xviii. 21, 22, * how 
oft shall my brother sin against me, and I forgive 
him ? . . . until seventy times seven. Luke xvii. 3, 4. 
if thy brother trespass against thee, rebuke him ; and 
if he repent, forgive him ; and if he trespass against 
thee seven times a day . Rom. xii. 18. if it be 
possible, as much as lieth in you, live peaceably with 
all men. 

Opposed to a regard for the life of our neighbour, 
is, first, the shedding his blood. Gen. iv. 10. what 
hast thou done ? the voice of thy brother s blood crieth 
unto me from the ground. ix. 5, 6. whoso sheddeth 
man s blood, by man shall his blood be shed ; for in 
the image of God made he man. Exod. xx. 13. 
1 thou shall not kill. xxi. 12. he that smiteth a 
man, so that he die, shall surely be put to death. 
v. 14. if a man come presumptuously upon his 
neighbour, to slay him with guile, &c. v. 28. if an 
ox gore a man, &c. Deut. xxvii. 25. cursed is he 
that taketh reward to slay an innocent person. 
Num. xxxv. 31. ye shall take no satisfaction for the 
life of a murderer. v. 34. defile not therefore the 
land which ye shall inhabit . Deut. xxi. 1. if one 
be found slain in the land, &c. 1 Kings ii. 5, 6. 
thou knowest also what Joab did to me, &c. v. 33, 
34. their blood shall therefore return upon the head 
of Joab. Prov. vi. 16, 17. these six things doth 
Jehovah hate . . . hands that shed innocent blood. 
xxviii. 17. a man that doeth violence to the blood of 
any person, shall flee to the pit : let no man stay him/ 


Under this head is also included, first, every thing 
by which the life of our neighbour is endangered ; as 
blows, wounds, mutilations, &c. Exod. xxi. 18, 
&c. if men strive together, and one strike another, 5 
&c. Lev. xxiv. 19, 20. if a man cause a blemish in 
his neighbour, &c. Deut. xxvii. 24. cursed be he 
that smiteth his neighbour secretly. 

Secondly, hasty anger. Prov. xiv. 29. he that is 
slow to wrath is of great understanding ; but he that 
is hasty of spirit exalteth folly. xvi. 32. he that is 
slow to anger is better than the mighty ; and he that 
ruleth his spirit, than he that taketh a city. xix. 11. 
the discretion of a man deferreth his anger ; and it 
is his glory to pass over a trangression. xv. 18. a 
wrathful man stirreth up strife. Matt. v. 22. whoso 
ever is angry with his brother without a cause, shall 
be in danger of the judgment. 1 John iii. 15. who 
soever hateth his brother is a murderer. 

Thirdly, revenge. Lev. xix. 18. thou shalt not 
avenge, nor bear any grudge, against the children of 
thy people. Deut. xxxii. 35. to me belongeth ven 
geance and recompense. Psal. xciv. 1. O Jehovah, 
God to whom vengeance belongeth. Prov. xx. 22. 
i say not thou, I will recompense evil. xxiv. 29. say 
not, I will do sc to him, as he hath done to me. 
Rom. xii. 19. dearly beloved, avenge not yourselves, 
but rather give place unto wrath. 1 Pet. iii. 8, 9. 
not rendering evil for evil. To avenge the church, 
however, or to desire that she be avenged of her ene 
mies, is not forbidden. Exod. xvii. 16. because 
Jehovah hath sworn that Jehovah will have war with 
Amalek from generation to generation. Deut. xxv. 
17. remember what Amalek did unto thee by the 


way. Psal. xviii. 37 43. I have pursued mine 
enemies . . . then did I beat them small as the dust. 
xli. 10, 11. raise me up that I may requite them. 
liv. 5. he shall reward evil unto mine enemies. 
xeii. 11. mine eyes also shall see my desire upon 
mine enemies. xciv. 2. render a reward to the 
proud. cxxxvii. 8. O daughter of Babylon, &c. 
Jer. xi. 20. let me see thy vengeance on them. 
See also xx. 12. xv. 15. revenge me of my perse 
cutors. 1. 15. take vengeance upon her. Lam. i. 
21,22. let all their wickedness come before thee. 
iii. 64, &c. render unto them a recompense. Esth. 
ix. 13. then said Esther, If it please the king, let it 
be granted unto the Jews ... to do to-morrow also 
according unto this day s decree, and let Hainan s ten 
sons be hanged on the gallows. Rev. vi. 10. how 
long, O Lord ? 

The honour of our neighbour is consulted by a re 
spect to his personal modesty. Lev. xix. 29. do not 
prostitute thy daughter to cause her to be a whore. 
Deut. xxiii. 17. there shall be no whore of the 
daughters of Israel, nor a sodomite of the sons of 

Opposed to this are unnatural vices, fornication, 
violation, adultery, incest, rape, whoredom, and sim 
ilar offences. Gen. xix. 5. bring them out unto us, 
that we may know them. See also Judges xix. 22. 
Deut. xxiii. 17, as above. . 1 Kings xv. 12. he took 
away the sodomites out of the land. xxii. 46. the 
remnant of the sodomites, &c. Gen. xxxiv. 2. he 
took her, and lay with her, and defiled her. Exod. 
xx. 14. thou shalt not commit adultery. Lev. xviii. 
20. thou shalt not lie carnally with thy neighbour s 

VOL. ii. 50 


wife, to defile thyself with her. Job xxxi. 9, 10, &c, 
if mine heart hath been deceived by a woman, &c. 
Jer. v. 7, 8. they committed adultery, and assembled 
themselves by troops in the harlots houses. Ezek. 
xviii. 6. neither hath defiled his neighbour s wife. 
xxii. 11. one hath committed abomination with his 
neighbour s wife. Hos. vii. 4. they are all adulter 
ers. Amos ii. 7. a man and his father will go in 
unto the same maid . Heb. xiii. 4. whoremongers 
and adulterers God will judge. Hence the laws 
against fornication, Exod. xxii. 16, 17, &,c. c if a man 
entice a maid that is not betrothed, and lie with her, 
&LC. against incest, Lev. xviii. 6. xx. 11, &x*. the 
man that lieth with his father s wife, &x:. Deut, xxii. 
21, 23, 28. then they shall bring out the damsel to 
the door of her father s house, and the men of her city 
shall stone her . . . because she hath wrought folly in 
Israel, to play the whore in her father s house : if a 
man be found lying with a woman married to an hus 
band ... if a man find a damsel that is a virgin . 
xxiii. 2. a bastard shall not enter into the congrega 
tion of Jehovah. xxvii. 20, &c. cursed be he that 
licth with his father s wife. Hence also provision 
was expressly made for cases of jealously, Num. v. 
12, &;c. Prov. vi. 34. jealousy is the rage of a man. 
Cant. viii. 6. jealousy is cruel as the grave. Even 
before the promulgation of the law, adultery was made 
capital by divine command : Gen. xx. 3. thou art 
but a dead man, for the woman whom thou hast taken. 
xxxviii. 24. bring her forth, and let her be burnt. 
Some marriages, however, were prohibited by the 
Mosaic code, which appear to have been previously 
lawful. Gen. xx. 12. yet indeed she is my sister; 


she is the daughter of my father ; compared with 
Deut. xxvii. 22. 6 cursed be he that lieth with his sis 
ter, the daughter of his father; and Ezek. xxii. 11. 
another in thee hath humbled his sister, his father s 
daughter. Exod. vi. 20. Amram took him Joche- 
bed his father s sister to wife. Lev. xviii. 12. thou 
shalt not uncover the nakedness of thy father s sister. 
Respecting a menstruous woman, see Lev, xx. 18. 
6 if a man shall lie with a woman having her sickness, 
&c. Exek. xviii. 6. neither hath come near to a 
menstruous woman. xxii. 10. in thee have they 
humbled her that was set apart for pollution. 



THE external good of our neighbour is consulted, as 
before said, by a regard to his good name and worldly 

We consult our neighbours good name, when in 
our deportment towards him, in our conversation with 
him, and in our manner of speaking of him, we pre 
serve towards him a due respect, and avoid doing any 
thing which may causelessly injure him in the opinion 
of others. 1 Pet. ii. 17. honour all men. Gen. 
xviii. 2. &c. he ran to meet them from the tent door, 
and bowed himself toward the ground. xxiii. 7. 
Abraham stood up, and bowed himself to the people 
of the land. Exod. xviii. 7. < Moses went out to 
meet his father-in-law. Ruth ii. 10. then she fell 
on her face, and bowed herself to the ground. Nor 
are we any where told that obeisance was made even 
to kings otherwise than by a lowly inclination of the 
body, the same token of respect which was frequently 
paid to each other even by private individuals.* 

* A scrupulous attention is paid throughout Paradise Lost to this duty^ 
und inferiors are generally represented as showing their respect to person- 


In our deportment towards him. To this head be 
longs that sense of delicacy, which precludes us from 
saying or doing every thing indiscriminately, however 
proper in itself, in the presence of our neighbour. 
Job xix. 3. ye are not ashamed that ye make your 
selves strange to me. 

Opposed to this is impudence ; as exemplified in 
the unjust judge, Luke xviii. 2. which feared not 
God, neither regarded man. 

In our manner of conversing with him, &:c. The 
virtues herein comprised are veracity and candour. 

ages of superior dignity in the manner here mentioned. Thus it is said of 
the fallen angels worshipping Satan: 

Towards him they bend 

With awful reverence prone. II. 477. 
Of the holy angels in heaven : 

Lowly reverent 

Towards either throne they bow, and to the ground 

With solemn adoration down they cast 

Their crowns. III. 349. 
Of the angels stationed to guard Paradise, at the appearance of Raphael : 

To his state 

And to his message high in honour rise, 

For on some message high they guessed him bound. V. 288. 
Of Adam in presence of Raphael : 

Though not aw d, 

Yet with submiss approach and rev rence meek, 
As to superior nature bowing low, 

Thus said. Ibid. 353. 
Of the Messiah when leaving the Father to go against the rebel angels 

He o er his sceptre bowing, rose 

From the right hand of glory where he sat. VI. 746. 
Of Eve before the tree of knowledge : 

From the tree her step she turnM ; 

But first low reverence done, as to the Pow r 

That dwelt within. IX. 834. 
Thus also in his early poem of Arcades : 

The great mistress of yon princely shrine, 

Whom with low reverence I adore as mine. 30. 


Veracity consists in speaking the truth to all who 
are entitled to hear it, and in matters which concern 
the good of our neighbour. Psal. xv. 2. he that 
speaketh the truth in his heart. Prov. xii. 17. 4 he 
that speaketh truth, showeth forth righteousness. 
v. 22. lying lips are abomination to Jehovah, but 
they that deal truly are his delight. xx. 6. a faith 
ful man who can find ? Zech. viii. 16. speak ye 
every man the truth to his neighbour. Eph. iv. 25. 
putting away lying, speak every man truth with his 
neighbour : for we are members one of another. 

Opposed to this is, first, an improper concealment 
of the truth. I say improper, for it is not every con 
cealment of the truth that is wrong, inasmuch as we 
are not on all occasions required to declare what we 
know : that concealment only is blameable, which 
proceeds from improper motives. 

Secondly, falsehood. PsaL v. 6. thou shalt de 
stroy them that speak leasing. xii. 1. the faithful 
fail from the children of men: Prov. xiii. 5. a 
righteous man hateth lying ; but a wicked man is 
loathsome, and cometh to shame. xix. 5. he that 
speaketh lies shall not escape. John viii. 44. when 
he speaketh a lie, he speaketh of his own : for he is 
a liar, and the father of it. Rev. xxii. 15. < without 
are dogs.. ..and whosoever loveth and maketh a lie. 
Hence falsehood is not justifiable, even in the service 
of God. Job xiii. 7. will ye speak wickedly for 
God ? and talk deceitfully for him ? 

The definition commonly given of falsehood is, that 
it is a violation of truth either in word or deed, with 
the purpose of deceiving. Since however not only 
the dissimulation or concealment of truth, but even 


direct untruth with the intention of deceiving, may in 
many instances be beneficial to our neighbour, it will 
be necessary to define falsehood somewhat more pre 
cisely ; for I see no reason why the same rule should 
not apply to this subject, which holds good with re 
gard to homicide, and other cases hereafter to be 
mentioned, our judgment of which is formed not so 
much from the actions themselves, as from the inten 
tion in which they originated. No rational person 
will deny that there are certain individuals whom we 
are fully justified in deceiving. Who would scruple 
to dissemble with a child, with a madman, with a 
siek person, with one in a state of intoxication, with 
an enemy, with one who has himself a design of de 
ceiving us, with a robber ? unless indeed we dispute 
the trite maxim, Cui nullum est jus, ei nulla fit inju- 
ria. Yet, according to the above definition, it is 
not allowable to deceive either by word or deed in 
any of the cases stated. If I am under no obligation 
to restore to a madman a sword, or any other deposit, 
committed to me while in a sound mind, why should 
I be required to render the truth to one from whom I 
never received it, who is not entitled to demand it, 
and who will in all probability make a bad use of it ? 
If every answer given to every interrogator with the 
intent of deceiving is to be accounted a falsehood, it 
must be allowed that nothing was more common even 
amon the prophets and holiest of men. 

Hence falsehood may perhaps be defined as fol 
lows : Falsehood is incurred when any one, from a 
dishonest motive, either perverts the truth, or utters what 
is false to one to whom it is his duty to speak the truth. 
Thus the devil, speaking in the serpent, was the first 


liar, Gen. iii. 4. So Cain subsequently, iv. 9. and Sarah, 
xviii. 15. for when the angels were justly angry with 
her, she evaded a candid confession of her fault. So 
also Abraham, xii. 13. and chap. xx. for his fiction 
concerning Sarah, as he might have learned from his 
previous experience in Egypt, though intended only 
for the preservation of his own life, was of a nature 
to lead others into dangerous error, and a desire of 
what was not their own, through ignorance of the fact. 
Thus too David in his flight from Saul, 1 Sam xxi. 3. 
inasmuch as he ought not to have concealed from the 
priest his situation with respect to the king, or to have 
exposed his host to danger. Ananias and Sapphira 
were guilty of the same crime, Acts v. 

It follows from this definition, first, that parables, 
hyperboles, apologues, and ironical modes of speech 
are not falsehoods, inasmuch as their object is not de 
ception but instruction. In this respect it agrees with 
the common definition. 1 Kings xviii. 27. it came 
to pass that Elijah mocked them, and said, Cry aloud, 
for he is a God . xxii. 15. he answered him, Go 
and prosper, for Jehovah shall deliver it into the hand 
of the king. Secondly, that in the proper sense of 
the word deceit, no one can be deceived without 
being at the same time injured. When therefore, 
instead of injuring a person by a false statement, we 
either confer on him a positive benefit, or prevent him 
from inflicting or suffering injury, we are so far from 
being guilty of deceit towards him, however often the 
fiction may be repeated, that we ought rather to be 
considered as doing him a service against his will. 
Thirdly, it is universally admitted that feints and 
stratagems in war, when unaccompanied by perjury 


or breach of faith, do not fall under the description of 
falsehood. Now this admission is evidently fatal to 
the vulgar definition ; inasmuch as it is scarcely pos 
sible to execute any of the artifices of war, without 
openly uttering the greatest untruths with the indispu 
table intention of deceiving ; by which, according to 
the definition, the sin of falsehood is incurred. It is 
better therefore to say that stratagems, though coupled 
with falsehood, are lawful for the cause above assigned, 
namely, that where we are not under an obligation to 
speak the truth, there can be no reason why we should 
not, when occasion requires it, utter even what is false; 
nor do I perceive why this should be more allowable 
in war than in peace, especially in cases where, by an 
honest and beneficial kind of falsehood, we may be 
enabled to avert injury or danger from ourselves or 
our neighbour. 

The denunciations against falsehood, therefore, 
which are cited from Scripture, are to be understood 
only of such violations of truth as are derogatory to 
the glory of God, or injurious to ourselves or our 
neighbour. Of this class, besides what were quoted 
above, are the following texts : Lev. xix. 11. ye shall 
not deal falsely, neither lie one to another. Psal 
ci. 7. he that worketh deceit shall not tarry within 
my house ; he that telleth lies shall not tarry in my 
sight. Prov. vi. 16, 17. 4 yea, seven are an abomina 
tion unto him ; a proud look, a lying tongue . Jer. 
ix. 5. they will deceive every man his neighbour, 
and will not speak the truth. In these and similar 
passages w r e are undoubtedly commanded to speak 
the truth ; but to whom ? not to an enemy, not to a 
madman, not to an oppressor, not to an assassin, but 
VOL. n. 51 


to our neighbour, to one with whom we are connected 
by the bonds of peace and social fellowship. If then 
it is to our neighbour only that we are commanded to 
speak the truth, it is evident that we are not forbidden 
to utter what is false, if requisite, to such as do not 
deserve that name. Should any one be of a contrary 
opinion, I would ask him, by which of the command 
ments falsehood is prohibited ? He will answer doubt 
less, by the ninth. Let him only repeat the words 
of that commandment, and he will be a convert to my 
opinion ; for nothing is there prohibited but v. hat is 
injurious to our neighbour; it follows, therefore, that 
a falsehood productive of no evil to him, if prohibited 
at all, is not prohibited by the commandment in ques 

Hence w r e are justified in acquitting all those holy 
men who, according to the common judgment of di 
vines, must be convicted of falsehood : Abraham for 
example, Gen. xxii. 5. when he told his young men, for 
the purpose of deceiving them and of quieting their sus 
picions, that he would return with the lad : although 
he must at the same time have been persuaded in his 
own mind that his son would be offered up as a sac 
rifice and left on the mount ; for had he expected 
otherwise, his faith would have been put to no severe 
trial. His wisdom therefore taught him, that as his 
servants were in no way interested in knowing what 
was to happen, so it was expedient for himself that 
it should be for a time concealed from them. So also 
Rebecca and Jacob, Gen. xxvii. when by subtlety and 
proper caution they opened a way to that birthright 
which Esau had held cheap, a birthright already be 
longing to Jacob by prophecy, as well as by right of 


purchase. It is objected, that in so doing he deceived 
his father. Say rather that he interposed at the 
proper time to correct his father s error, who had been 
led by an unreasonable fondness to prefer Esau. So 
Joseph, Gen. xlii. 7, &c. who according to the com 
mon definition must have been guilty of habitual 
falsehood, inasmuch as he deviated from the truth in 
numberless instances, with the express purpose of de 
ceiving his brethren ; not however to their injury, but 
to their exceeding advantage. The Hebrew midvvives, 

O O 

Exod. i. 19, &c. whose conduct received the appro 
bation of God himself; for in deceiving Pharaoh, 
they were so far from doing him any injury, that they 
preserved him from the commission of a crime. Mo 
ses, Exod. iii. who by the express command of God 
asked permission for the Israelites to go three days 
journey into the wilderness under the pretext of sac 
rificing to the Lord ; his purpose being to impose on 
Pharaoh by alleging a false reason for their departure, 
or at least by substituting a secondary for the princi 
pal motive. The whole Israelitish people, who, by 
divine command likewise, borrowed from the Egyp 
tians jewels of gold and silver, and raiment, doubtless 
under a promise of restoring them, though with the 
secret purpose of deception ; for by what obligation 
were they bound to keep faith with the enemies of 
God, the transgressors of the laws of hospitality, and 
the usurpers, for so long a period, of the property of 
those who now despoiled them ? Rahab, whose mag 
nanimous falsehood, recorded Josh. ii. 4, 5. was no 
breach of duty, inasmuch as she only deceived those 
whom God willed to be deceived, though her own 
countrymen and magistrates, and preserved those 


whom God willed to be preserved ; rightly preferring 
religious to civil obligations. Ehud, who deceived 
Eglon in two several instances, Judges iii. 19, 20. 
and that justifiably, considering that he was dealing 
with an enemy, and that he acted under the command 
of God himself. Jael, by whose enticements Sisera 
perished, Judges iv. 18, 19. although he was less her 
personal enemy than the enemy of God. Junius, in 
deed, considers this as a pious fraud, not as a false 
hood ; which is a distinction without a difference.* 
Jonathan, who was prevailed upon to assign a ficti 
tious reason for the absence of David, 1 Sam. xx. 6, 
28. thinking it better to preserve the life of the inno 
cent, than to abet his father in- an act of cruelty ; and 
considering that the duties of charity were better ful 
filled by favouring the escape of a friend under wrong 
ful accusation, though at the expense of veracity, than 
by disclosing the truth unnecessarily in obedience to 
the commands of a parent, for the purpose of aiding 
in the commission of a crime. All these, with num 
berless other saints, are by a more careful inquiry into 
the nature of truth rescued, as it were, from the new 
limbus patrum^ to which the vulgar definition had 
consigned them. 

* Dissimualvit ecim, sed sine mendacio, et pia fraude intercept Jahel 
hostem Domini, quam rem Spiritus Sanctus probat, inlra cap. v, 4. Ju- 
nins m loc. 

t This appears to be a favourite allusion with Milton. 

All these, upwhirl d aloft, 

Fly o er the backside of the world far off 

Into a Limbo lar^e and broad, since call d 

The Paradise of Fools. Paradise Lost. III. 493. 

4 That mysterious iniquity, provoked and troubled at the first entrance of 
reformation, sought out new Limboes and new Hells wherein they mijrht 
include cur books also within the number of their damned. Jlreopagilica 


Under falsehood is included false witness ; which 
is forbidden Exod. xx, 16. < thou shalt not bear false 
witness against thy neighbour. xxiii. 1. put not 
thine hand with the wicked to be an unrighteous wit 
ness. It is again prohibited Deut. xix. 16, &e. under 
a most severe penalty ; if a false witness rise up 

against any man then shall ye do unto him as he 

had thought to have done unto his brother. Prov. xix. 
5. 4 a false witness shall not be unpunished. xxv. 
1 8. a man that beareth false witness against his 
neighbour is a maul, and a sword, and a sharp arrow. 

The other virtue included in a regard to the good 
name of our neighbour, whether present or absent, is 
candour ; whereby we cheerfully acknowledge the 
gifts of God in our neighbour, and interpret all his 
words and actions in a favourable sense. Matt. vii. 1. 
* judge not, that ye be not judged. Candour, how 
ever, is usually spoken of under the general name of 
charity or love. 1 Cor. xiii. 5, 6. charity thinketh no 

evil rejoiceth in the truth ; beareth all things, be- 

lieveth all things, hopeth all things. Prov. x. 12. 
love covereth all sins. xvii. 9. c he that covereth a 
transgression seeketh love. The same virtue appears 
also to be. described under the name of equity or 
moderation. Philipp. iv. 5. let your moderation be 
known unto all men ; the Lord is at hand. Eccles. 
x. 4. yielding pacifieth great offences. 

Opposed to this is, first, evil surmising. 1 Sam. i. 
14. how long wilt thou be drunken ? xxii. 8. that 

Prose Works, I. 295. To which may be added Apology for Smectym- 
ntm, Ibid. 262. Te Deum has a smatch in it of limbus patrum ; as if 
Christ had not 4 opened the kingdom of heaven, before he had over 
come the sharpness of death. 1 


all of you have conspired against me . 2 Sam* x. 
3. hath not David sent his servants unto thee to 
search the city ? Acts xxviii. 4. when the bar 
barians saw the venomous beast hang on his hand . 
1 Tim. vi. 4. whereof cometh envy, strife, railings, 
evil surmisings . 

Secondly, a prying into the faults of others, and a 
precipitancy in passing judgment upon them. Matt. 
vii. 3. why beholdest thou the mote that is in thy 
brother s eye ? 

Thirdly, tale-bearing. Exod. xxiii. 1. thou shalt 
not raise a false report. 1 Sam. xxiv. 9. wherefore 
nearest thou men s words, saying, Behold David seek- 
eth thy hurt ? Prov. xviii. 8. the words of a tale 
bearer are as wounds. See also xxvi. 22. xx. 19. 
he that goeth about as a tale-bearer revealeth secrets. 
xxvi. 20. where there is no tale-bearer, strife ceas- 
eth. Rom. i. 29, 30. whisperers, backbiters. 1 
Tim. v. 13. tattlers also and busy bodies, speaking 
things which they ought not. 

Fourthly, calumny, which consists in a malicious 
construction of the motives of others. 1 Sam. xxii. 9. 
4 1 saw the son of Jesse, &c. PsaL cxix. 69. < the 
proud have forged a lie against me. Matt. xxvi. 61. 
4 this fellow said, I am able to destroy the temple of 
God. Luke xi. 53, 54. laying wait for him, and 
seeking to catch something out of his mouth, that they 
might accuse him. xix. 8. if I have taken any thing 
from any man by false accusation. Acts ii. 13 15. 
4 these men are full of new wine. 

Fifthly, evil speaking and slandering. Lev. xix. 
16. thou shalt not go up and down as a tale-bearer 
among thy people. Job v. 21. * thou shalt be hid 


from the scourge of the tongue. Psal. xxxiv. 13. 
* keep thy tongue from evil. lii. 2. thy tongue de- 
viseth mischiefs. lix. 8. behold, they belch out with 
their mouth. Ixiv. 3, &c. who whet their tongue like 
a sword . cix. 2. the mouth of the wicked and the 
mouth of the deceitful are opened against me , cxx. 2. 
6 deliver my soul, O Jehovah, from lying lips, and 
from a deceitful tongue. cxl. 3. they have sharpen 
ed their tongues like a serpent. Prov. x. 18. he that 
uttereth a slander is a fool. Eccles. x. 20. curse not 
the king, no not in thy thought, and curse not the rich 
in thy bed-chamber ; for a bird of the air shall carry 
the voice. Jer. ix. 3, &c. they bend their tongues 
like their bow for lies. Matt. xii. 34. how can ye, 
being evil, speak good things ? Col. iii. 8. but now 
ye, put off all these .... blasphemy. 

Sixthly, contumely and personal .abuse. Matt. v. 
22. whosoever shall say to his brother, Raca, shall 
be in danger of the council ; but whosoever shall say, 
Thou fool, shall be in danger of hell fire. 

Seventhly, litigiousness. Prov. xxv. 8 10. go 
not forth hastily to strive . Matt. v. 40. if any 
man will sue thee at the law, and take away thy coat, 
let him have thy cloak also. 1 Cor. vi. 7. there is 
utterly a fault among you, because ye go to law one 
with another ; why do ye not rather take wrong ? 
why do ye not rather suffer yourselves to be de 
frauded ? 

Opposed to candour, on the other side, are, first, 
flattery. Job xxxii. 21, 22. let me not, I pray you, 
accept any man s person, neither let me give flatter 
ing titles unto man. Psal. xii. 3. Jehovah shall 
cut off all flattering lips. Prov. xxvi. 28. a flat- 


tering mouth worketh ruin. xxvii. 6. the kisses of 
an enemy are deceitful. v. 14. he that blesseth his 
friend with a loud voice, &c. xxix. 5. a man that 
flattereth his neighbour, &;c. 1 Thess. ii. 5. neither 
at any time used we flattering words. 

Secondly, unmerited praise or blame. Prov. iii. 31. 
envy thou not the oppressor. xvii. 15. he that 
justifieth the wicked, and he that condemneth the just, 
even they both are abomination to Jehovah. xxiii. 
17. Met not thine heart envy sinners. xxiv. 24. he 
that saith unto the wicked, Thou art righteous, him 
shall the people curse. Isai. v. 20. woe unto them 
that call evil good . xxxii. 5, 8. the vile person 
shall be no more called liberal . 

Allied to candour are simplicity, faithfulness, grav 
ity, taciturnity, courteousness, urbanity, freedom of 
speech, and the spirit of admonition. 

Simplicity consists in an ingenuous and open deal 
ing with our neighbour. PsaL cxvi. 6. Jehovah 
preserveth the simple. Matt. x. 16. be ye harmless 
as doves. xix. 14. suffer little children .... for of 
such is the kingdom of heaven. Mark x. 15. who 
soever shall not receive the kingdom of God as a little 
child, he shall not enter therein. 1 Cor. xiv. 20. be 
not children in understanding ; howbeit in malice be 
ye children. 2 Cor. i. 12. that in simplicity and 
godly sincerity, not with fleshly wisdom, but by the 
grace of God, we have had our conversation in the 

world. xi. 3. I fear, lest by any means your 

minds should be corrupted from the simplicity that 
is in Christ. 

Opposed to this are, first, duplicity. Psal. v. 6. 
i Jehovah will abhor the deceitful man. xii. 3. with 


a double heart do they speak. xxviii. 3, &,c. which 
speak peace to their neighbours but mischief is in their 
heart. cxx. 2. deliver my soul from lying lips, and 
from a deceitful tongue. Prov. iii. 29. devise not 
evil against thy neighbour. xvii. 20. 4 he that hath a 
perverse tongue falleth into mischief. xxvi. 24, &c. 
4 he that hateth, dissembleth with his lips. v. 28. l a 
lying tongue hateth those that are afflicted by it. 
Matt. ii. 8. go and search diligently for the young 

Secondly, credulity. Prov. xiv. 15. c the simple 
believeth every word. 

Faithfulness is shown in the performance of prom 
ises, and the safe custody of secrets. PsaL xv. 4. 
1 he that sweareth to his own hurt, and changeth not. 
Prov. xi. 13. he that is of a faithful spirit concealeth 
the matter. xx. 19. he that goeth about as a tale 
bearer revealeth secrets, therefore meddle not with 
him . xxv. 9. discover not a secret to another. 

It has been made matter of inquiry, whether it be 
lawful to revoke a promise once made, or to recal a 
benefit once conferred. This would seem to be al 
lowable, where the person on whom the promise or 
benefit was bestowed proves himself unworthy of our 
kindness. Thus the lord in the parable exacted the 
debt from his servant, in punishment for his cruelty 
towards his fellow-servant, although he had before 
forgiven it him ; Matt, xviii. 27, 32, 34. 

Opposed to this are, first, precipitancy in making a 
promise, without due consideration of circumstances. 
Matt. xxvi. 35. though I should die with thee, yet 
will I not deny thee. 

TOL. ii. 52 


Secondly, talkativeness. Prov. xi. 13. ; a tale 
bearer revealeth secrets. 

Thirdly, treachery ; of which Judas Iscariot is a 
signal instance. 

Gravity consists in an habitual self-government of 
speech and action, with a dignity of look and manner, 
befitting a man of holiness and probity.* Prov. xvii. 
24. * wisdom is before him that hath understanding. 5 
Eccles. viii. 1. a man s wisdom maketh his face 
to shine . 

Opposed to this is levity. Prov. xvi. 22. * the in 
struction of fools is folly. xvii. 24. the eyes of a 
fool are in the ends of the earth. Eccles. x. 2. a wise 
man s heart is at his right hand, but a fool s heart at 
his left. 

Taciturnity preserves a due moderation in our 
speech. Prov. x. 19. he that refraineth his lips is 
wise. xiii. 3. he that openeth wide his lips, shall 
have destruction. xvii. 28. even a fool when he 
holdeth his peace is counted wise ; and he that shut- 
teth his lips is esteemed a man of understanding. 

Opposed to this are, first, loquacity. Prov. x. 14. 
6 the mouth of the foolish is near destruction. v. 19. 
* in the multitude of words there wanteth not sin. 
xviii. 7. * a fool s lips are the snare of his soul. xxix. 
20. 4 seest thou a man that is hasty in his words ? 
there is more hope of a fool than of him. James iii. 
8. the tongue can no man tame. 

* Richardson says that Milton l had a gravity in his temper, not mel 
ancholy, or not till the latter part of his life, not sour, morose, or ill-natur 
ed ; but a certain severity of mind, a mind not condescending to little 
things. Remarks, p. xv. ; In his whole deportment, says Symmons, 
1 there was visible a certain dignity of mind, and a something of conscious 
superiority, which could not at all times be suppressed or wholly with 
drawn from observation. His temper was grave, without any taint of mel 
ancholy. Vol. V1L p. 512. 


Secondly, foolish talking. Matt. xii. 36. every 
idle word that men shall speak, they shall give account 
thereof in the day of judgment. Eph. v. 4. fool 
ish talking. 

Thirdly, excess of taciturnity. 2 Kings vii. 9. this 
day is a day of good tidings, and we hold our peace. 

Courteousness consists in affability and readiness of 
access.* 1 Pet. iii. 8. be ye pitiful, courteous. 

Opposed to this are, first, churlishness. 1 Sam. 
xxv. 17. he is such a son of Belial, that a man can 
not speak to him. 

Secondly, frowardness. Prov. iv. 24. put away 
from thee a fro ward mouth. xiv. 3. 4 in the mouth 
of the foolish is a rod of pride. xvi. 26. he that 
laboureth, laboureth for himself: for his mouth craveth 
it of him. xviii. 6. a fool s lips enter into conten 
tion, and his mouth calleth for strokes. xxvii. 22. 
* though thou shouldest bray a fool in a mortar among 
wheat with a pestle, yet will not his foolishness depart 
from him. 

Thirdly, false, or constrained courtesy ; as that of 
Absalom, 2 Sam. xv. 3, 4. PsaL xii. 3. * Jehovah 
shall cut off all flattering lips. 

* Compare on this head, and with the three next paragraphs, the following 
passages from Symraons. 4 Of this great man the manners are universally 
allowed to have been affable and graceful, the conversation cheerful, in 
structive and engaging. His youngest daughter . . . affirmed that 4 he was 
delightful company ; the life of the conversation, not only on account of 
his flow of subject, but of his unaffected cheerfulneis and civility. I?aac 
Vossius describes him a? l comem ailabilein, multisque aliis? praeditum vir- 
tutibus. Burmann. Sytt. III. 618. So also N. Heiusius ; Virum esse miti 
comiqne ingenio aiunt, quique aliam non habuisse se causam profitetur 
Scribonium acerbe insectandi, quam quod ille et viros e maximis celeber- 
rimisque multos nihil benignius, exceperit, et quod in universam Anglorum 
gentem conviciis atrocissimis injurius valde fuerit. Burmann. Syll. III. 
276. Salmasius is here alluded to under the name of Scriboniu? . 


Urbanity comprehends not only the innocent refine 
ments and elegancies of conversation, but acuteness 
and appropriateness of observation or reply. Prov. 
xxiv. 26. every man shall kiss his lips that giveth a 
right answer. 5 xxv. 11. a word fitly spoken is like 
apples of gold, in pictures of silver. 1 Kings xviii. 
27. Elijah mocked them . Col. iv. 6. let your 
speech be alway with grace seasoned with salt, that 
ye may know how ye ought to answer every man. 

Opposed to this are obscenity and double meanings. 
Eph. iv. 29. let no corrupt communication proceed 
out of your mouth. v. 4. neither filthiness, nor 
foolish talking, nor jesting,* which are not convenient. 
Col. iii. 8. but now ye also put off all these ; anger 
. . . filthy communication out of your mouth. Ob 
scenity, properly speaking, consists neither in word 
nor in action, but in the filthiness of his mind, who 
out of derision or wantonness perverts them from 
their proper import. Hence those expressions in the 
Hebrew Scriptures, for which the Jewish commenta 
tors substitute others in the margin which they esteem 
more decent, are not to be considered as obscene, but 
are to be attributed to the vehemence or indignation 
of the speaker. f Neither are the words of Deut. 

* tjrp*7ri\i&. 4 Nomen medium, proprie significat concinnam rautationem, 
et intra virtutes morale? ah Aristotle mnneratur, urhanitas. Sed in Novo 
Testamento in malaiu pattern uenrpatur pro scurrilitate. Earn vocem pro 
scurrilitate aposlolu? posuit, quod plerumque qui urbanifalem hfiectant, 
a medio virtutis aberrant*^, ad scurrilitatem declinent. Qua in significa- 
tione etiatn Piudarus poeta Craecam vocem usurpasse legitur. Itaque rrcte 
noster interprcs scurrililalem vf rtit. Estius in locum. See Leigh s Criticq 
Sacra, Schleusner, Wetstein, Eisner, and Macknight. 

t The Spirit of God, who is purity itself, when he would reprove any 
fanlt severely, or but relate things done or said with indignation by others, 
abstains not from some words not civil at other times to be spoken, &c. &r. 
.... whereas God, who is the author both of purity and eloquence, chose 


xxii. 17. to be regarded as indecent ; they shall spread 
the cloth before the elders of the city. 

Freedom of speech consists in speaking the truth 
with boldness. Exod. xi. 8. all these thy servants 
shall come down unto me. Job \ii. 3. I have un 
derstanding as well as you ; I am not inferior to you : 
yea, who knoweth not such things as these ? 1 Sam. 
xiii. 13. Samuel said unto Saul, Thou hast done fool 
ishly : thou hast not kept the commandment of Jeho 
vah. Psal c.ux. 42. so shall I have wherewith to 
answer him that reproacheth me. Prov xxvi. 5. 
answer a fool according to his folly. This virtue 
is exemplified in Elijah and Elisha, 2 Kings vi. 32. 
and in many others ; in Hanani, 2 Chron. xvi. 7. in 
Zechariah, xxiv. 20. Isai. i. 10, 23. hear the word 
of Jehovah . . . thy princes are rebellious, and com 
panions of thieves. Jer. xiii. 18. say unto the king 
and to the queen, Humble yourselves, sit down. 
Ezek. xxi. 25. and thou, profane wicked prince of 

this phrase as fittest in that vehement character wherein he spake, otherwise 
that plain word might have easily been foreborne : which the masoreths and 
rabbinical scholiast? not well attending, have often used to blur the margcnt 
with Keri instead of Ketiv, and gave us this insulse rule out of their Talmud, 
4 that all words which in the law are written obscenely, must be changed to 
more civil words; 1 fools, who would teach men to read more decently tlu.n 
God thought good to write. dpofagyfor timed ymnuus. Prose Works, I. 
233. Ask a Talmudist what ails the modesty of his marginal Keri, that 
Moses and all the prophets cannot persuade him to pronounce the textual 
Ketiv. Areopagitica, Ibid. 300. * Tu fortasse, ut sunt fere hypocritce, 
vcrbis tetrici, rebus obscoeni, ne ipsuin quideru Mosen ista noxa imrnunem 
abs te dimiseri= ; cum alibi ssepius, turn etiam ubi Phineae hasta qua parte 
muliert-m traiufixerit, si qua fides Hebraeis aperte narrat. . . . Non te Sal- 
omonis Euphernismi censor m, non prophetarum scripta tuam turpir.uli 
immo nonnunquem plane obscoeni censuram effugerint, quoties Masorethis 
et Rabbiriis, pro eo quod diserte scriptum est, suum libet Keri adpcrihere. 
Ad me quod attinet, fateor malle mo cum sncris scriptoribus ivQvpfiifAOfat) 
queni cum futilibus Habbinis &<r%iuGvct esse. Aucloris pro 
V*. 299. 


Israel . Mic. vii. 4. the best of them is a briar. 
Matt. Hi. 7. O generation of vipers. John xiv. 4. 
6 it is not lawful for thee to have her. Luke xiii. 32. 
; tell that fox. John vii. 7. me it hateth, because I 
testify of it that the works thereof are evil. xviii. 
37. to this end was I born, and for this cause came 
I into the world, that I should bear witness to the 
truth. Acts xiii. 10. O full of all subtiltj, &c. 
xix. 8, 9. he went into the synagogue, and spake 
boldly for the space of three months, disputing, &c. 
xxiii. 3. thou whited wall. Eph. vi. 20. that 
therein I may speak boldly, as I ought to speak. 
Tit. i. 12. the Cretians are alway liars. 

Opposed to this is timidity in speaking the truth. 
I Sam. iii. 15. i Samuel feared to show Eli the vis 

The spirit of admonition is that by which we freely 
warn sinners of their danger, without respect of per 
sons. Gen. xxxvii. 2. Joseph brought unto his 
father their evil report. Lev. v. 1. if a soul sin . 
if he do not utter it, then he shall bear his iniquity. 
xix. 17. thou shalt not hate thy brother in thine heart ; 
thou shalt in anywise rebuke thy neighbour, and not 
suffer sin upon him. Psal. cxli. 5. let the righteous 
smite me, it shall be a kindness. Prov. vi. 23. re 
proofs of instruction are the way of life. x. 17. he 
that refuseth reproof erreth. xii. 1. he that hateth 
reproof is brutish. xiii. 18. he that regardeth 
reproof shall be honoured. xv. 5. he that regardeth 
reproof is prudent. v. 10. he that hateth reproof 
shall die. v. 32. he that refuseth instruction de- 
spiseth his own soul. xvii. 10. a reproof entereth 
more into a wise man than an hundred stripes into a 


fool. 5 xxiv. 25. * to them that rebuke him shall be 
delight. xxv. 12. as an ear-ring of gold, and an 
ornament of fine gold, so is a wise reprover upon an 
obedient ear. xxvii. 6, faithful are the wounds of a 
friend. xxviii. 23. he that rebuketh a man, after 
ward shall find more favour . xxix. 1 . he that 
being often reproved hardeneth his neck . Eccles. 
vii. 5. it is better to hear the rebuke of the wise, 
than . Matt. xvi. 23. * get thee behind me, Satan. 
John iii. 19. men loved darkness rather than light. 

1 Cor. i. 11. it hath been declared unto me of you, 
my brethren, by them which are of the house of 
Chloe, &c. 2 Cor. vii. 8. though I made you sorry 
with a letter, I do not repent, &c. Heb. iii. 13. ex 
hort one another daily, while it is called to-day. 
James v. 19, 20. if any of you do err from the truth, 
and one convert him . Admonition however, is not 
to be thrown away on the scornful and obstinate. 
Psal. Iviii. 4, 5. they are like the deaf adder which 
stoppeth her ear, which will not hearken to the voice 
of charmers. Prov. ix. 7? 8. he that reproveth a 
scorner getteth to himself shame . . . reprove not a 
scorner. xiii. 1 . a scorner heareth not rebuke. 
xxvi. 4. answer not a fool according to his folly. 
xxix. 9. if a wise man contendeth with a foolish 
man, whether he rage or laugh, there is no rest/ 

2 Chron. xxv. 16. then the prophet forbare . 



THE virtues by which we promote the worldly inter 
ests of our neighbour, are integrity and beneficence. 

Integrity consists in refraining from the property 
of others, which is also called abstinence ; and in 
honesty and uprightness as regards our dealings with 
our neighbour, which is called commutative justice. 
Psal. xv. 2. c he that walketh uprightly, and worketh 

Abstinence is exemplified in Moses, Num. xvi. 15. 
i I have not taken one ass from them, neither have I 
hurt one of them ; and in Samuel, 1 Sam. xii. 3. 
whose ox have I taken ? On this subject laws are 
given, Deut. xxiii. 24, 25. when thou comest into 
thy neighbour s vineyard, &c. 

The opposites to this are, first, theft. Exod. xx. 
15. thou shalt not steal. See also Lev. xix. 11. 
Prov. xxix. 24. 4 whoso is partner with a thief hateth 
his own soul. xxii. 28. remove not the ancient 
land-mark. See also xxiii. 10. This was the crime 
ef Judas Iscariot, John xii. 6. Eph. iv. 28. let him 


that stole steal no more, but rather let him labour. 
Laws against theft are given Exod. xxii. Prov. vi. 
30. men do not despise a thief, if he steal to sat 
isfy his soul when he is hungry. xxviii. 24. whoso 
robbeth his father or mother, &c. Zech. v. 3. every 
one that stealeth shall be cut off . 

Secondly, fraud. Lev. xix. 11. ye shall not deal 
falsely one to another. Under the law, fraud could 
not be expiated unless restitution were previously 
made. Lev. vi. 5, &c. he shall even restore it in 
the principal . . . and he shall bring his trespass offer 
ing unto Jehovah. Prov. xxi. 6. the getting of 
treasures by a lying tongue is a vanity . 1 Thess. 
iv. 6. that no man go beyond or defraud his brother 
in any matter. 

Thirdly, oppression and robbery. Job v. 15. he 
saveth the poor from the hand of the mighty. xx. 
18, 19. because he hath oppressed and hath forsaken 
the poor . Prov. xiv. 31 . he that oppresseth the 
poor reproacheth his neighbour. xxii. 22, 23. rob 
not the poor, &c. xxx. 14. there is a generation 
whose teeth are as swords. Eccles. v. 8. if thou 
seest the oppression of the poor, &c. vii. 7. surely 
oppression maketh a wise man mad. Isai. iii. 14. 
the spoil of the poor is in your houses. v. 7, 8. 
woe unto them that join house to house, &c. 
Jer. ii. 34. in thy skirts is found the blood of the 
souls of the poor innocents. xxii. 13, &c. woe unto 
him that buildeth his house by unrighteousness . 
Neh. v. 8. we after our ability have redeemed our 
brethren . Amos iv. 1. c hear this word, ye kine of 
Bashan, which oppress the poor v. 11. foras 
much therefore as your treading is upon the poor . 

VOL. ii. 53 


viii. 4, 5, &.c. hear this, O ye that swallow up the 
needy, even to make the poor of the land to fail . 
Mic. ii. 1, 2. they covet fields, and take them by 
violence. iii. 2, 3. who pluck the skin off from 
them . 

Fourthly, injury. Exod. xxi, 33. if an ox or an 
ass fall therein . v. 35, 36. if one man s ox hurt 
another s ... or if it be known that the ox hath used 
to push in times past, &c. xxii. 5, 6. if a man 
shall cause a field or vineyard to be eaten, &c. 

Fifthly, man-stealing. Exod. xxi. 16. he that 
stealeth a man, or selleth him, or if he be found in his 
hand, he shall surely be put to death. Dent. xxiv. 
7. if a man be found stealing any of his brethren, 
&c. 1 Tim. i. 10. men-stealers. 

Under commutative justice are included all transac 
tions of purchase and sale, of letting and hire, of lend 
ing and borrowing, of keeping and restoring deposits. 

Transactions of sale and purchase. Lev. xix. 36. 
4 just balances, just weights . xxv. 14. if thou 
sell ought unto thy neighbour, or buyest ought of thy 
neighbour s hand, ye shall not oppress one another. 
Prov. xvi. 11. a just weight and balance are Jeho 
vah s; all the weights of the bag are his work. 

To justice in matters of sale and purchase, are op 
posed various frauds. Prov. xi. 26. he that with- 
hoideth corn, the people shall curse him. Ezek. 
xxviii. 16. by the multitude of thy merchandise they 
have filled the midst of thee with violence . So 
also when counterfeit or adulterated goods are sold 
for genuine. Amos viii. 6. that we may sell the 
refuse of the wheat. Or when false weights and 


measures are employed. Lev. xix. 35. ye shall do 


no unrighteousness in judgment, in rneteyard, in 
weight, or in measure. Deut. xxv. 13 15. * thou 
shalt not have in thy bag divers weights, a great and 
a small . Prov xi. 1. a false balance is abomi 
nation to Jehovah. xx. 10. * divers weights and 
divers measures, both of them are alike abomination 
to Jehovah. See also v. 23. Hos. xii. 7. he is a 
merchant, the balances of deceit are in his hand. 
Amos viii. 5. making the ephah small. Mic. vi. 11. 
4 shall I count them pure with the wicked balances ? 
Or when the buyer, on his part, uses dishonest arti 
fices in the conclusion of a bargain. Prov. xx. 14. 
4 it is naught, it is naught, saith the buyer. 

Transactions of letting or hire. Lev. xix. 13. the 
wages of him that is hired shall not abide with thee 
all night until the morning. Exod. xxii. 15. i if it 
be an hired thing it came for his hire. Deut. xxiv. 
14. 15. thou shalt not oppress an hired servant that 
is poor and needy, whether he be of thy brethren, or 
of thy strangers that are in the land within thy gates. 
Mai. lii. 5. against those that oppress the hireling in 
his wages. James v. 4. behold, the hire of the 
labourers who have reaped down your fields, which is 
of you kept back by fraud, crieth. 

Lending and borrowing. Deut. xv. 7, &c. i if there 
be among you a poor man of one of thy brethren . . . 
thou shalt surely lend him sufficient for his need in 
that which he wanteth. Psal. xxxvii. 26. he is 
ever merciful, and lendeth. cxii. 5. a good man 
showeth favour, and lendeth. Matt. v. 42. from 
him that would borrow of thee turn not thou away. 
Luke vi. 35. lend, hoping for nothing again. 
Prov. xix. 17. he that hath pity upon the poor. 


lendeth to Jehovah. The case of loans to such as 
are not poor is different. Exod. xxii. 14. if a man 
borrow aught of his neighbour, and it be hurt, or die, 
&c- Psal. xxxvii. 21. the wicked borroweth and 
pajeth not a^ain. 

In loans, justice is violated by the exaction of immod 
erate interest; under which denomination all interest 
is included, which is taken from the poor. Exod. 
xxii. 25. if thou lend money to any of my people 
that is poor by thee, thou shalt not be to him as an 
usurer. Lev. xxv. 35, 06. if thy brother be waxen 
poor, arid fallen in decay with thee, then thou shalt 
relieve him; yea, though he be a stranger or a so- 
journer, that he may live with thee : take thou no 
usury of him, or increase ; but fear thy God, that thy 
brother may live with thee. This is the meaning of 
the command in Deut. xxiii. 19. thou shalt not lend 
upon usury to thy brother, usury of money, usury of 
victuals, usury of any thing that is lent upon usury. 

As however much difference of opinion exists with 
regard to usury, and as the discussion belongs properly 
to this place, we will consider briefly what is to be de 
termined on the subject. It is the opinion of most, that 
usury is not in all cases unlawful, but that its legal 
ity or illegality is determined by the purpose for which 
it is exacted, the rate of interest, and the party by 
whom it is to be paid ; that with regard to the party, 
it may be lawfully received from any one possessed of 
sufficient property for payment; that the rate of inter 
est should be such as is consistent with equity at least, 
if not with charity; and that in exacting it we should 
have a view not to our own interests exclusively, but 
also to those of our neighbour. Where these con- 


ditions are observed, they maintain that usury is per 
fectly allowable ; nor is it without reason that these 
limitations are added, since without these there is 
scarcely any species of compact or commercial in 
tercourse which can be considered as lawful. That 
usury is in itself equally justifiable with any other 
kind of civil contract, is evident from the following 
considerations ;* first, that if it were in itself repre 
hensible, God would not have permitted the Israelites 
to lend upon usury to strangers, Deut. xxiii. 20. es 
pecially as he elsewhere commands them to do no 
hurt to the stranger, but on the contrary to assist him 
with every kind of good office, especially in case of 
poverty. Secondly, if it be lawful to receive profit 
for the use of cattle, lands, houses, and the like, why 
not of money also ? which, when borrowed, as it often 
is, not from necessity, but for purposes of gain, is 
apt to be more profitable to the borrower than to the 
lender. It is true that God prohibited the Israelites 
from lending upon usury on the produce of their land ; 
but this was for a reason purely ceremonial, in like 
manner as he forbad them to sell their land in per 
petuity, Lev. xxv. 23. Under the gospel, therefore, 
that usury only is to be condemned which is taken 
from the poor, or of which the sole object is gain, and 
which is exacted without a regard to charity and jus 
tice ; even as any other species of lucrative commerce 
* carried on in the same spirit would be equally repre 
hensible, and equally entitled to the Hebrew name 

* Usury, so much as is permitted by the magistrate, and demanded with 
common equity, is neither against the word of God, nor the rule or 
charity ; as hath been often discussed by men of eminent learning and 
Doctrine and Discipline of Divorce, Prose Works, II. 24. 


, signifying a bite. This therefore is the usury 
prohibited Exod. xxii. 25. if thou lend money to 
any of my people that is poor by thee, thou shalt not 
be to him as an usurer. Lev. xxv. 35 37. as above. 
These are the earliest passages in which the subject 
occurs ; they ought therefore to be considered as 
illustrating by anticipation those which come after, 
and the exception contained in them as applying 
equally to all other occasions on which usury is men 
tioned : Deut. xxiii. 19. as above. Psal. xv. 5. he 
that putteth not out his money to usury .... shall never 
be moved. Prov. xxviii. 8. he that by usury and 
unjust gain increaseth his substance, he shall gather 
it for him that will pity the poor. Ezek. xviii. 8. he 
that hath not given forth upon usury, neither hath 
taken any increase, that hath withdrawn his hand 
from iniquity . 

Justice as regards the safe custody of property, is 
concerned in the demand or restitution of pledges, and 
of deposits in trust ; on which subject see Exod. xxii. 
7. if a man shall deliver unto his neighbour money 
or stuff to keep, fee. See also v. 10, 11. Exek. xviii. 
7. hath not oppressed any, but hath restored to the 
debtor his pledge. Under what limitations a pledge 
may be received from a poor man, is seen Exod. xxii. 
26. if thou at all take thy neighbour s raiment to 
pledge, fee. Deut. xxiv. 6. no man shall take the 
upper or nether millstone to pledge. The same 
chapter enjoins a regard to humanity in the taking of 
pledges, v. 10. thou shalt not go into his house to 
fetch his pledge. 

Thus far of commutative justice. Under the same 
head mav be classed moderation, which consists in 


voluntarily conceding some portion of an acknowl 
edged right, or in abandoning it altogether. Gen. 
xiii. 9. if thou wilt take the left hand, then I will 
go to the right ; or if thou depart to the right hand, 
then I will go to the left. 

Beneficence consists in rendering willing assistance 
to our neighbour out of our own abundance ; partic 
ularly to the poor within our reach. Levit. xix. 9. 
when ye reap the harvest of your land, thou shalt not 
wholly reap the corners of thy field, neither shalt thou 
gather the gleanings of thy harvest. 5 xxv. 35. if 
thy brother be waxen poor, and fallen in decay with 
thee, then thou shalt relieve him ; yea, though he be 
a stranger or a sojourner ; that he may live with thee. 
Prov. iii. 27, 28. withhold not good from them to 
W 7 hom it is due, when it is in the power of thine hand 
to do it ; say not unto thy neighbour, Go, and come 
again, and to-morrow I will give, when thou hast it 
by thee. Luke vi, 30. give to every one that asketh 
of thee. v. 38. give, and it shall be given unto you. 
Gal. vi. 10. as we have therefore opportunity, let us 
do good unto all men, especially unto them that are 
of the household of faith. 1 Thess. v. 15. ever 
follow that which is good, both among yourselves and 
to all men. Heb. xiii. 16. to do good and to com 
municate forget not : for with such sacrifices God is 
well pleased. Concerning the proper mode of receiv 
ing benefits, see above on Magnanimity. 

Beneficence, as shown in public distributions of any 
kind, is called liberality. Psal. cxii. 5. a good man 
sheweth favour, and lendeth (gratiose largitur, Tre- 
mell.) Prov. xi. 24, 25. there is that scattereth, and 
yet increaseth . xxi. 26. the righteous giveth 


and spareth not. Eccles. xi. 1. cast thy bread ou 
the waters. 7 

Opposed to liberality are, first, niggardliness, which 
gives nothing, or sparingly, or with a grudging mind. 
Prov. xxiii. 6 8. eat thou not the bread of him that 
hath an evil eye, neither desire thou his dainty meats. 
Secondly, prodigality. Prov. xxi. 20. there is 
treasure to be desired, and oil in the dwelling of the 
wise, but a foolish man spendeth it up. 

Beneficence, whether private or public, when ex 
ercised on an extraordinary scale, is called magnifi 
cence. This is exemplified in David, 1 Chron. xxix. 
2. I have prepared with all my might for the house 
of my God, the gold for things to be made of gold .... 
moreover, because I have set my affection to the house 
of my God, I have of mine own proper good, &c. and 
in the Jews who returned from captivity, Ezra ii. 68, 
69. * some offered freely for the house of God to set 
it up in its place ; they gave after their ability unto 
the treasure of the work. 

Corresponding with beneficence is gratitude, which 
is shown in the requital, or, where this is impossible, 
in the thankful sense of a kindness. 2 Sam. ix. 1. 
* David said, Is there yet any that is left of the house 
of Saul, that I may show 7 him kindness for Jonathan s 
sake ? xix. 34, &c. the king said unto Barzillai, 
Come thou over with me, and I will feed thee with 
me . 1 Kings ii. 7. show kindness unto the sons 
of Barzillai the Gileadite. 

Opposed to this is ingratitude. Prov. xvii. 13. 
4 whoso rewardeth evil for good, evil shall not depart 
from his house. Eccles. ix. 15. he by his wisdom 
delivered the city, yet no man remembered that same 
poor man. 



THUS far we have treated of the virtues or special 
duties which man owes to his neighbour simply as 
such ; we are next to consider those which originate 
in circumstances of particular relationship. These 
duties are either private or public. 

The private duties are partly domestic, and partly 
such as are exercised towards those not of our own 
house. Gen. xviii. 19. I know him, that he will 
command his children, and his household after him, 
and they shall keep the way of Jehovah. 1 Tim. 
v. 8. * if any provide not for his own, and specially 
for those of his own house, he hath denied the faith, 
and is worse than an infidel. 

Under domestic duties are comprehended the recip 
rocal obligations of husband and wife, parent and 
child, brethren and kinsmen, master and servant. 

The duties of husband and wife are mutual or 

VOL. n. 54 


Mutual duties. 1 Cor. vii. 3. let the husband 
render unto the wife due benevolence, and likewise 
also the wife unto the husband. 

The personal duties appertaining to either party 
respectively, are, first, those of the husband. Exod. 
xxi. 10, 11. her food, her raiment, and her duty of 
marriage shall he not diminish ; and if he do not these 
three unto her, &c. Prov. v. 18, 19. rejoice with 
the wife of thy youth, Esther i. 22. every man 
should bear rule in his own house. 1 Cor. xi. 3. I 
would have you know that the head of every man is 
Christ, and the head of the woman is the man. Eph. 
v. 25. husbands, love your wives, even as Christ 
also loved the church. Col. iii. 19. husbands, love 
your wives, and be not bitter against them. 1 Pet. iii. 
7. likewise, ye husbands, dwell with them according 
to knowledge, giving honour unto the wife, as unto 
the weaker vessel. The contrary is reproved Mai. 
ii. 13, 14, &c. Jehovah hath been witness between 
thee and the wife of thy youth, against whom thou 
hast dealt treacherously . Prov. \. 20, 21. why 
wilt thou, my son, be ravished with a strange 
woman ? 

Personal duties of the wife. Prov. xiv. 1. every 
wise woman buildeth her house. xix. 14. a pru 
dent wife is from Jehovah. xxxi. 11, &c. the heart 
of her husband doth safely trust in her. 1 Cor. xi. 
3, &c. the woman is the glory of the man ; for the 
man is not of the woman, but the woman of the man. 
Eph. v. 22 24. wives, submit yourselves unto your 
own husbands, as unto the Lord ; for the husband is 
the head of the wife, even as Christ is the head of 
the church, and he is the Saviour of the body ; there- 


fore as the church is subject unto Christ, so let the 
wives be to their own husbands in every thing. Col. 
iii. 18. wives, submit yourselves unto your own 
husbands, as it is fit in the Lord. Tit. ii. 4, 5. that 
they may teach the young women to be sober, to love 
their husbands, to love their children, to be discreet, 
chaste, keepers at home, good, obedient to their own 
husbands, that the word of God be not blasphemed. 
1 Pet. iii. 1, &c. 4 likewise, ye wives, be in subjection 
to your own husbands, &c. The same is implied in 
the original formation of the woman : Gen. ii. 22. 
the rib which Jehovah had taken from man, made 
he a woman ; it cannot therefore be fitting that a 
single member, and that not one of the most import 
ant, should be independent of the whole body, and 
even of the head. Finally, such is the express decla 
ration of God : Gen. iii. 16. he shall rule over 
thee. * 

Offences against these duties. Exod. iv. 25. a 
bloody husband art thou to me. Job ii. 9. then 
said his wife unto him, Dost thou still retain thine in- 

* My author and disposer, what then bidiTst 
Unargu d I obey ; so God ordains ; 
God is thy law, thou mine. Paradise Lost, IV. 635. 
Was she thy God, that her thou didst obey 
Before his voice, or was she made thy guide, 
Superior, or but equal, that to her 
Thou didst resign thy manhood, <uid the place 
Wherein God- set thee above her made of thee 
And for thee, whose perfection far excelled 
Hers in all real dignity. X. 145. 

To thy husband s will 

, Thine shall submit ; lie over thee shall rule. Ibid. 195. 

See also Telrachordon : Cut St. Paul ends the controversy that 

indelible character of priority which God crowned him with. Prose 
Works, II. 121, 122^ 


tegrity ? &c. 2 Sam. vi. 20. Michal the daughter 
of Saul came out to meet David, and said, 5 &,c. Prov. 
ix. 13. 4 a foolish woman is clamorous. vii. 11. her 
feet abide not in her house. * xiv.l. the foolish pluck- 
eth it down with her hands. xix. 13. the contentions 
of a wife are a continual dropping. See also xxvii. 
15. xxi. 9. ; it is better to dwell in a corner of the 
house top, than with a brawling woman in a wide 
house. v. 19. it is better to dwell in the wilder 
ness, than with a contentious and an angry woman. 
See also xxv. 24. Eccles. vii. 26. 1 find more bitter 
than death the woman whose heart is snares and nets, 
and her hands as bands : whoso pleaseth God shall 
escape from her, but the sinner shall be taken by her. 
Above all, adultery : Deut. xxii. 14, 20. I took this 
woman, and when I came unto her, I found her not a 

maid if this thing be true, &c. 

The duties of parents are inculcated Deut. iv. 9. 
4 teach them thy sons, and thy sons sons. vi. 6, 7. 
4 these words which I command thee this day, shall 
be in thine heart, and thou shalt teach them diligently 
unto thy children. Prov. xiii. 24. he that spareth 
his rod hateth his son ; but he that loveth him chas- 
teneth him betimes. Prov. xix. 18. chasten thy son 
while there is hope, and let not thy soul spare for his 
crying.? xxii. 6. train up a child in the way he 

* Nevertheless, as I find that Grotius on this place hath observed, the 
Christian emperors, Theodosius the second, and Justinian, men of high 
wi sdom and reputed piety, decreed it to be a divorcive fornication, if the 
wife attempted either against the knowledge, or obstinately against the 
will of her husband, such things as gave open suspicion of adulterizing, as 
the wilful haunting of feasts, and invitation.! with men not of her near 
kindred, the lying forth of her house without probable cause, the frequent- 
ing of theatres against htr husband s mind, &c. Doctrine and Discipline 
of Divorce, II. 45. 


should go, and when he is old he will not depart 
from it. v. 15. foolishness is bound in the heart of 
a child ; but the rod of correction shall drive it far 
from him. xxiii. 13, 14. withhold not correction 
from the child ; for if thou beatest him with the rod, 
he shall not die : thou shalt beat him with the rod, 
and deliver his soul from hell. xxix. 15, 17. the 
rod and reproof give wisdom. Lam. iii. 27, 28. it 
is good for a man that he bear the yoke in his youth. 
Dcut. xxi. 1 8 20. if a man have a stubborn and 
rebellious son, which will not obey the voice of his 
father or the voice of his mother, and that when they 
have chastened him will not hearken unto them. 
Eph. vi. 4. ve fathers, provoke not your children to 
wrath ; but bring them up in the nurture and admo 
nition of the Lord. Col. iii. 21. fathers, provoke 
not your children to anger, lest they be discouraged. 

The are, first, unbounded indulgence ; as 
that of Eli the priest, 1 Sam. ii. and of David towards 
his sons Absalom and Adonijah, 1 Kings i. 6. whom 
his father had not displeased at any time in saying, 
Why hast thou done so? Gen. xxv. 28. Isaac loved 
Esau, because he did eat of his venison. 

Secondly, excessive severity. 1 Sam. xiv. 44. thou 
shalt surely die, Jonathan. 

The duties of children are prescribed Gen. ix. 23. 
Shem and Japheth took a garment . xxiv. 15, &c. 
6 with her pitcher upon her shoulder . xxix. 9. 
Rachel came with her father s sheep. Exod. ii. 16. 
they came and drew water, and filled the troughs 
to water their father s flock. xviii. 7. Moses went 
out to meet his father-in-law. xx. 12. honour thy 
father and thy mother. Lev. xix. 3. ye shall fear 


every man his mother and his father. 1 Sam. xx. 
32. Jonathan answered Saul his father, and said 
unto him, Wherefore shall he be slain ? what hath 
he done? 1 Kings ii. 19. Bathsheba went unto 

king Solomon and the king rose up to meet her. 

Prov. i. 8. my son, hear the instruction of thy father, 
and forsake not the law of thy mother. vi. 20, 21. 
my son, keep thy father s commandment. xxiii. 22, 
24, 25. * hearken unto thy father that begat thee, and 
despise not thy mother when she is old. Jer. xxxv. 
5, 6. our father commanded us, saying . Eph. 
vi. 1 3. children, obey your parents in the Lord ; 
for this is right : honour thy father, &c. Col. iii. 20. 
children, obey your parents in all things ; for this is 
well pleasing unto the Lord. 1 Tim. v. 4. if any 
widow have children or nephews, let them learn first 
to show piety at home, and to requite their parents, 
for that is good and acceptable before God. 

Contrary to the above is the conduct of Ham, Gen. 
ix. 22. Ham saw the nakedness of his father. Exod. 
xxi. 15. he that smiteth his father, or his mother, 
shall surely be put to death. v. 17. he that curseth 
his father, or his mother, shall surely be put to death. 
See also Lev. xx. 9. Deut. xxi. 18. if a man have a 
stubborn and rebellious son . xxvii. 16. cursed 
be he that setteth light by his father or his mother. 
Prov. x. 1. a wise son maketh a glad father, but a 
foolish son is the heaviness of his mother. xix. 26. 
4 he that wasteth his father, &c. xx. 20. 6 whoso 
curseth his father or his mother, his lamp shall be put 
out in obscure darkness. xxiii. 22. hearken unto 
thy father that begat thee . xxviii. 24. whoso 
robbeth his father or his mother xxx. 17. the 


eye that mocketh at his father, and despiseth to 
obey his mother, the ravens of the valley shall 
pick it out, and the young eagles shall eat it. 
Matt. xv. 5. ye say, Whosoever shall say to 

his father or mother, It is a gift and honour not 

his father or mother, he shall be free. See also Mark 
vii. 11, 12. Alo an extravagant and preposterous 
regard. Matt. viii. 21, 22. suffer me first to go and 
bury my father. 

Analogous to the relation of parent and child are 
those of guardian and ward, teacher and pupil, elder 
and younger ; in a word, of superior and inferior, 
whatever be the ground of distinction. 

For the duties of guardians, see 2 Kings xi. 4, &c. 
he shewed them the king s son, &c. 

The duties of wards. 2 Kings xii. 2. * Jehoash 
did that which was right in the sight of Jehovah all 
his days, wherein Jehoiada the priest instructed him. 

The prophet Samuel did not consider it beneath his 
dignity in his old age, after having exercised the most 
important public functions, to discharge the office of 
teacher in the schools of the prophets.* 1 Sam. xix. 
20. they saw the company of the prophets prophe 
sying, and Samuel standing as appointed over them. 

The duties of pupils. 1 Kings xix. 21. i he went 
after Elijah, and ministered unto him. 2 Kings ii. 
2, 4, 6. I will not leave thee. 

* It will he remembered that Milton was reproached by his enemies 
with having been a schoolmaster. In the Transposes Rehearsed, writt-n 
by R. Leiifh, Oxon. 1673, 12mo. he is cnlled a Latin Secretary and an 
English Schoolmaster, p. 128. and Salmasius in hi pOfthomous reply to the 
4 Defence of the People of England, describes hirn as l Judimagbter in 
schola triviali Londinensi. Newton and Symmons have vindicated him 
from this crime with more seriousness than the charge seems to deserve. 


The duties of the elder. Prov. xvi. 31. the hoary 
head is a crown of glory, if it be found in the way of 
righteousness. Tit. ii. 2. * that the aged men be so 
ber, grave, temperate, sound in faith, in charity, in 

The reverse. Job xx. 11. his bones are full of 
the sin of his youth, which shall lie, down with him 
in the dust. Isai. Ixv. 20. the sinner being an hun 
dred years old shall be accursed. 

The duties of the younger. Lev. xix. 32. thou 
shalt rise up before the hoary head . 2 Chron. 
xxxiv. 3. in the eighth year of his reign, while he 
was yet young, he began to seek after God. Job 
xxxii. 4. Elihu had waited till Job had spoken, be 
cause they were elder than he. v. 6. I am young, 
and ye are very old ; wherefore I was afraid, and 
durst not show you mine opinion. Psal. xxv- 7. 
* remember not the sins of my youth . cxix. 9. 
wherewithal shall a young man cleanse his way ? . 
cxlviii. 12. young men and maidens.... praise the 
name of Jehovah. Eccles. xi. 9, 10. rejoice, O 
young man, in thy youth.... but know thou, that for all 
these things God will bring thee into judgment. xii. 
1 3. remember now thy Creator in the days of thy 
youth. 1 Tim. iv. 12. let no man despise thy 
youth, 2 Tim. iii. 15. from a child thou hast known 
the holy scriptures. Tit. ii. 6. young men likewise 
exhort to be sober-minded. 

The reverse. 2 Kings ii. 23. there came forth little 
children out of the city, and mocked him. 2 Chron. 
xxxvi. 9. Jehoiachin was eight years old when he 
began to reign.... and he did that which was evil in 
the sight of Jehovah. Psal. Iviii. 3. the wicked are 


estranged from the womb. Prov. xx. 11. even a 
child is known by its doings. Isai. iii. 5. the child 
shall behave himself proudly against the ancient. 

The duties of superiors. Ruth ii. 4. Boaz said 
unto the reapers, Jehovah be with you. Psal. xlix. 
20. * man that is in honour, and understandeth not, is 
like the beasts that perish. Prov. iii. 35. the wise 
shall inherit glory. 1 Pet. iv. 10. as every man 
hath received the gift, even so minister the same one 
to another, as good stewards of the manifold grace of 

The reverse. Prov. xxvi. 1. as snow in summer, 
and as rain in harvest, so honour is not seemly for a 
fool. Eccles. x. 5. 6. there is an evil that I have 
seen under the sun, as an error w r hich proceedeth from 
the ruler ; folly is set in great dignity . Isai. xxiii. 
9. to stain the pride of all glory . 

We are forbidden to glory in nobility of birth, or in 
rank, however exalted. Deut. xxvi. 5, &LC. thou 
shalt speak and say before Jehovah thy God, A Syrian 
ready to perish v/as my father . Job xii. 21. he 
poureth contempt upon princes. Psal. Ixxv. 7. God 
is the judge, he putteth down one, and setteth up 
another. cxiii. V. he raiseth up the poor out of 
the dust. Isai. xxxii. 8. the liberal deviseth liberal 
things, and by liberal things shall he stand. John i. 
13. which were born, not of blood . iii. 6. that 
which is bom of the flesh is flesh. viii. 39. if ye 
were Abraham s children, ye would do the works of 

Opposed to the proper duty of a superior, is an un 
authorized assumption of censorial power. 1 Pet. iv. 
15. a busybody in other men s matters. 

VOL. n. 55 


The duties of inferiors. Prov. xxvi. 8. as he that 
bindeth a stone in a sling, so is he that giveth honour 
to a fool. Ruth ii. 4. they answered him, Jehovah 
bless thee. v. 7. I pray you, let me glean and gather 
after the reapers. 2 Kings ii. 15. they came to 
meet him, and bowed themselves to the ground before 
him. Luke xiv. 9, 10. when thou art bidden, go and 
sit down in the lowest room. Rom. xiii. 7. render 
therefore to all their dues.... honour to whom honour. 

The reverse. James ii. 2, &c. if there come un 
to your assembly a man with a gold ring, &c. 

The duties of brethren and kinsmen. Gen. iv. 7. 
unto thee shall be his desire, and thou shalt rule over 
him. xiii. 8. let there be no strife, I pray thee, 
between thee and me. ..for we be brethren. xxix. 11. 
Jacob kissed Rachel, and lifted up his voice and 
wept. v. 13. he ran to meet him, and embraced 
him, and kissed him. xliii. 33. they sat before him, 
the first-born according to his birth-right . PsaL 
cxxxiii. 1 . behold how good and how pleasant it is for 
brethren to dwell together in unity. 

The reverse. 2 Chron. xxi. 4. he slew all his 
brethren . v. 13. and also hast slain thy brethren 
of thy father s house, which were better than thyself. 
Prov. xviii. 19. a brother offended is harder to be 
won than a strong city. 

The duties of masters. Exod. xxi. 26, 27. if a 
man strike the eye of his servant, or the eye of his 
maid, that it perish, he shall let him go free for his 
eye s sake. Job xxxi. 13. if I did despise the cause 
of my man-servant, or of my maid-servant, when they 
contended with me. PsaL ci. 6. he that walketh in 
a perfect way, he shall serve me. cxxvii. 1,2. ex- 


cept Jehovah build the house, they labour in vain that 
build it. Prov. iii. 33. he blesseth the habitation of 
the just. xiv. 11. the tabernacle of the upright 
shall flourish. xv. 6. * in the house of the righteous 
is much treasure. xxiv. 3, 4. through wisdom is an 
house builded, &c. xxvii. 23. be thou diligent to 
know the state of thy flocks . xxix. 21. he that 
delicately bringeth up his servant from a child, shall 
have him become his son at the length. Luke xvii. 
7 10. which of you having a servant plowing.... 
will not rather say unto him, Make ready wherewith 
I may sup... doth he thank that servant because he did 
the things that were commanded him ? I trow not. 
Eph. vi. 9. and ye, masters, do the same things 
unto them, forbearing threatening ; knowing that your 
master also is in heaven, neither is there respect of 
persons with him. Col. iv. 1. masters, give unto 
your servants that which is just and equal, &c. 1 
Tim. iii. 5. if a man know not how to rule his own 
house, &x% 

The reverse. Prov. iii. 33. { the curse of Jehovah 
is in the house of the wicked. xi. 29. he that 
troubleth his own house shall inherit the wind. xiv. 
11. the house of the wicked shall be overthrown. 
xv. 6. in the revenues of the wicked is trouble. v. 
25. Jehovah will destroy the house of the proud. 

Respecting the possession of slaves, and the extent 
of the master s authority, see Gen. xvii. 12. he that 
is born in the house, or bought with money of any 
stranger . Lev-it, xix. 20. whosoever lieth car 
nally with a woman that is a bondmaid, &c. xxv. 
44 46. < both thy bondmen and thy bondmaids which 
thou shalt have, &c. 1 Cor. vii. 21, 22. let every 


man abide in the same calling wherein he was call- them called being a servant, care not for it. 
See also the epistle to Philemon. Concerning the 
forfeiture, by insolvency, of the rights of freedom, see 
2 Kings iv. 1 . < the creditor is come to take unto him 
my two sons to be bondmen. Matt, xviii. 25. his 
lord commanded him to be sold, and his wife, &c. 

Respecting the punishment of slaves, see Gen. xvi. 
6. behold, the maid is in thine hand, do to her as it 
pleaseth thee. Prov. xxix. 19. a servant will not 
be corrected by words ; for, though he understand, he 
will not answer. Punishment, however, should not 
exceed due limits. Exod. xxi. 20, 21, 26, 27. if a 
man smite his servant, or his maid, and he die . 

Respecting the manumission of Hebrew slaves, see 
Exod. xxi. 2 4. Levit. xxv. 39, 40. Deut. xv. 12, 
13, 16, 17, &c. Jer. xxxiv. 

The duties of servants. Gen. xvi. 9. the angel of 
Jehovah said unto her, Return to thy mistress, and 
submit thyself under her hands. xxiv. 9. the ser 
vant put his hand under the thigh of Abraham his 
master, and sware to him . Prov. xvii. 2. a 
wise servant shall have rule over a son that causeth 
shame . xxv. 13. * so is a faithful messenger to 
them that send him, for he refresheth the soul of his 
masters. xxvii. 18. he that waiteth on his master 
shall be honoured. Eph. vi. 5 8. servants, be 
obedient to them that are your masters according to 
the flesh, with fear and trembling, in singleness of your 
heart, as unto Christ . See also Col. iii. 22, &c. 
1 Tim. vi. 1, 2. Met as many servants as are under 
the yoke count their own masters worthy of all hon 
our, that the name of God and his doctrine be not 


blasphemed : and they that have believing masters, 
let them not despise them.. ..because they are faith 
ful and beloved. Tit. ii. 9, 10. exhort servants to 
be obedient unto their own masters, and to please 
them in all things, not answering again, not purloin 
ing, but showing all fidelity, that they may adorn the 
doctrine of God our Saviour in all things. 1 Pet. ii. 
18, 19. servants, be subject to your masters with all 
fear, not only to the good and gentle, but also to the 
froward ; for this is thankworthy . 

The reverse. Gen. xvi. 4. her mistress was de 
spised in her eyes. 2 Kings v. 20, &c. Gehazi, 
the servant of Elisha the man of God, said, Behold, 
my master hath spared Naaman the Syrian, in not 
receiving at his hands that which he brought ; but as 
Jehovah liveth, I will run after him, and take some 
what of him. Prov. x. 26. as vinegar to the teeth... 
so is the sluggard to them that send him. xxvi. 6. 
he that sendeth a message by the hand of a fool 
cutteth off the feet, and drinketh damage. xxx. 22, 
23. for a servant when he reigneth, &c. 



THUS far of domestic duties. We are next to speak 
of those which are exercised towards strangers. 

The principal virtues in this class are almsgiving 
and hopitality. 

Almsgiving consists in affording relief to the poor, 

especially to such as are brethren, in proportion to our 

means, or even beyond them, without ostentation, and 

from, the motive of true charity* Exod. xxiii. 11. 

* the seventh year thou shalt let the land rest, and lie 
still, that the poor of thy people may eat. Dent. xv. 
2. this is the manner of the release, &c. v. 11. 

* thou shalt open thine hand wide unto thy brother, to 
thy poor and to thy needy, in thy land. xxiv. 19 21. 
4 when thou cuttest down thine harvest in thy field . 
Luke iii. 11. i he that hath two coats, let him impart 
to him that hath none. xiv. 12 14. when thou 
makest a dinner.... call not thy friends.. ..lest they also 

* Milton, when speaking of his mother, particularly notices her charit 
able disposition. c Londini sum natus....matre probatissima, et eleemosynis 
per viciniam potissimum nota. Deftnsio Secunda pro Populo ^.nglicano. 
Prose Works, V. 230. 


bid thee again... .but call the poor, the lame, foe, 
xvi. 9. make to yourselves friends of the mammon 
of unrighteousness, that when ye fail, they may re 
ceive you into everlasting habitations. Christ him 
self, although poor, set us an example of this virtue. 
John xiii. 29. that he should give something to the 
poor. Eph. iv. 28. < rather let him labour.... that he 
may have to give to him that needeth. 

In proportion to our means. Matt. x. 42. whoso 
ever shall give to drink unto one of these little ones a 
cup of cold water only in my name . Luke xi. 41 . 
* rather give alms of such things as ye have. Acts 
iii. 6. silver and gold have I none, but such as I have 
give I thee. 2 Cor. viii. 12, 13. if there be first a 
willing mind, it is accepted according to that a man 
hath, and not according to that he hath not. 

Or even beyond them. Luke xxi. 4. all these 
have of their abundance cast in unto the offerings of 
God, but she of her penury hath cast in all the living 
that she had. 2 Cor. viii. 3. to their power, I bear 
record, yea, and beyond their power, they were wil 
ling of themselves. He subjoins however, v. 13. I 
mean not that other men be eased, and ye burdened ; 
but by an equality, that now at this time your abun 
dance may be a supply for their want. On this, as 
on similar occasions, we are to be guided by geomet 
rical rather than by arithmetrical proportion, regulating 
our bounty according to the rank and dignity, the ed 
ucation and previous condition of each individual ; 
lest we fall into the absurdity of equalizing those 
whom nature never intended for an equality. 

To the poor ; that is, to such as are unable to sup 
port themselves by their own labour and exertions. 


Lev. xxv. 35. if thy brother be waxen poor, and 
fallen in decay with thee, then thou shalt relieve him : 
yea, though he be a stranger. Deut* xv. 7, &c. if 
there be among you a poor man, &c. 2 Thess. iii. 
10. if any would not work, neither should he eat. 
Hence we are not bound to relieve those vagrants and 
beggars who are such of choice, and not of necessity. 
v. 11, 12. we hear that there are some which walk 
among you disorderly, working not at all, but are bu- 
sybodies ; now them that are such we command and 
exhort by our Lord Jesus Christ, that with quietness 
they work, and eat their own bread. Among the 
poor are to be reckoned orphans and widows, on ac 
count of the desolate situation of the one, and the 
tender age of the other. Exod. xxii. 22 24. ye 
shall not afflict any widow or fatherless child. Dent. 
x. 18. he doth create the judgment of the fatherless 
and widow. xiv. 28, 29. at the end of three 
years thou shalt bring forth all the tithe of thine in 
crease.. ..and the stranger, and the fatherless, and the 
widow, which are within thy gates, shall come, and 
shall eat and be satisfied. xxvii. 19. cursed be he 
that perverteth the judgment of the fatherless or wid 
ow. Job xxix. 11, &:c. because I delivered the poor 
that cried, and the fatherless xxxi. 16. if I have 
withheld the poor from their desire, or have caused 
the eyes of the widow to fail ; or have eaten my 
morsel myself alone, and the fatherless have not eaten 
thereof. Psal. Ixviii. 5. a father of the fatherless, 
and a judge of the widows, is God in his holy habita 
tion. cxlvi. 9. he relieveth the fatherless and widow. 
Prov. xxiii. 10, 11, enter not into the fields of the 
fatherless ; for their redeemer is mighty. To these 


may be added such as are weak or helpless from any 
cause whatever, and all who are in affliction, espe 
cially for religion s sake. Isai. Iviii. 7. 4 is it not to 
deal thy bread to the hungry, and that thou bring the 
poor that are cast out to thy house ? when thou seest 
the naked, that thou cover him, and that thou hide not 
thyself from thine own flesh ? Matt. xxv. 36. naked, 
and ye clothed me ; sick, &c. Luke xiv. 13. call 
the poor, the maimed, the lame, the blind. Heb. vi. 
10. God is not unrighteous to forget your work and 
labour of love which ye have showed toward his 
name, in that ye have ministered to the saints, and do 

Without ostentation. Prov. xxi. 14. a gift in se 
cret pacifieth anger, and a reward in the bosom strong 
wrath. Matt. vi. 1, &c. \vhen thou doest thine 
alms, do not sound a trumpet before thee . 2 Cor. 
viii. 24. wherefore show ye to them, and before the 
churches, the proof of your love, and of our boasting 
on your behalf. 

Out of true charity. 1 Cor. xiii. 3. though I be 
stow all my goods to feed the poor, and though I give 
my body to be burned, and have not charity, I am 
nothing. Not therefore of compulsion. 2 Cor. viii. 
3. they were willing of themselves. v. 8. < I speak 
not by commandment, but by occasion of the for 
wardness of others, and to prove the sincerity of your 

Scripture every where declares that the reward of 
almsgiving is great. Job xxix. 11 25. when the 
ear heard me, then it blessed me... .because I delivered 
the poor that cried, &c. Psal. xli. 1. 6 blessed is he 
that considereth the poor : Jehovah will deliver him 

VOL. IT. 56 


in the time of trouble. cxii. 9. compared with 2 Cor. 
ix. 8, 9. God is able to make all grace abound to 
ward you, that ye, always having all sufficiency in all 
things, may abound to every good work; as it is 
written, He hath dispersed abroad, he hath given to 
the poor, his righteousness remaineth for ever. Prov. 
xiv. 21. he that hath mercy on the poor, happy is 
he. xix. 17.. he that hath pity upon the poor lendeth 
to Jehovah, and that \vhich he hath given will he pay 
him again. xxii. 9. he that hath a bountiful eye 
shall be blessed, for he giveth of his bread to the 
poor. xxviii. 27. he that giveth to the poor shall 
not lack. Isai. Iviii. 6, &c. is it not to deal thy 
bread to the hungry ? &c. then shall thy light break 
forth as the morning. Matt. x. 40 42. he that 
receiveth you, receiveth me, and he that receiveth me, 
receiveth him that sent me. xxv. 34, 35. come, ye 
blessed of my Father....for I was an hungered, and ye 
gave me meat . Luke xi. 41. give alms. ...and 
behold, all things are pure unto you. xii. 33. pro 
vide yourselves bags which wax not old, a treasure in 
the heavens that faileth not. xiv. 12 14. thou 
shalt be blessed, for they cannot recompense thee. 
Acts x. 2 4. thy prayers and thine alms are come 
up for a memorial before God. 2 Cor. ix. 6. he 
\vhich soweth bountifully shall reap also bountifully. 
1 Tim. vi. 18, 19. laying up in store for themselves 
a good foundation against the time to come, that they 
may lay hold on eternal life. 

On the other hand, the neglect of this duty is con 
demned, Prov. xxi. 13. whoso stoppeth his ears at 
the cry of the poor, he also shall cry himself, but 
shall not be heard. xxviii. 27. he that hideth his 


eyes shall have many a curse. Matt. xxv. 45. in 
asmuch as ye did it not to one of the least of these, 
ye did it not to me. 2 Cor. ix. 6. he which soweth 
sparingly, shall reap also sparingly. 

Hospitality consists in receiving under our own 
roof, or providing for the kind reception of the poor 
and strangers ; especially such as are recommended 
to us by the churches, or by our brethren in/the faith. 
Deut. xxiii. 7, 8. thou shalt not abhor an Edomite, 
for he is thy brother ; thou shalt not abhor an Egyp 
tian, because thou wast a stranger in his land. Job 
xxxi. 32. the stranger did not lodge in the street . 
Romrxn. 13. distributing to the necessity of saints, 
given to hospitality. xvi. 2. that ye receive her in 
the Lord, as becometh saints, and that ye assist her 
in whatsoever business she hath need of you, for she 
hath been a succourer of many, and of myself also. 
Heb. xiii. 2. be not forgetful to entertain strangers ; 
for thereby some have entertained angels unawares. 
1 Pet. iv. 9. use hospitality one to another without 
grudging. 3 John 5, 6, &c. l beloved, thou doest 
faithfully whatsoever thou doest to the brethren, and 
to strangers ; which have borne witness of,thy charity 
before the church. The reward of a hospitable spirit 
is signally exemplified in the woman of Sarepta, and 
in the Shunamite, who received prophets under their 

Injury or oppression of guests or strangers was for 
bidden by various laws, recorded Exocl xxii. 21, &c. 
Levit. xix. 33, 34. Deut. x. 18, 19. 

Opposed to this is inhospitality. Deut. xxvii. 19. 
cursed be he that perverteth the judgment of the 


stranger. Ezek. xxii. 29. they have vexed the poor 
and needy, yea, they have oppressed the stranger 
wrongfully. 3 John 10. not content therewith, nei 
ther doth he himself receive the brethren, and forbid- 
deth them that would, and casteth them out of the 



HITHERTO we have treated of the private duties of 
man towards his neighbour. Public duties are of two 
kinds, political and ecclesiastical. 

Under political duties are comprehended the obli 
gations of the magistrate and the people to each other, 
and to foreign nations. 

The duties of the magistrate to the people are de 
scribed Exod. xxiii. 8. thou shalt take no gift, for 
the gift blindeth the wise. xxxii. 11. Moses be 
sought Jehovah his God, and said, Jehovah, why doth 
thy wrath wax hot against thy people ? Lev. xix. 1 5. 
thou shalt not respect the person of the poor, nor 
honour the person of the mighty ; but in righteous 
ness shalt thou judge thy neighbour. Num. xL 11, 
&c. wherefore have I not found favour in thy sight, 
that thou layest the burden of all this people upon 
me? xiv. 13. Moses said unto Jehovah, Then the 
Egyptians shall hear it . Dent. i. 9. < I am not 
able to bear you myself alone. xvii. 20. that his 
heart be not lifted up above his brethren, and that he 
turn not aside from the commandment to the right 


hand or to the left. 1 Kings ii. 3. keep the charge 
of Jehovah thy God . iii. 8 10. l give thy servant 
an understanding heart to judge thy peeple . See 
also 2 Chron. i. 10. 1 Chron. xiii. 2. * David said 
unto all the congregation of Israel, If it seem good 
unto you, and that it be of Jehovah our God, let 
us send abroad unto our brethren every where . 
xxviii. 2. hear me, my brethren, and my people. 2 
Chron. xix. 6. he said to the judges, Take heed 
what ye do, for ye judge not for man, but for Jehovah, 
who is with you in the judgment. Psal. Ixxii. 2. 

* he shall judge thy people with righteousness, and 
thy poor with judgment. Ixxv. 2. when I shall re 
ceive the congregation, I will judge uprightly. Ixxxii. 
3. defend the poor and fatherless. Prov. xi. 14. 
where no counsel is, the people fall ; but in the mul 
titude of counsellors there is safety. xvi. 12. it is 
an abomination to kings to commit wickedness, for 
the throne is established by righteousness. xxix. 4. 

* the king by judgment establisheth the land, but he 
that receiveth gifts overthroweth it. xviii. 17. i he 
that is first in his own cause seemeth just, but his 
neighbour cometh and searcheth him. xx. 8. a 
king that sitteth in the throne of judgment scattereth 
away all evil with his eyes. xxiv. 23. it is not 
good to have respect of persons in judgment. xxxi. 
1 10. < the words of king Lemuel, &c. Jer. xxi. 
12. thus saith Jehovah.. .Execute judgment in the 
morning. xxii. 3, 4. 6 execute ye judgment and right 
eousness. Neh. v. 14. from the time that I was ap 
pointed to be their governor....! and my brethren have 
not eaten the bread of the governor. Matt. xx. 25 
27. ye know that the princes of the Gentiles exer- 


else dominion over them, and they that are great ex 
ercise authority upon them ; but it shall not be so 
among you ; but whosoever will be great among you, 
let him be your minister. See also Mark x. 42, &c. 
Luke xxii. 25, &c. Rom. xiii. 3, 4. rulers are not 
a terror to good works, but to the evil.... for he is the 
minister of God to thee for good. 

In the matter of reward and punishment. Psal. ci. 

4, &c. a froward heart shall depart from me mine 

eyes shall be upon the faithful of the land. Inor 
dinate punishment is forbidden. Deut. xxv. 3. forty 
stripes he may give him, and not exceed. 1 Kings ii. 
26, thou art worthy of death, but I will not at this 
time put thee to death, because, &c. 

The right of the magistrate as regards the sword. 
Gen. ix. 6. whoso sheddeth man s blood, by man 
shall his blood be shed. Job xii. 18. he looseth the 
bond of kings. Psal. Ixxv. 6. promotion cometh 
neither from the east, nor from the west, nor from the 
south. Prov. viii, 15, 16. by me kings reign. Dem. 
ii. 21. he changeth the times and the seasons. iv. 
17. that the living may know that the most High 
ruleth in the kingdom of men. v. 1 8 20. the most 
high God gave Nebuchadnezzar thy father a kingdom, 

and majesty, &c but when his heart was lifted 

up he was deposed from his kingly throne. Rom. 

xiii. 1, &c. let every soul be subject unto the higher 

powers for he beareth not the sword in vain ; if 

therefore not in vain, much less for the injury of the 
good.* 1 Pet. ii. 13, 14. as unto them that are sent 
by him for the punishment of evil doers. 

* Definiendo enim explicat, nequis errare et opiniones hinc stolida* 
aucupari possit, qui sint magistrate potestatis hujus niinistri, et quam 


Of the election of magistrates, see Exod. xviiL 21. 
6 thou shalt provide out of all the people able men, .... 
and place such over them. Numb. xi. 16, 17, 25. 
6 gather unto me seventy men . Deut. i. 13, &c. 
1 take you wise men and understanding . 1 Sam. 
xi. 15. compared with xii. 1. all the people went 
to Gilgal, and there they made Saul king .... behold, 
I have hearkened unto your voice in all that ye said 
unto me, and have made a king over you. 2 Sam. 
ii. 4. the men of Judah came, and there they anointed 
David king over the house of Judah. 

The following texts show what is contrary to the 
duties of the magistrate. Psal. xxvi. 10. their right 
hand is full of bribes. xciv. 20. shall the throne of 
iniquity have fellowship with thee ? Prov. xvii. 23. 
a wicked man taketh a gift out of the bosom to per 
vert the ways of judgment. xxi. 7. * they refuse to 
do judgment. xxviii. 15, 16. as a roaring lion and 
a ranging bear, so is a wicked ruler over the poor 
people. xxix. 4. he that receiveth gifts overthrow- 
eth the land. v. 12. if a ruler hearken to lies, all his 
servants are wicked. Eccles. iv. 13. better is a 
poor and wise child, than an old and foolish king who 
will no more be admonished. x. 5, 6. there is an 
evil which I have seen under the sun, as an error 
which proceed eth from the ruler ; folly is set in great 
dignity . v. 16, 17. woe to thee, O land, when 
thy king is a child, and thy princes eat in the morn 
ing. Isai. i. 23. thy princes are rebellious and 

ob causam eubjectos es?e nos hortetur ; c Magistratus non sunt tiraori bonis 
operibus, sed mails; boni a polestale hac laudem adipiscenlur ; magis- 
tratus minister est Dei nostro bono dalus ; non frnstra gladium gerit, 
\-index ad iram ei qui malum facit. Pro Populo Anghcano Denfensio. 
Prose Works, V. 87. 


companions of thieves, every one loveth gifts, and 
followeth after rewards, they judge not the fatherless, 
neither doth the cause of the widow come unto them. 
iii 4. 1 will give children to be their princes, and 
babes shall rule over them. v. 12. as for my peo 
ple, children are their oppressors, and women rule 
over them. v. 14. Jehovah will enter into judg 
ment with the ancients of his people . v. 23. which 
justify the wicked for reward. x. 12. I will punish 
the fruit of the stout heart of the king of Assyria. 
Ezek. xxix. 3. behold, I am against thee, Pharaoh 
king of Egypt, &c. Amos v. 7. ye who turn judg 
ment to wormwood . See also vi. 12. Micah iii. 
11. the heads thereof judge for reward . vii. 3. 
the prince asketh, and the judge asketh for a re 

The licentiousness of courts is exposed, Gen. xii. 15. 
4 the princes also of Pharaoh saw her and commended 
her before Pharaoh. Prov. \xv.5. take away the 
wicked from before the king, and his throne shall be 
established in righteousness. 2 Chron. xxiv. 17. 
4 after the death of Jehoiada came the princes of Ju- 
dah, &,c. Isai. xxii. 15, 16. get thee unto this treas 
urer, even unto Shebna, which is over the house, &c. 
1 Kings xxi. 7. Jezebel his wife said unto him, Dost 
thou now govern the kingdom of Israel ? Esther 
iii. 6. he thought scorn to lay hands on Mordecai 
alone . v. 9. if it please the king, let it be writ 
ten that they may be destroyed. Dan. vi. 7. all the 

presidents of the kingdom have consulted together 

to make a royal decree . 

It is especially the duty of the magistrate to encour 
age religion and the service of God (public worship 

VOL, ir. 57 


in particular), and to reverence the church. Isai. 
xlix. 23. kings shall be thy nursing fathers, and their 
queens thy nursing mothers ; they shall bow down to 
thee with their face toward the earth, and lick up the 
dust of thy feet. That the church, however, does 
not stand in need of the superintendence of the mag 
istrate, but that, if left in peace, she is fully qualified, 
in the exercise of her own proper laws and discipline, 
to govern herself aright, and enlarge her boundaries, 
is evident from Acts ix. 31. then had the churches 
rest throughout all Judea and Galilee and Samaria, 
and were edified, and walking in the fear of the Lord 
and in the comfort of the Holy Ghost, were multi 

Religion therefore is to be protected by the magis 
trate, not forced upon the people.* Josh. xxiv. 15. * if 
it seem evil unto you to serve Jehovah, choose you 

this day whom ye will serve but as for me and my 

house, we will serve Jehovah. Psal. cv. 14. he 
suffered no man to do them wrong, yea, he reproved 
kings for their sakes, saying, Touch not mine anoint 
ed, and do my prophets no harm. If then kings are 
forbidden to exercise violence against religious persons 
in any matter whatever, much more are they forbidden 

* See on this and the following paragraph the treatise On, Civil Power 
in Ecclesiastical Causes, throughout. Again, in the History of Britain : 
1 While they taught compulsion without convincement, which not long 
before they complained of as executed unchristianly against themselves, 
these intents are clear to have been no better than antichristian ; setting 
up a spiritual tyranny by a secular power, to the advancing of their own 
authority above the magistrate, whom they would have made their execu 
tioner to punish church-delinquencies, whereof civil laws have no cog 
nizance. Prose Works, IV. 84. This was one of the paragraphs omitted 
for political reasons in all the early editions of the History of Britain. It 
appeared first in the collection of Milton s Works published in 2 vols. 
folio, 1733. 


to force the consciences of such persons in the matter 
of religion itself, especially on points where the mag 
istrate is fully as liable to be mistaken as the pope, 
and is actually mistaken in many instances ; unless 
indeed they are content, like him, to be accounted 
antichrist, a name given to the pope himself chiefly 
from his encroachments on the consciences of man 
kind. True it is, that the Jewish kings and magis 
trates interposed their judgment in matters of religion, 
and even employed force in the execution of their de 
crees ; but this was only in cases where the law of 
God was clear and express, and where the magistrate 
might safely decide without danger of mistake or con 
troversy. In our own times, on the contrary, Christians 
are on many occasions persecuted or subjected to 
punishment for matters either purely controversial, or 
left by Christian liberty to the judgment of each be 
liever, or concerning w^hich there is no express declar 
ation in the gospel. Against such magistrates, Chris 
tians only in name, many heathen and Jewish rulers 
will rise in judgment, and among the rest Pontius 
Pilate himself, whose deference to Jewish opinions 
was such, that he did not think it derogatory to his 
proconsular dignity to go out to speak to the Jews, 
when they, from a religious scruple, declined entering 
the judgment-hall. John xviii. 28,29. So also Gama 
liel, Acts v. 39. if it be of God, ye cannot overthrow 
it ; and Gallic, xviii. 15. I will be no judge of such 

For if even the ecclesiastical minister is not entitled 
to exercise absolute authority over the church, much 
less can the civil magistrate claim such authority.* 2 

* 4 Why did he lay restraints, and force enlargements upon our con 
science? in thine* for which we were to answer God only and the church? 


Cor. i. 24. not for that we have dominion over your 
faith, but are helpers of your joy ; for by faith ye 
stand. Coloss. ii. 18. Met no man beguile you of 
your reward in a voluntary humility, &c. 1 Pet. v. 
3. neither as being lords over God s heritage. Rom. 
xiv. 4. who art thou that judgest another man s 
servant ? See also James iv. 12. For other argu 
ments to the same effect, I refer to Book I. of this 
treatise, under the heads of Christ s kingdom, faith, 
the gospel, Christian liberty, church discipline and its 
objects. Undoubtedly, as the kingdom of Christ is 
not of this world, so neither is it sustained by force 
and compulsion, the supports of earthly rule. Hence 
the outward profession of the gospel ought not to be 
made a matter of constraint ; and as to the inner 
parts of religion, faith and liberty and conscience, 
these are beyond its power, being from their very 
nature matter of ecclesiastical discipline alone, and 
incapable of being affected by the determinations of 
human tribunals : not to mention the absurdity and 
impiety of compelling the conscientious to adopt a 
religion which they do not approve, or of constrain 
ing the profane to bear a part in that public worship 
from which God has interdicted them. Psal. 1. 16, 
17. unto the wicked God said, What hast thou to do 
to declare my statutes, or that thou shouldest take my 
covenant in thy mouth ? Prov. xv. 8. and xxi. 27. 
c the sacrifice of the wicked is an abomination ; how 
much more when he bringeth it with a wicked 
mind ? 

God bids us be subject for conscience sake, that is, as to a magistrate, 
and in the laws, not usurping over spiritual things, as Lucifer beyond his 
sphere. ^Answer to Eikon Basilike. Prose Works, III. 34. 


For the duties of the people towards the magis 
trate, see Exod. xxii. 28. thou shalt not revile the 
gods, nor curse the ruler of thy. people. 2 Sam. xxi. 
17. then the men of David sware unto him, saying, 
Thou shalt go no more out with us to battle, that 
thou quench not the light of Israel. Prov. xxiv. 
21, 22. my son, fear thou Jehovah and the king. 
xxix. 2G. many seek the ruler s favour, but every 
man s judgment cometh from Jehovah. Eccles. viii. 
2. I counsel thee to keep the king s commandment, 
and that in regard of the oath of God. Matt. xxii. 
21. render unto Caesar the things that are Caesar s, 
and unto God the things that are God s. Rom. xiii. 
1. let every soul be subject unto the higher pow 
ers . 1 Tim. ii. 1, 2. I exhort therefore, that 

first of all supplications be made for all men, for 

kings, and for all that are in authority. Tit. iii. 1. 
* put them in mind to be subject to principalities and 
powers, to obey magistrates, to be ready to every 
good work. 1 Pet. ii. 13. submit yourselves to 
every ordinance of God for the Lord s sake. 

Even towards unjust magistrates. Matt. xvii. 26, 
27. then are the children free ; notwithstanding, lest 
we should offend them, &c. Acts xxiii. 4, &c. * re- 
vilest thou God s high priest ? I wist not, breth 
ren, that he was the high priest : for it is written, 
Thou shalt not speak evil of the ruler of thy people. 
Those cases must be excepted, in which compliance 
with the commands of men would be incompatible 
with our duty towards God. Exod. i. 17. the mid- 
wives feared God, and did not as the king of Egypt 
commanded them. - ii. 2. she hid him three months. 
Josh. i. 17. only Jehovah thy God be with thee. 


1 Sam. xiv. 45. 6 so the people rescued Jonathan, that 
he died not. xx. 1, &;c. he said unto him, God 
forbid, thou shalt not die. xxii. 17. the servants of 
the king would not put forth their hand. 2 Chron. 
xxi. 10. * Libnah revolted from under his hand, be 
cause he had forsaken Jehovah God of his fathers. 
xxvi. 18. they withstood Uzziah the king. Esth. 
i\i. 2, 4. Mordecai bowed not, nor did him rever 
ence. Dan. iii. 16. we are not careful to answer 
thee in this matter. v. 1 8. if not, be it known unto 
thee, O king, that we will not serve thy gods. vi. 
10. when Daniel knew that the writing was signed, 
he went into his house, &c. Acts iv. 19. whether 
it be right in the sight of God to hearken unto you 
more than unto God, judge ye. Heb. xi. 23. * by 
faith Moses when he was born was hid three months 

of his parents and they were not afraid of the 

king s commandment. 

Opposed to this are, first, rebellion. Numb. xvi. 

1. now Korah took men . 2 Sam. xx. 1. 

4 and there happened to be there a man of Belial, 
whose name was Sheba, &c. 

Secondly, obedience in things unlawful. 1 Sam. 
xxii. 18. c Doeg the Edomite turned, and he fell upon 
the priests, &c. 

The opinion maintained by some, that obedience 
is due to the commands not only of an upright mag 
istrate, but of an usurper, and that in matters con 
trary to justice, has no foundation in Scripture.* For 

* Neither God nor nature put civil power into the ham s of any whom 
soever, but to a lawful end, and commands our obedience to the author 
ity of law only, not to the tyrannical force of any person. Jlnswer to 
Eiken Basilik e. Prose Works, III. 52. l Quie autcm potestas, qui mag- 


with regard to 1 Pet. ii. 13. * submit yourselves to 
every ordinance of man, it is evident from v. 14. 
that although this passage comprehends all human 
ordinances, all forms of government indiscriminately, 
it applies to them only so far as they are legitimately 
constituted. The eighteenth verse, which is alleged 
to the same purpose, relates to servants exclusively, 
and affords no rule for the conduct of free nations, 
whose rights are of a kind altogether distinct from 
those of purchased or hired servants. As for the obe 
dience of the Israelites to Pharaoh, we have no means 
of ascertaining whether it was voluntary or compul 
sory, or whether in obeying they acted rightly or 
otherwise, inasmuch as we are no where told, either 
that they were enjoined to obey him, or that their 
obedience was made matter of commendation. The 
conduct of Daniel in captivity is equally foreign to 
the purpose, as under his circumstances it was impos 
sible for him to act otherwise. Besides, it is written, 
Psalm Ix. 4. * thou hast given a banner to them that 
feared thee, that it may be displayed because of the 
truth. J That it may be the part of prudence to obey 
the commands even of a tyrant in lawful things, or, 
more properly, to comply with the necessity of the 
times for the sake of public peace, as well as of per 
sonal safety,* I am far from denying. 

istratus, contraria his facit, neqne ilia, neque hie, a Deo proprie ordinatus 
est. Unde neque tali vel polestati vel maeristratui subjectio debetur aut 
praecipitur, neque nos prudeuter obsiitere prohibemur. 1 Pro Populo Jln- 
glicano Defenrio. V. 88. 

* This is a remarkable paesage, considering the prominent part taken 
by the author not only against the monarchy, but against the monarch 
himself. It is evident that his experience of the miseries caused by the 
civil disturbances of those evil times had taught him that a regard to the 


The duties of the magistrate and people towards 
their neighbours regard the transactions of peace and 

Under the head of peace are included international 
treaties. In order to ascertain whether, in particular 
cases, these may be lawfully contracted with the wick 
ed, we ought to consider the purposes for which trea 
ties are concluded, whether simply for the sake of 
peace, or of mutual defence and closer intimacy. 

Of the former class are the confederacy of Abraham 
with the men of Mamre, Gen. xiv. 13. and with Abi- 
melech, xxi. 27. that of Isaac with Abimelech, xxvi. 
29 31. that of Solomon with Hiram, 1 Kings v. 12. 
from which examples the lawfulness of such alliances 
appears evident. 

Of the latter class are the treaties of Asa with 
Benhadad, I Kings xv. 19. of Jehoshaphat with the 
house of Ahab, 2 Chron. xviii. 1. compared with xix. 
2. of Amaziah with the Israelites, xxv. 6 8. of Ahaz 
with the Assyrians, 2 Kings xvi. 7. and that which 
the Jews sought to contract with the Egyptians, Isai. 
xxx. 2, &c. These were unlawful, and led to calam 
itous results. Exod. xxiii. 32. thou shalt make no 
covenant with them, nor with their gods. xxxiv. 12. 
take heed to thyself lest thou make a covenant 
with the inhabitants of the land whither thou 
goest, lest it be fora snare in the midst of thee. See 
also v. 15. Deut. vii. 4. they will turn away thy son 
from following me. Ezek. xvi. 26. ; thou hast com 
mitted fornication with the Egyptians thy neighbours, 

general good might sometimes render a temporary sacrifice of abstract 
rights not inconsistent with the sincercst love of political or religious 


great of flesh. 2 Cor. vi. 14. be not ye unequally 
yoked with unbelievers, for what fellowship hath 
righteousness with unrighteousness, and what com 
munion hath light with darkness ? 

Asa, 2 Ckron. xvi. 3. and Zedekiah, xxxvi. 13. 
Ezek. xvii. are examples of the violation of treaties. 

On the subject of asylums see Num. xxxv. 6 15. 
Deut. xxiii. 15. 

With regard to the duties of war, it is enjoined, 
first, that it be not undertaken without mature delib 
eration. Prov. xx. 18. xxiv. 6. Luke xiv. 31. w T hat 
king going to make war against another king sitteth 
not down first and consulteth ? Secondly, that it 
be carried on wisely and skilfully. 1 Sam. xiv. 28. 
thy father straitly charged the people with an oath, 
&c. xxiii. 22. it is told me that he dealeth very 
subtiliy. Prov. xxi. 22. a wise man scaleth the 
city of the mighty. Thirdly, that it be prosecuted 
with moderation. Dent. xx. 19. thou shalt not de 
stroy the trees thereof, &c. Fourthly, that it be 
waged in a spirit of godliness. Deut. xxiii. 9, &c. 
when the host <goeth forth against thine enemies, 
then keep thee from every wicked thing. xxxii. 29, 

30. O that they were wise how should one chase 

a thousand ! 1 Sam. vii. 10. as Samuel was offer 
ing up the burnt-offeiing Jehovah thundered with 

a great thunder on that day against the Philistines. 

Isai. xxxi. 6. turn ye unto him then shall the 

Assyrian fall with the sword. Amos i. 13. because 
they have ripped up the women with child of Gilead, 
that they might enlarge their border. Fifthly, that 
no mercy be shown to a merciless enemy. 1 Sam. 
xv. 33. as thy sword hath made women childless, 
so shall thy mother be childless among women. Psal. 

VOL. u. 58 


xv Hi. 41, 42. they cried, but there was none to save 

them then did I beat them small as the dust before 

the wind. Ix. 8. Moab is my wash-pot : over Edom 
will I cast out my shoe . Jer. xlviii. 10. cursed 
be he that keepeth back his sword from blood. 
Sixthly, that our confidence be not placed in human 
strength, but in God alone. Exod. xiv. 17, 18. I 
will get me honour upon Pharaoh and all his host. 
Deut. xx. 1. when thou goest out to battle against 
thine enemies, and seest horses and chariots, &c. 1 
Sam. xiv. 6. there is no restraint to Jehovah to save 
by many or by few. xvii. 47. all this assembly 
shall know that Jehovah saveth not with sword and 
spear. PsaL xxxiii. 16, 17. there is no king saved 
by the multitude of an host . xliv, 2, &c. thou 
didst drive out the heathen with thine hand . Ix. 1. 
4 O God, thou hast cast us off, &c. cxliv. 1. blessed 
be Jehovah my strength, which teacheth my hands to 
war. cxlvii. 10. he delighteth not in the strength 
of the horse. v. 13. he hath strengthened the bars 
of thy gates . Prov. xxi. 31. the horse is prepared 
against the day of battle ; but safety is of Jehovah. 
2 Chron. xiv. 11. it is nothing with thee to help, 
whether with many, or with them that have no pow 
er . xx. 21. he appointed singers unto Jehovah, 
&c. xxiv. 24. ; the army of the Syrians came with 
a small company of men, and Jehovah delivered a 
very great host into their hand. Isai. v. 26. he 
will lift up an ensign to the nations from far, &c. 
Jer. xxi. 4. I will turn back the weapons of war that 
are in your hands . xxxvii. 10. for though ye 
had smitten the whole army of the Chaldeans that 
fight against you, &c. Ezek.xiu. 5. ye have not gone 
up into the gaps, neither made up the hedge for the 


house of Israel . Zech. x. 5, 6. they shall be as 
mighty men which tread down their enemies in tin; 
mire of the streets in the battle . Amos ii. 14. the 
strong shall not strengthen his force. Seventhly, 
that the booty be distributed in equitable proportions. 
Numb. xxxi. 27. divide the prey into two parts be 
tween them that took the war upon them, who went 
out to battle, and between all the congregation. 
Deut. xx. 14. all the spoil thereof shalt thou take 
unto thyself, and thou shalt eat the spoil of thine ene 
mies. Josh. xxii. 8, he blessed them, and he spake 
unto them, saying, Return with much riches unto 
your tents . 1 Sam. xxx. 24. * as his part is that 
goeth down to the battle, so shall his part be that 
tarrieth by the stuff. 

There seems no reason why war should be unlaw 
ful now, any more than in the time of the Jews ; nor 
is it any where forbidden in the New Testament. 
Psal. cxlix. 6. let a two-edged sword be in their 
hand. Two centurions, namely, the man of Caper 
naum and Cornelius, are reckoned among believers, 
Matt. viii. Acts x. Neither does John exhort the sol 
diers to refrain from war, but only from wrong and 
robbery ; Luke in. 14. he said unto the soldiers, Do 
violence to no man . 1 Cor. ix. 7. who goeth a 
warfare any time at his own charges ? Paul like 
wise availed himself of a guard of soldiers for his 
personal security; Acts xxiii. 17. bring this young 
man unto the chief captain. 

The observance of the divine commandments is the 
source of prosperity to nations. See Lev. xxvi. It 
renders them flourishing, wealthy, and victorious, 
Deut. xv. 4 6. lords over many nations, v. 6. xxvi. 
17 19. exalted above all others, xxviii. 1, &c. a 


chapter which should be read again and again by those 
who have the direction of political affairs.* Compare 
also chap. xxix. and iv. Judges ii. and iii. and PsaL 
xxxiii. 12. blessed is the nation whose God is Je 
hovah. Prov, xi. 11. by the blessing of the upright 
the city is exalted. xiv. 34. righteousness exalteth a 
nation. xxviii. 2. for the transgression of a land 
many are the princes thereof. See also Isai. iii. and 
xxiv. xlviii. 18. O that thou hadst hearkened to my 
commandments ! See also Jer. v. Ezek. vii. 

The consequences of impiety to nations are de 
scribed, Isai. iii. 7. in my house is neither bread nor 
clothing, make me not a ruler of the people. Ivii. 
9, 10, 13. thou wentest to the king with ointment .* 
Hos. v. 13. when Ephraim saw his sickness, &c. 
vii. 11, 12. Ephraim also is like a silly dove without 
near t . x ii. 1. Ephraim feedeth on wind, .and fol- 
loweth after the east wind . woe 
to him that buildeth a town with blood. 

Public ecclesiastical duties consist in the reciprocal 
obligations of ministers, and of the church considered 
collectively and individually. 

The duties of ministers towards the church in 
general, and towards individual believers in particu- 

* For Milton s opinion of the value of the Scriptures as teachers of 
political wisdom, see Paradise Regained, IV. 353. 
Their orators thou then extoll st, as those, 
The top of eloquence, statists indeed, 
And lovers of their country, as may seem ; 
But herein to our prophets far beneath, 
As men divinely taught, and better teaching 
The solid rules of civil government 
In their rr.cijestie unaffected style 
Than all the oratory of Greece and Rome. 
In them is plainest taught, and easiest learnt 
What makes a nation happy, and keeps it so, 
What ruins kingdoms, and lays cities flat ; 
These only with our law best form a king. 


/ar, are stated in the first book, in the chapter on 
ministers. Towards the church in general : Jer. i. 
7, 8. say not, I am a child : for thou shalt go to all 
that I shall send thee, &c. v. 17 19. gird up thy 
loins, and arise, and speak unto them all that I com 
mand thee. xv. 10, 11. woe is me, my mother, that 
thou hast borne me a man of strife and a man of con 
tention to the whole earth. xviii. 19, &c. remem 
ber that I stood before thee to speak good for them. 
xx. 7, &c. thou hast deceived me, and I was de 
ceived I am in derision daily. Isai. Iviii. 1. < cry 

aloud, spare not, lift up thy voice like a trumpet, and 
show my people their transgression . Ezek. ii. 6. 
* thou, son of man, be not afraid of them, &c. iii. 8, 
9. < behold, I have made thy face strong against their 
faces . xxxiii. 2 31. son of man, speak to the 
children of thy people, &c. Matt. iv. 19. follow 
me, and I will make you fishers of men. viii. 21, 
22. suffer me first to go and bury my father ; but 
Jesus said unto him, Follow me, and let the dead bury 
their dead. ix. 11. why eateth your Master with 
publicans and sinners ? but when Jesus heard that, 
he said unto them, They that be whole need not a 
physician, but they that are sick. v. 36. he was 

moved with compassion on them, because they 

were scattered abroad . x. 14. whosoever shall 
not receive you, nor hear your words, &c. xiii. 52. 
every scribe which is instructed unto the kingdom of 
heaven is like unto a man that is an householder, 
which bringeth forth out of his treasure things new 
and old. xviii. 12. if a man have an hundred sheep, 
and one of them be gone astray, &c. Acts xiii. 51. 
they shook off the dust of their feet against thorn. 
xviii. 6. ; when they opposed themselves, and bias- 


pherned, he shook his raiment, and said unto them . 
2 Cor. ii. 17. we are not as many, which corrupt the 
word of God, but as of sincerity, but as of God, in 
the sight of God speak we in Christ. 1 Thess. ii. 
5. neither at any time used we flattering words, as 
ye know. Tit. ii. 7. in all things showing thyself 
a pattern of good works. 

Opposed to the above are the ignorant, the slothful, 
the timid, flatterers, the dumb, false teachers, the 
covetous, the ambitious. Isai. ix. 15. the prophet 
that teacheth lies, he is the tail. Ezek. xliv. 8. < ye 
have set keepers of my charge in my sanctuary for 
yourselves ; as was done by bishops formerly, and is 
not unfrequently practised by magistrates in the pres 
ent day, thus depriving the people of their privilege 
of election. Isai. Ivi. 10. his watchmen are blind, 
&c. For an example of flatterers, see 2 Chron. xviii. 
5. * the king of Israel gathered together of prophets 
four hundred men, &c. Neh. vi. 12. lo, I perceived 
that God had not sent him. Jer. ii. 8. 4 the priests 
said not, Where is Jehovah ? v. 14. because ye 
speak this word, &c. v. 31. the prophets prophesy 
falsely. vi. 13, 14. from the least of them even 
unto the greatest, &c. viii. 9. lo, they have reject 
ed the word of Jehovah, and what wisdom is in them ? 
x. 21. the pastors are become brutish. xiv. 13 15, 
18. thus saith Jehovah concerning the prophets 
that prophesy in my name, &c. xxiii. 9, &c. 
4 mine heart is broken within me, because of the 
prophets. In this class are to be placed Hananiah, 
chap, xxviii. with the two other prophets mentioned 
in chap. xxix. 21. and Shernaiah, v. 24, &c. because 
thou hast sent letters in my name unto all the people 
that are at Jerusalem saying, Jehovah hath made 


thee priest in the room of Jehoiada, &c. and Ama- 
ziah, Amos vii. 10 17. Jer. 1. 6. their shepherds 
have caused them to go astray. Lament, ii. 14. 
* thy prophets have seen vain and foolish things for 
thee. iv. 13. for the sins of the prophets . Ezek. 
xiii. 2, &c. prophesy against the prophets of Israel, 
&c. xxii. 26. her priests have violated my law. v. 
28. i her prophets have daubed them with untempered 
mortar. xxxiv. 2, &c. son of man, prophesy against 
the shepherds of Israel . Hos. vi. 9. as troops of 
robbers wait for a man, so the company of priests 
murder in the way, &c. Amos viii. 11. I will send 
a famine in the land, not a famine of bread, &c. Mic. 
iii. 5, 6. thus saith Jehovah concerning the prophets 
that make my people err . v. 11. the heads thereof 
judge for reward, and the priests thereof teach for 
hire . Zep/i. iii. 4. her prophets are light and 
treacherous . Zec/t. xi. 15, 16. take unto thee 
yet the instruments of a foolish shepherd. v. 17. 
4 woe to the idol shepherd that leaveth the flock. xiii. 
2, &c. I will cause the prophets and the unclean 
spirit to pass out of the land. Mai. ii. 1 10. now, 
O ye priests, this commandment is for you. John 
ii. 16. he said unto them that sold doves, Take these 
things hence, &c. x. 10. the thief cometh not but 
for to steal, and to kill, and to destroy. 2 Pet. ii. 1, 
&c. there were false prophets also among the people, 
even as there shall be false teachers among you. 

The duties of the whole church and of individual 
believers towards their ministers are stated Book I. 
in the chapter concerning the ministers and people ; 
to which many of the following texts may also be 
referred. Matt. ix. 37, 38. the harvest truly is 
plenteous, but the labourers are few ; pray \c there- 


fore the Lord of the harvest . x. 40, &. * he that 
receiveth you receiveth me, and he that receiveth me 
receiveth him that sent me. See also John xiii. 20. 
Luke viii. 18. take heed therefore how ye hear ; for 
whosoever hath, to him shall he given, and whosoever 
hath not, from him shall be taken even that which he 
seemeth to have. Philipp. iii. 17, 18. brethren, be 
followers together of me, &c. 1 Thess. v. 12, 13. 
we beseech you, brethren, to know them that labour 
among you, and are over you in the Lord, and admon 
ish you ; and to esteem them very highly in love, for 
their work s sake. Heb. xiiff 7. remember them 
which have the rule overtoil. v. 17, 18. obey 
them that have the rule over you, and submit your 
selves, for they watch for your souls as they that must 
give account, that they may do it with joy and not 
with grief, for that is unprofitable for you. Jer. xxiii. 
16. hearken not unto the words of the prophets that 
prophesy unto you ; they make you vain ; they speak 
a vision of their own heart, and not out of the mouth 
of Jehovah. 

The contrary conduct is condemned, Isai. xxx. 9, 
10. this is a rebellious people, &c. Jer. xliii. 2. 
saying unto Jeremiah, Thou speakest falsely ; Jeho 
vah our God hath not sent thee . Micah ii. 6. 
prophesy ye not ; say ye to them that prophesy, &c. 
v. 11. if a man walking in the spirit and falsehood 
do lie, saying, &c. Luke vii. 29, 30. the Pharisees 
and lawyers rejected the counsel of God against them 
selves, being not baptized of him. 3 John 9. I 
wrote unto the church, but Diotrephes, who loveth to 
have the pre-eminence among them, receiveth us not/ 


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